Kimberley L. Gammage, PhD

Associate Professor, Kinesiology

My research investigates body image and physical activity across diverse populations. Using both qualitative and quantitative approaches, my students and I try to understand factors that can improve positive body image and reduce negative body image. We also look at both physiological and psychological measures of body image. I am also interested in research looking at the exercise environment and it can be structured to promote adherence and positive psychological outcomes.

  • How physical activity increases positive body image
  • Cortisol responses to body image threats
  • Body image in older adults and special populations
  • Peer support for physical activity in special populations

I am very interested in applying my research to real-life settings:

  • I am the director of the SeniorFit program at the Brock-Niagara Centre for Health & Well-Being. This program offers exercise and balance training for individuals 55 years and older. I started this program over 10 years ago and we now have over 300 members.
  • Involved with several sport and exercise psychology organizations including NASPSPA and SCAPPS
  • Currently Digest Editor for the Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology
  • Certified fitness, spin, and yoga instructor

Books and chapters contributed to books

Gammage, K. L., & Hoar, S. (accepted). Anxiety in sport & physical activity. In P. Crocker (Ed), Sport & Exercise Psychology: A Canadian Perspective (4rd ed.). Toronto: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Gammage, K. L., & Hoar, S. (2015). Anxiety in sport & physical activity. In P. Crocker, C. Sabiston, & M. McDonough (Eds), Sport & Exercise Psychology: A Canadian Perspective (3rd ed.). Toronto: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Gammage, K. L. & Lamarche, L. (2014). Social factors in exercise settings. In R. Gomes, R.  Resende, & A. Albuquerque (Eds.). Positive Human Functioning from a Multidimensional Perspective. Nova Publishing.

Articles in refereed journals

Note: Papers for which I was the supervisor/principal investigator are underlined.

Bailey, K. A., Gammage, K. L., & van Ingen, C. (in press). The process of co-creating BIAS (Body Image Awareness Seminars): An action research project with members of an exercise facility. Action Research Journal.

Cyr, A., Chandler, K., & Gammage, K. L. (accepted). Might plight: The social anxiety felt by men in the weight lifting environment. ACSM’s Health & Fitness Journal.

Bailey, K. A., & Gammage, K. L. (2018). From one peer to another: Exploring how to incorporate body image conversations into peer support programs for people with disability. International Journal of Disability, Community & Rehabilitation, 16.

Cline, L., Bailey, K. A., & Gammage, K. L. (2018). “I don’t think it matters what age group you are in”: Exploring body image coping strategies in women aged 55+. Women’s Health Bulletin, 5, e61048. doi: 10.5812/whb.61048.

Lamarche, L., Gammage, K. L., & Ozimok, B. (2018). The gym as a culture of body achievement: Exploring negative and positive body image experiences in men. Sage Open. doi: 10.1177/2158244018778103

Ludwa, I. A., Falk, B., Ward, W. E., Gammage, K. L., & Klentrou, P. (2017). Mechanical, biochemical, and dietary determinants of the functional model of bone development of the radius in children and adolescents. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism42, 780-787.

Lamarche, L., Ozimok, B., Gammage, K. L., & Muir, C. (2017). Men respond too: The effects of a social-evaluative body image threat on shame and cortisol in university men. American Journal of Men’s Health, 11. DOI: 10.1177/1557988317723406

Bailey, K. A., Gammage, K. L., & van Ingen, C. (2017). How do you define body image? Exploring conceptual gaps in understandings of body image at an exercise facility. Body Image, 23, 69-79. doi: 10.1016/j.bodyim.2017.08.003

Ludwa, I. A., Falk, B., Ward, W. E., Gammage, K. L., & Klentrou, P. (2017). Mechanical, biochemical and dietary determinants of the functional model of bone development in children. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 42, 780-787.

Bailey, K. A., Gammage, K. L., van Ingen, C., & Ditor, D. S. (2016). “My body was my temple”: A narrative revealing body image experiences following treatment of a spinal cord injury. Disability and Rehabilitation, 1–7. doi:10.1080/09638288.2016.1211753

Gammage, K. L., Drouin, B., & Lamarche, L. (2016). Comparing a yoga class with a resistance exercise class: Effects on body satisfaction and social physique anxiety in university women. Journal of Physical Activity & Health, 13, 1202-1209. doi:10.1123/jpah.2015-0642

Bailey, K. A., Gammage, K. L., van Ingen, C., & Ditor, D. S. (2016). Managing the stigma: Exploring body image experiences and self-presentation among people with spinal cord injury. Health Psychology Open, 3. doi:10.1177/2055102916650094

Cline, L., & Gammage, K. L. (2016). “If you don’t have anything nice to say, then don’t say anything at all”: Positive appearance-related commentary and physical activity. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 13, 366–370. doi:10.1123/jpah.2015-0333

Lamarche, L., Gammage, K. L., Kerr, G., Faulkner, G., & Klentrou, P. (2016). Psychological and cortisol responses to and recovery from exposure to a body image threat. SAGE Open, 6. doi:10.1177/2158244016642378

Bailey, K. A., Lamarche, L., Gammage, K. L., & Sullivan, P. J. (2016). Self-objectification and the use of body image coping strategies: The role of shame in highly physically active women. The American Journal of Psychology, 129, 81-90. doi:10.5406/amerjpsyc.129.1.0081

Bailey, K. A., Cline, L. E., & Gammage, K. L. (2016). Exploring the complexities of body image experiences in middle age and older adult women within an exercise context: The simultaneous existence of negative and positive body images. Body Image, 17, 88–99. doi:10.1016/j.bodyim.2016.02.007

Lamarche, L., Bailey, K. A., & Gammage, K. L. (2015). Use your imagination: College women’s responses to a social-evaluative body image threat. Journal of Applied Biobehavioral Research, 20, 137-150. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jabr.12032

Bailey, K. A., Gammage, K. L., van Ingen, C. & Ditor, D. S. (2015). It’s all about acceptance”: A Qualitative study exploring a model of positive body image for people with spinal cord injury. Body Image, 15, 24-34. doi:10.1016/j.bodyim.2015.04.010

Ozimok, B., Lamarche, L., & Gammage, K. L. (2015). The relative contributions of body image evaluation and investment in the prediction of dietary restraint in men. Journal of Health Psychology, 20, 592–601. doi:10.1177/1359105315573434

Sullivan, P., Gagnon, M., Gammage, K., & Peters, S. (2015). Is the effect of behavioral synchrony on cooperative behavior mediated by pain threshold? The Journal of Social Psychology, 150715110539003. doi:10.1080/00224545.2015.1071766

Cloudt, M. C., Lamarche, L., & Gammage, K. L. (2014). The impact of the amount of social evaluation on psychobiological responses to a body image threat. Body Image, 11, 350–356. doi:10.1016/j.bodyim.2014.06.003

Gammage, K. L., Lamarche, L., & Drouin, B. (2014). Self-presentational efficacy: Does it moderate the relationship between social physique anxiety and physical activity in university students? International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 12, 357–367. doi:10.1080/1612197x.2014.932824

Lamarche, L., Gammage, K. L., Klentrou P., & Adkin, A. L. (2014). What will they think? The relationship between self-presentational concerns and balance and mobility outcomes in older women. Experimental Aging Research, 40, 426-435.

Sullivan, P., Rickers, K., & Gammage, K. L. (2014). The effect of different phases of synchrony on pain threshold. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 18, 122-128.

Bailey, K. A., Lamarche, L., & Gammage, K. L. (2014). Coping with body image threats among college women: The swimsuit problem. International Journal of Psychological Studies, 6(2), 19-30. doi:10.5539/ijps.v6n2p19

Lamarche, L., Gammage, K. L., Kerr, G., Faulkner, G., & Klentrou P. (2014). Examining psychobiological responses to an anticipatory body image threat in women. Journal of Applied Biobehavioral Research, 19, 127-143. doi:10.1111/jabr.12022

Lamarche, L., Gionfriddo, A. M., Cline, L. E., Gammage, K. L., & Adkin, A. L. (2014). What would you do? The effect of verbal persuasion on task choice. Gait & Posture, 39, 583-587.

Sharif, H., Gammage, K., Chun, S., & Ditor, D. (2014). Effects of FES-ambulation training on locomotor function and health-related quality of life in individuals with spinal cord injury. Topics in Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation, 20, 58-69.

  • Health Psychology
  • Fitness Activities
  • Exercise Psychology
  • Exercise Programming for Older Adults
  • Body Image
  • Body-related Concerns Across the Lifespan

I am a certified fitness, spin and yoga instructor, and teach classes at Campus Recreation at the University

Refereed External Grants

SSHRC Insight Grant 2018-2023
Loving the body you’re in: Positive body image and physical activity
across the lifespan
Principal Applicant
$192,000

NSERC Development Grant 2017-2019
Understanding psychobiological responses to social-evaluative
threats: Using body image as a model
Principal Applicant
$40,000

Public Health Agency of Canada 2016-2019
Innovation Strategy Program
Measuring the Effects of the Shape Your Life Project on the Mental
and Physical Health Outcomes of Victims of Domestic Violence
Co-Investigator (Principal Investigator: Dr. Cathy van Ingen)
$394,206