Lab Facilities: Our Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience Laboratory includes several high-density EEG recording systems, including ones that are portable for data acquisition with special populations, and the latest software in modeling source generators. We also examine other psychophysiological responses, especially heart rate variability, as a reflection of parasympathetic control.
Current research interests outline for potential new graduate students
My research focus has been on methodological innovations in EEG and ERP research that allow us to examine more deeply psychological questions of information processing and the effect of individual differences on that processing. Most recently, we have been working with techniques involving ICA (for the derivation of latent components in the ERP), with source modeling (especially using sLORETA and sometimes BESA), ITC (inter-trial consistency measures for intra-subject variability in ERP responses), some new measures of cortical connectivity derived from EEG, and bootstrapping techniques for N=1 analyses. With these techniques, we are able to ask questions of psychological importance such as those outlined below.
Performance monitoring: What happens in the human brain when people make correct or incorrect responses on simple challenge tasks, or when they make a gambling choice (pick one of two boxes to win or lose money)? The result is an interaction between the subcortical reward system of the brain and the prefrontal cortex monitoring region. I use EEG/ERPs to monitor these brain responses. Human brains react to a disappointing outcome with what are called error-related ERP components (especially the medial frontal negativities), which are easily recorded when someone realizes they have made an error. These include the error-related negativity (ERN, or Ne) and positivity (Pe). Similarly, when one receives feedback concerning performance, a feedback-related negativity (FRN) is generated. We are working on understanding the cortical sources for these components and the cognitive and emotional contexts which influence their appearance, including the effects of heightened arousal during a task because of excitement.
Developmental differences: Some of the effects described above are affected by age. The prefrontal cortex of the adolescent brain is still rapidly maturing, and so does its production of the ERN. We are examining the relation between brain maturation and the production of various ERP components dependent on activity in the medial prefrontal cortex and what cognitive or personality characteristics account for the individual differences in this growth. These traits include executive functions, emotional self-regulation and reward-related personality characteristics, all aspects related to the mental health of children and youth.
Early stages of face, word and object perception: Information is processed extremely rapidly in the brain and reflected in ERPs. We are examining this rapid processing in the context of face perception, word reading and object perception. Some of our studies concern emotional face perception, especially as a function of the viewer’s personality, and others concern individual differences in the skill of the viewer in processing the stimuli.
Personality individual differences: We have also found that a person's personality relates to his or her performance-related ERP responses (the ERN, Pe, FRN, and also the nogo-N2). Of particular interest to us are personality characteristics of risk-taking and sensation-seeking personality styles, responses to rewards and punishments, and the degree of empathy and obsessive-compulsiveness or perfectionism that the person shows. We think that the functioning of the medial prefrontal cortex is central to some of these individual differences.
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Lackner, C.L., Marshall, W.J., Santesso, D.L., Dywan, J., Wade, T., & Segalowitz, S.J. (in press). Adolescent Anxiety and Aggression can be Differentially Predicted by Electrocortical Phase Reset Variables. Brain and Cognition.
Lackner, C.L., Santesso, D.L., Dywan, J., Wade, T.J., Segalowitz, S.J. (in press). ERPs Elicited to Performance Feedback in High- and Low-Shy Adolescents. Infant & Child Development.
Weissflog, M., Choma, B., van Noordt, S., Dywan, J., & Segalowitz, S.J. (2013). The Political (and Physiological) Divide: Political Orientation, Performance Monitoring, and the Anterior Cingulate Response. Social Neuroscience, 8(5), 434-447.
Zheng, X., & Segalowitz, S.J. (in press). Putting a face in its place: In- and out-group membership alters the N170 response. Soc Cogn. Affect Neurosci.
Gatzke-Kopp, L.M., Jetha, M.K., & Segalowitz, S.J. (2014). The role of resting frontal EEG asymmetry in psychopathology: Afferent or efferent filter? Developmental Psychobiology, 56, 73-85.
Mondloch, C.J., Segalowitz, S.J., Lewis, T.L., Dywan, J., Le Grand, R., Levin, A.V., Maurer, D. (2013). The effect of early visual deprivation on the development of face detection. Developmental Science, 16(5), 728-742. DOI: 10.1111/desc.12065 .
Desjardins, J.A., & Segalowitz, S.J. (2013). The timing and consistency of event-related potential responses when processing faces: Deconstructing the P100-N170 complex using ICA and robust estimation. Journal of Vision, 13(5): 22, 1-18. http://www.journalofvision.org/content/13/5/22, doi: 10.1167/13.5.22.
Lackner, C.L., Santesso, D.L., Dywan, J., Wade, T.J., Segalowitz, S.J. (2013). Electrocortical indices of selective attention predict adolescent executive functioning. Biological Psychology, 93, 325-333, DOI: 10.1016/j.biopsycho.2013.03.001
Jetha, M.K. & Segalowitz, S.J. (2012). Adolescent Brain Development: Implications for Behavior. San Diego: Academic Press.
van Noordt, S. & Segalowitz, S.J. (2012). Performance monitoring and the medial prefrontal cortex: A review of individual differences and context effects as a window on self-regulation. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 6, article 197. http://www.frontiersin.org/Human_Neuroscience/10.3389/fnhum.2012.00197/full.
Choma, B., Hafer, C.L., Dywan, J., Segalowitz, S.J., Busseri, M. (2012). Political liberalism and political conservatism: Functionally independent? Pers. Indiv. Diff, 53(4), 431-436 .
Zheng, X., Mondloch, C.J., & Segalowitz, S.J. (2012). The timing of individual face recognition in the brain. Neuropsychologia, 50(7), 1451-1461. doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2012.02.030.
Capuana, L., Dywan, J., Tays, W.J., & Segalowitz, S.J. (2012). Cardiac Workload and Inhibitory Control in Younger and Older Adults. Biological Psychology, 90, 60-70.
Jetha, M.K., Zheng, X., Schmidt, L.A., & Segalowitz, S.J. (2012). Shyness and the First 100 Milliseconds of Emotional Face Processing. Social Neuroscience, 7(1), 74-89. . http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17470919.2011.581539.
Segalowitz, S.J., Santesso, D.L., Willoughby, T., Reker, D.L., Campbell, K., Chalmers, H., & Rose-Krasnor, L. (2012). Adolescent peer interaction and trait surgency weaken medial prefrontal cortex responses to failure. Social, Cognitive, and Affective Neuroscience, 7(1), 115-124.
Masaki, H., Murphy, T.I., Desjardins, J.A., & Segalowitz, S.J. (2011). The Error-Related Negativity Associated with Different Strength of Stimulus-Response Interference. Clinical Neurophysiology. (CLINPH-D-09-3620R4, accepted July 27, 2011). doi:10.1016/j.clinph.2011.07.043
Zheng, X., Mondloch, C.J., Nishimura, M., Vida, M.D., Segalowitz, S.J. (2011). Telling one face from another: Electrocortical correlates of facial characteristics among individual female faces. Neuropsychologia, 49, 3254–3264.
Santesso, D.L., Dzyundzak, A., Segalowitz, S.J. (2011). Age, sex and individual differences in punishment sensitivity: Factors influencing the feedback-related negativity. Psychophysiology, 48(11), 1481-1488.
Mathewson, K.J., Dywan, J., Snyder, P.J, Tays, W.J., & Segalowitz, S.J. (2011). Autonomic regulation and maze-learning performance in older and younger adults. Biological Psychology, 88, 20-27.
William J. Tays, Jane Dywan, Lesley J. Capuana, Sidney J. Segalowitz, Age-related differences during simple working memory decisions: ERP indices of early recognition and compensation failure, Brain Research, Volume 1393, 1 June 2011, Pages 62-72, ISSN 0006-8993, 10.1016/j.brainres.2011.04.006.
Mathewson, K.J., Drmic, I.E., Jetha, M.K., Bryson, S.E., Goldberg, J.O., Hall, G.B., Santesso, D.L., Segalowitz, S.J., & Schmidt, L.A. (2011). Behavioral and cardiac responses to emotional Stroop in adults with autism spectrum disorders: Influence of medication. Autism Research, 4, 98-108.
Santesso, D. L., Drmic, I. E., Jetha, M. K., Bryson, S. E., Goldberg, J. O., Hall, G. B., Mathewson, K. J., Segalowitz, S. J., & Schmidt, L. A. (2011). An event-related source localization study of response monitoring and social impairments in autism spectrum disorder. Psychophysiology, 48, 241-251.
Mathewson, K.J., Jetha, M.K., Drmic, I.E., Bryson, S.E., Goldberg, J.O., Hall, G.B., Santesso, D.L., Segalowitz. S.J., & Schmidt, L.A. (2010). Autonomic predictors of Stroop performance in young and middle-aged adults. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 76, 123-129.
Segalowitz, S.J., Santesso, D., Chantziantoniou, D., Murphy, T.I., Homan, D., Khan, S. (2010). Retest reliability of medial frontal negativities during performance monitoring. Psychophysiology, 47, 260-270.
Segalowitz, S. J., Santesso, D. L., & Jetha, M. K. (2010). Electrophysiological changes during adolescence: A review. Brain and Cognition, 72(1), 86-100.
Segalowitz, S.J., Santesso, D.L., Murphy, T.I., Homan, D., Chantziantoniou, D.K., & Khan, S. (2010). Retest Reliability of Medial Frontal Negativities During Performance Monitoring. Psychophysiology, 47, 260-270
Tays, W.J., Dywan, J., & Segalowitz, S.J. (2009). General proactive interference and the N450 effect. Neuroscience Letters, 462, 239-243.
Segalowitz, S.J., & Dywan, J. (2009). Individual Differences and Developmental Change in the ERN Response: Implications for Models of ACC function. Psychological Research. 73, 857-870.
Segalowitz, S.J. & Zheng, X. (2009). An ERP study of category priming: Evidence of early lexical semantic access. Biological Psychology, 80, 122-129 .
Santesso, D.., & Segalowitz, S.J. (2009). The error-rellated negativity is related to risk-taking and empathy in young men. Psychophysiology, 46, 143-152 .
Mathewson, K.J., Dywan, J., Snyder, P.J., Tays, W.J., & Segalowitz, S.J. (2008). Aging and electrocortical response to error feedback during a spatial learning task. Psychophysiology, 45, 936-948 .
Santesso, D.L., Segalowitz, S.J., Ashbaugh, A.R., Antony, M.M., McCabe, R.E., & Schmidt, L.A. 2008). Frontal EEG asymmetry and sensation seeking in young adults. Biological Psychology, 78, 164-172.
Tays, W.J., Dywan, J., Mathewson, K.J., & Segalowitz, S.J. (2008). Age differences in target detection and interference resolution in working memory. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 20, 2250-2262.
Dywan, J., Mathewson, K.J., Choma, B.L., Rosenfeld, B., & Segalowitz, S.J. (2008). Autonomic and electrophysiological correlates of emotional intensity in older and younger adults. Psychophysiology, 45, 389-397.
Santesso, D.L. & Segalowitz, S.J. (2008). Development of Error-related ERPs in Middle to Late Adolescent Males. Developmental Psychology, 44, 205-17.
Schmidt, L.A., Santesso, D.L., Schulkin, J., Segalowitz, S.J. (2007). Shyness is a necessary but not sufficient condition for high salivary cortisol in typically developing 100 year-old children. Personality and Individual Differences, 43, 1541-1551.
Munro, G., Dywan, J., Harris, G.T., McKee, S., Unsal, A., & Segalowitz, S.J. (2007). ERN varies with degree of psychopathy in an emotion discrimination task. Biological Psychology, 76, 31-42.
Stemmer, B., Segalowitz, S.J., Dywan, J., Panisset, M., & Melmed, C. (2007). The error negativity in nonmedicated and medicated patients with Parkinson's disease. Clinical Neurophysiology, 118, 1223-1229.
Munro, G., Dywan, J., Harris, G.T., McKee, S., Unsal, A. & Segalowitz, S.J. (2007). Response inhibition in psychopathy: The frontal N2 and P3. Neuroscience Letters, 418, 149-153.
Stieben, J., Lewis, M.D., Granic, I., Zelazo, P.D., Segalowitz, S.J., & Pepler, D. (2007). Neurophysiological mechanisms of emotion regulation for subtypes of externalizing children. Development & Psychopathology, 19, 455-480.
Santesso, D., Segalowitz, S.J., & Scmidt, L.A. (2006). Error-Related Electrocortical Responses are Enhanced in Children With Obsessive-Compulsive Behaviors. Developmental Neuropsychology, 29(3), 431-445.
Santesso, D., Reker, D.L., Schmidt, L.A., & Segalowitz, S.J. (2006). Frontal electroencephalogram activation asymmetry, emotional intelligence, and externalizing behaviours in 10-year-old children. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 36 (3), 311-328.
Santesso, D., Segalowitz, S.J., & Schmidt, L.A. (2006). Error-related electrocortical responses in 10-year-old children and young adults. Developmental Science, 9(5), 473-481.
Beaton, E.A., Schmidt, L. A., Ashbaugh, A. R., Santesso, D. L., Antony, M. M., McCabe, R. E., Segalowitz, S. J., Schulkin, J. (2006). Low salivary cortisol levels among socially anxious young adults: Preliminary evidence from a selected and a non-selected sample. Personality and Individual Differences, 41, 1217-1228.
Murphy, T.I., Richard, M., Masaki, H. & Segalowitz, S.J. (2006). The effect of sleepiness on performance monitoring: I know what I am doing, but do I care? Journal of Sleep Research, 15, 15-21.
Lewis, M.D., Lamm, C., Segalowitz, S.J., Stieben, J. & Zelazo, P.D. (2006). Neurophysiological correlates of emotion egulation in children and adolescents. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 18 (3), 430-443.
Mathewson, K., Dywan, J. & Segalowitz,
S. J. (2005). Brain bases of error-related
ERPs as influenced by age and task. Biological
Psychology, 70, 88-104.
Santesso, D., Segalowitz, S. J. & Schmidt,
L. A. (2005). ERP Correlates of Error Monitoring
in 10 Year Olds are Related to Socialization.
Biological Psychology, 70,
Leclerc, C., Segalowitz, S.J., Desjardins,
J., Lassonde, M. & Lepore, F. (2005).
EEG Coherence in Early-Blind Humans During
Sound Localization. Neuroscience Letters,
Segalowitz, S.J. & Lane, K. (2004).
Perceptual fluency and lexical access for
function versus content words. Behavioral
and Brain Sciences, 27, 307-308.
Ridderinkhof, K.R., van den Wildenberg,
W.P.M., Segalowitz, S.J. & Carter, C.S.
(2004). Neurocognitive mechanisms of cognitive
control: The role of prefrontal cortex in
action selection, response inhibition, performance
monitoring, and reward-based learning. Brain
and Cognition, 56(2), 129-140.
Pailing, P.I. & Segalowitz, S.J. (2004).
The effects of uncertainty in error monitoring
on associated ERPs. Brain and Cognition,
Davies, P.L., Segalowitz, S.J., & Gavin,
W.J. (2004). Development of Error Monitoring
ERPs in Adolescents. Annals of the New
York Academy of Sciences, 1021, 324-328.
Murphy, T.I. & Segalowitz, S.J. (2004).
Eliminating the P300 rebound in short oddball
paradigms. International Journal of Psychophysiology,
P. L., Segalowitz, S. J., Gavin, W.J. (2004).
Development of Response-Monitoring ERPs
in 7- to 25-Year-Olds. Developmental
Neuropsychology, 25(3), 355-376.
S.J. & Davies, P. L. (2004). Charting
the maturation of the frontal lobe: an electrophysiological
strategy. Brain and Cognition, 55, 116-133
H. & Segalowitz, S.J. (2004). Error
negativity: A test of the response conflict
versus error detection hypotheses, in M.
Ullsperger & M. Falkenstein (eds), Errors,
Conflicts, and the Brain: Current Opinions
on Performance Monitoring (pp 76-83).
Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Cognition
S.J., Davies, P.L., Santesso, D., Gavin,
W.J., & Schmidt, L.A. (2004). The development
of the error negativity in children and
adolescents, in M. Ullsperger & M. Falkenstein
(eds), Errors, Conflicts, and the Brain:
Current Opinions on Performance Monitoring
(pp 177-184). Leipzig: Max Planck Institute
for Cognition and Neurosciences.
Dywan, J., Mathewson, K., & Segalowitz,
S.J. (2004). "Error-related ERP Components
and Source Monitoring in Older and Younger
Adults", in M. Ullsperger & M.
Falkenstein (eds), Errors, Conflicts,
and the Brain: Current Opinions on Performance
Monitoring (pp 184-192). Leippzig: Max
Planck Institute for Cognition and Neurosciences.
P.E. & Seglaowitz, S.J. (2004). The
Error-Related Negativity (ERN/Ne) as a State
and Trait Measure: Motivation, Personality
and ERPs in Response to Errors. Psychophysiology,
H., Dywan, J., & Segalowitz, S.J. (2004).
ERP indices of emotionality and semantic
cohesiveness during recognition judgements.
Psychophysiology, 41, 117-129.
B., Segalowitz, S.J., Witzke, W., &
Schoenle, P.W. (2003). Error detection in
patients with lesions to the medial prefrontal
cortex: An ERP study. Neuropsychologica,
J., Segalowitz, S.J., & Arsenault, A.
(2002). Electrophysiological response during
source memory decisions in older and younger
adults. Brain and Cognition, 49,
M.J., Dywan, J., & Segalowitz, S.J.
(2002). Altered electrodermal response to
facial expression after closed head injury.
Brain Injury, 16, 245-257.
P.E., Segalowitz, S.J., Dywan, J., &
Davies, P.L. (2002). Error Negativity (Ne/ERN)
and Response Control. Psychophysiology,
S.J., Wintink, A.J., & Cudmore, L.J. (2001).
P300 topographical change with task familiarization
and task complexity. Cognitive Brain
Research, 12, 451-457.
K., Segalowitz, S.J., & Ferlisi, M-C. (2001).
The effect of differing scoring methods
for the Tower of London Task on developmental
patterns of performance. The Clinical
Neuropsychologist, 15, 309-313.
P.L., Segalowitz, S.J., Dywan, J., & Pailing,
P.E. (2001). Error-related negativity and
positivity as they relate to other ERP indices
of attentional control and stimulus processing.
Biological Psychology, 56, 191-206.
S.J., Bernstein, D.M., & Lawson, S. (2001).
P300 event-related potential decrements
in well-functioning university students
with mild head injury. Brain and Cognition,
S.J. & Lane, K. (2000). Lexical access of
function versus content words. Brain
and language, 75, 376-389.
S.J., Segalowitz, N.S., & Wood, A. (1998).
Assessing the development of automaticity
in second language word recognition. Applied
S.J., Van Roon, P., & Dywan, J. (1997).
The ERP late positivity: A graduated response
to stimulus repetition. NeuroReport,
S.J., Dywan, J. & Unsal, A. (1997). Attentional
factors in response time variability after
traumatic brain injury: An ERP study. Journal
of the International Neuropsychological
Society, 3, 95-107.
S.J. & Lawson, S. (1995). Subtle symptoms
associated with self-reported mild head
injury. Journal of Learning Disabilities,
A. & Segalowitz, S.J. (1995). Sources of
P300 attenuation after head injury: Single
trial amplitude, latency jitter, and EEG
power. Psychophysiology, 32 (3),