Michael Ashton

Professor, Ph.D. (Western)

Office: MC B323
905 688 5550 x3993

Personality; Measurement; Social Psychology

  • Structure of personality characteristics
  • Personality assessment by self-report and observer report
  • Evolutionary adaptive function of personality variation
  • Personality as a predictor of life outcomes
  • Structure and personality correlates of mental abilities
  • Other psychological characteristics (religious, political, sexual, occupational)

Ashton, M.C. (2018). Individual Differences and Personality (3rd ed.). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Lee, K., & Ashton, M.C. (2012). The H Factor of Personality: Why Some People Are Manipulative, Self-Entitled, Materialistic, and Exploitive – And Why It Matters For Everyone. Waterloo, ON: Wilfrid Laurier University Press.

Ashton, M. C., & Lee, K. (in press). How well do Big Five measures capture HEXACO scale variance? Journal of Personality Assessment.

Lee, K., Ashton, M. C., Griep, Y., & Edmonds, M. (in press). Personality, religion, and politics: An investigation in 33 countries. European Journal of Personality.

De Vries, R. E., Hilbig, B. E., Zettler, I., Dunlop, P. D., Holtrop, D., Lee, K., & Ashton, M. C. (in press). Honest people tend to use less—not more—profanity: Comment on Feldman et al.’s (in press) Study 1. Social Psychological and Personality Science.

Bogaert, A.F., Ashton, M.C., & Lee, K. (in press). Sexual orientation and personality: Extension to asexuality and the HEXACO model. Journal of Sex Research.

Lee, K., & Ashton, M. C. (2018). Psychometric properties of the HEXACO-100. Assessment, 25, 543-558.

Hodson, G., Book, A., Visser, B. A., Volk, A. A., Ashton, M. C., & Lee, K. (2018). Is the Dark Triad common factor distinct from low Honesty-Humility? Journal of Research in Personality, 73, 123-129.

Lee, K., & Ashton, M. C. (2017).  Acquaintanceship and self/observer agreement in personality judgment.  Journal of Research in Personality, 70, 1-5.

Ashton, M. C., De Vries, R. E., & Lee, K. (2017).  Trait variance and response style variance in the scales of the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5).  Journal of Personality Assessment, 99, 192-203.

Ashton, M. C., & Lee, K. (2016).  Age trends in HEXACO-PI-R self-reports.  Journal of Research in Personality, 64, 102-111.

Lee, K., Ashton, M. C., Choi, J., & Zachariassen, K. (2015).  Connectedness to nature and to humanity:  Their association and personality correlates.  Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 1003.

Ashton, M. C. (2015).  Hogan’s framework for the study of behavior as applied to personality psychology.  Behavioural Processes, 117, 48-51.

Dunlop, P. D., Lee, K., Ashton, M. C., Butcher, S. B., & Dykstra, A. (2015).  Please accept my sincere and humble apologies:  The HEXACO model of personality and the proclivity to apologize.  Personality and Individual Differences, 79, 140-145.

Ashton, M. C., Lee, K., & Boies, K. (2015).  One- through six-component solutions from ratings on familiar English personality-descriptive adjectives.  Journal of Individual Differences, 36, 183-189.

Ashton, M. C., Pilkington, A. C., & Lee, K. (2014).  Do prosocial people prefer sweet-tasting foods?  An attempted replication of Meier, Moeller, Riemer-Peltz, and Robinson (2012).  Journal of Research in Personality, 52, 42-46.

Lee, K., & Ashton, M. C. (2014).  The Dark Triad, the Big Five, and the HEXACO model.  Personality and Individual Differences, 67, 2-5.

Ashton, M.C., Lee, K., & de Vries, R.E. (2014). The HEXACO Honesty-Humility, Agreeableness, and Emotionality factors: A review of research and theory. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 18, 139-152.

Ashton, M.C., Lee, K., & Visser, B.A. (2014). Further response to Hampshire et al. Personality and Individual Differences, 60, 18-19.

Ashton, M.C., Lee, K., & Visser, B.A. (2014). Orthogonal factors of mental ability: Reply to Hampshire et al. Personality and Individual Differences, 60, 13-15.

Ashton, M.C., Lee, K., & Visser, B.A. (2014). Higher-order g versus blended variable models of mental ability: Comment on Hampshire, Highfield, Parkin, and Owen (2012). Personality and Individual Differences, 60, 3-7.

Pozzebon, J.A., Ashton, M.C., & Visser, B.A. (2014). Major changes: Personality, ability, and congruence in the prediction of academic outcomes. Journal of Career Assessment, 22, 75-88.

Paunonen, S.V., & Ashton, M.C. (2013). On the prediction of academic performance with personality traits: A replication study. Journal of Research in Personality, 47, 778-781.

Ashton, M.C., Paunonen, S.V., & Lee, K. (2013). On the validity of narrow and broad personality traits: A response to Salgado, Moscoso, and Berges (2013). Personality and Individual Differences, 56, 24-28.

Lee, K., & Ashton, M.C. (2013). Prediction of self- and observer report scores on HEXACO-60 and NEO-FFI scales. Journal of Research in Personality, 47, 668-675.

Lee, K., Ashton, M. C., Wiltshire, J., Bourdage, J. S., Visser, B. A., Gallucci, A. (2013).  Sex, power, and money:  Prediction from the Dark Triad and Honesty-Humility.  European Journal of Personality, 27, 169-184 .

Ashton, M. C., Lee, K., de Vries, R. E., Hendrickse, J., & Born, M. P. (2012).  The maladaptive personality traits of the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) in relation to the HEXACO personality factors and Schizotypy/Dissociation.  Journal of Personality Disorders, 26, 641-659 .

Visser, B. A., Ashton, M. C., & Pozzebon, J. A. (2012).  Is low anxiety part of the psychopathy construct?  Journal of Personality, 80, 725-747.

Markowitz, E. M., Goldberg, L. R., Ashton, M. C., & Lee, K. (2012).  Profiling the “pro-environmental individual”:  A personality perspective.  Journal of Personality, 80, 81-111.

Lee, K., & Ashton, M. C. (2012).  Getting mad and getting even:  Agreeableness and Honesty-Humility as predictors of revenge intentions.  Personality and Individual Differences, 52, 596-600.

Ashton, M. C., & Lee, K. (2012).  Oddity, schizotypy/dissociation, and personality.  Journal of Personality, 80, 113-134.

Oh, I.-S., Lee, K., Ashton, M. C. & de Vries, R. E. (2011).  Are dishonest extraverts more harmful than dishonest introverts?  The interaction effects of Honesty-Humility and Extraversion in predicting workplace deviance.  Applied Psychology:  An International Review, 60, 496-516.

Ashton, M.C., Lee, K., Pozzebon, J.A., Visser, B.A., & Worth, N.C. (2010). Status-driven risk taking and the major dimensions of personality. Journal of Research in Personality, 44, 734-737.

Ashton, M. C., & Lee, K. (2010).  Trait and source factors in HEXACO-PI-R self- and observer reports.  European Journal of Personality, 24, 278-289 .

Lee, K., Ashton, M. C., Ogunfowora, B., Bourdage, J., &  Shin, K-.H. (2010).  The personality bases of socio-political attitudes:  The role of Honesty-Humility and Openness to Experience.  Journal of Research in Personality, 44, 115-119 .

Choma, B. L., Ashton, M. C., & Hafer, C. L. (2010).  Conceptualizing political attitudes in Canadian political candidates:  A tale of two (correlated) dimensions.  Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 42, 24-33.

Pozzebon, J. A., Visser, B. A., Ashton, M. C., Lee, K., & Goldberg, L. R. (2010).  Psychometric characteristics of the Oregon Vocational Interest Scales.  Journal of Personality Assessment, 92, 168-174.

de Vries, R. E., Ashton, M. C., & Lee, K. (2009). The six most important personality dimensions and the HEXACO Personality Inventory.  Gedrag & Organisatie, 22, 232-274. (In Dutch)

Ashton, M. C., & Lee, K. (2009).  An investigation of personality types within the HEXACO personality framework.  Journal of Individual Differences, 30, 181-187.

Pozzebon, J. A. & Ashton, M. C. (2009).  Personality and values as predictors of self- and peer reported behavior. Journal of Individual Differences, 30, 122-129.

Lee, K., & Ashton, M. C. (2009).  Re-analysis of the structure of the Greek personality lexicon.  Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 40, 693-700.

Ashton, M.C., & Lee, K. (2009). The HEXACO-60: A short measure of the major dimensions of personality. Journal of Personality Assessment, 91, 340-345.

Ashton, M.C., Lee, K., Goldberg, L.R., & de Vries, R.E. (2009). Higher-order factors of personality: Do they exist? Personality and Social Psychology Review, 13, 79-91.

Lee, K., Ashton, M.C., Pozzebon, J.A., Visser, B.A., Bourdage, J.S., & Ogunfowora, B. (2009). Similarity and assumed similarity in personality reports of well-acquainted persons. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 96, 460-472.

Ashton, M. C. (2008).  Book Review:  What is Intelligence? Beyond the Flynn Effect, James R. Flynn. Cambridge University Press, New York  (2007). 226 pp., US$22.00, ISBN: 978-0-52-188007-7.  Personality and Individual Differences, 44, 1289-1291.

Ashton, M. C., & Lee, K. (2008).  Gender-related occupational interests do not define a masculinityュfemininity factor.  Journal of Individual Differences, 29, 25-34.

Ashton, M. C., & Lee, K. (2008).  The HEXACO model of personality structure and the importance of the H factor.  Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 2, 1952-1962.

Ashton, M. C., & Lee, K. (2008).  The prediction of Honesty-Humility-related criteria by the HEXACO and Five-Factor models of personality.  Journal of Research in Personality, 42, 1216-1228.

Ashton, M. C., Lee, K., Visser, B. A., & Pozzebon, J. A. (2008).  Phobic tendency within the Five-Factor and HEXACO models of personality structure.  Journal of Research in Personality, 42, 734-746.

de Vries, R.E., Lee, K., & Ashton, M. C. (2008).  The Dutch HEXACO Personality Inventory:  Psychometric properties, self-other agreement, and relations with psychopathy among low and high acquaintanceship dyads.  Journal of Personality Assessment, 90, 142-151.

Lee, K., & Ashton, M. C. (2008).  The HEXACO personality factors in the indigenous personality lexicons of English and 11 other languages.  Journal of Personality, 76, 1001-1053.

Lee, K., Ashton, M. C., Morrison, D. L., Cordery, D., & Dunlop, P. D. (2008).  Predicting integrity with the HEXACO personality model:  Use of self- and observer reports.  Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 81, 147-167.

Visser, B. A., Ashton, M. C., & Vernon, P. A. (2008).  What makes you think you池e so smart? Measured abilities, personality, and sex differences as correlates of self-estimates of multiple intelligences.  Journal of Individual Differences, 29, 35-44.

Wasti, S. A., Lee, K., Ashton, M. C., & Somer, O. (2008).  The Turkish personality lexicon and the HEXACO model of personality.  Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 39, 665-684.

Ashton, M. C. (2007).  Self-reports and stereotypes:  A comment on McCrae et al.  European Journal of Personality, 21, 983-986.

Ashton, M. C., & Lee, K. (2007).  Empirical, theoretical, and practical advantages of the HEXACO model of personality structure.  Personality and Social Psychology Review, 11, 150-166.

Ashton, M. C., Lee, K., & Goldberg, L. R. (2007).  The IPIP-HEXACO scales:  An alternative, public-domain measure of the personality constructs in the HEXACO model.  Personality and Individual Differences, 42, 1515-1526.

Ashton, M. C., Lee, K., Marcus, B., & de Vries, R. E. (2007).  German lexical personality factors:  Relations with the HEXACO model.  European Journal of Personality, 21, 23-43.

Bourdage, J. S., Lee, K., Ashton, M. C., & Perry, A. (2007). Big Five and HEXACO model personality correlates of sexuality.  Personality and Individual Differences, 43, 1506-1516.

Marcus, B., Lee, K., & Ashton, M. C. (2007).  Personality dimensions explaining relationships between integrity tests and counterproductive behavior:  Big Five, or one in addition?  Personnel Psychology, 60, 1-34.

Szarota, P., Ashton, M. C., & Lee, K. (2007).  Taxonomy and structure of the Polish personality lexicon.  European Journal of Personality, 21, 823-852.

Ashton, M.C., Lee, K., de Vries, R.E., Perugini, M., Gnisci, A., & Sergi, I. (2006). The HEXACO model of personality structure and indigenous lexical personality dimensions in Italian, Dutch, and English. Journal of Research in Personality, 40, 851-875.

Ashton, M.C., & Lee, K. (2006). “Minimally biased” g-loadings of crystallized and non-crystallized abilities. Intelligence, 34, 469-477.

Goldberg, L.R., Johnson, J.A., Eber, H.W., Hogan, R., Ashton, M.C., Cloninger, C.R., Gough, H.G. (2006). The International Personality Item Pool and the future of public-domain personality measures. Journal of Research in Personality, 40, 84-96.

Lee, K., & Ashton, M.C. (2006). Further assessment of the HEXACO Personality Inventory: Two new facet scales and an observer report form. Psychological Assessment, 18, 182-191.

Visser, B.A., Ashton, M.C., & Vernon, P.A. (2006). Beyond g: Putting multiple intelligences theory to the test. Intelligence, 34, 487-502.

Visser, B.A., Ashton, M.C., & Vernon, P.A. (2006). g and the measurement of MI: A response to Gardner. Intelligence, 34, 507-510.

Lee, K., Ogunfowora, B., & Ashton, M.C. (2005). Personality traits beyond the Big Five: Are they within the HEXACO space? Journal of Personality, 73, 1437-1463.

Ashton, M.C., & Lee, K. (2005). Honesty-Humility, the Big Five, and the Five-Factor Model. Journal of Personality, 73, 1321-1353.

Ashton, M.C., & Lee, K. (2005). Problems with the method of correlated vectors. Intelligence33, 431-444.

Ashton, M.C., Lee, K., & Vernon, P.A. (2005). Gc and Gf are both valid intelligence factors: Commentary on Robinson (2005). Personality and Individual Differences, 39, 999-1004.

Lee, K., & Ashton, M.C. (2005). Between- and within-person structures of personality: Response to Cervone (2005). European Journal of Personality, 19, 447-450.

Lee, K., Ashton, M.C., & de Vries, R.E. (2005). Explaining workplace delinquency and integrity with the HEXACO and Five-Factor Models of personality structure. Human Performance, 18, 179-197.

Lee, K., & Ashton, M.C. (2005). Psychopathy, Machiavellianism, and Narcissism in the Five-Factor Model and the HEXACO model of personality structure. Personality and Individual Differences, 38, 1571-1582.

Ashton, M.C., & Lee, K. (2005). A defence of the lexical approach to the study of personality structure. European Journal of Personality, 19, 5-24.

Lee, K., Ashton, M.C., & Shin, K.-H. (2005). Personality correlates of workplace anti-social behavior. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 54, 81-98.

Yoo, T.-Y., Lee, K., & Ashton, M.C. (2004). Psychometric properties of the Korean version of the HEXACO Personality Inventory. Korean Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 18, 61-75. (In Korean.)

Boies, K., Yoo, T.-Y., Ebacher, A., Lee, K., & Ashton, M.C. (2004). Psychometric properties of the French and Korean versions of the HEXACO Personality Inventory. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 64, 992-1006.

Ashton, M.C., Lee, K., & Goldberg, L.R. (2004). A hierarchical analysis of 1,710 English personality-descriptive adjectives. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 87, 707-721.

Lee, K., & Ashton, M.C. (2004). Psychometric properties of the HEXACO Personality Inventory. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 39, 329-358.

Ashton, M.C., Lee, K., Perugini, M., Szarota, P., De Vries, R.E., Di Blas, L., Boies, K., & De Raad, B. (2004). A six-factor structure of personality-descriptive adjectives: Solutions from psycholexical studies in seven languages. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 86, 356-366.

Ashton, M.C., & Lee, K. (2003). Personality meets industrial/
organizational psychology. Contemporary Psychology: APA Review of Books, 48, 663-665.

Lee, K., Yoo, T.-Y., & Ashton, M.C. (2003). A new six-dimensional model of personality structure: Implications for industrial and organizational psychology. Korean Journal of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 16,89-105.

Lee, K., Gizzarone, M., & Ashton, M.C. (2003). Personality and the likelihood to sexually harass. Sex Roles, 49, 59-69.

Paunonen, S.V., & Ashton, M.C. (2002). The nonverbal assessment of personality: the NPQ and the FF-NPQ. In B. De Raad & M. Perugini (Eds.), Big Five Assessment (pp. 171-194). Goettingen, Germany: Hogrefe and Huber.

Ashton, M.C., Lee, K., & Paunonen, S.V. (2002). What is the central feature of Extraversion? Social attention versus reward sensitivity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83, 245-252.

Ashton, M.C., & Lee, K. (2002). Six independent factors of personality variation: a response to Saucier. European Journal of Personality16, 63-75.

Ashton, M.C., & Lee, K. (2001). A theoretical basis for the major dimensions of personality. European Journal of Personality, 15, 327-353.

Paunonen, S.V., & Ashton, M.C. (2001). Big Five factors and facets and the prediction of behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology81, 524-539.

Boies, K., Lee, K., Ashton, M.C., Pascal, S., & Nicol, A.A.M. (2001). The structure of the French personality lexicon. European Journal of Personality, 15, 277-295.

Paunonen, S.V., & Ashton, M.C. (2001). Big Five predictors of academic achievement. Journal of Research in Personality, 35, 78-90.

Ashton, M.C., Lee, K., Vernon, P.A. (2001). Which is the real intelligence? A reply to Robinson (1999). Personality and Individual Differences, 30, 1353-1359.

Paunonen, S.V., Ashton, M.C., & Jackson, D.N. (2001). Nonverbal assessment of the Big Five personality factors. European Journal of Personality, 15, 3-18.

Jackson, D.N., Wroblewski, V.R., & Ashton, M.C. (2000). The impact of faking on integrity tests: Does forced-choice offer a solution? Human Performance, 13, 371-388.

Ashton, M.C., Lee, K. & Son, C. (2000). Honesty as the sixth factor of personality: Correlations with Machiavellianism, Primary Psychopathy, and Social Adroitness. European Journal of Personality, 14, 359-368.

Ashton, M.C., Lee, K., Vernon, P.A., & Jang, K. (2000). Fluid intelligence, crystallized intelligence, and the Openness/Intellect factor. Journal of Research in Personality, 34, 198-207.

Lee, K., Ashton, M.C., Hong, S., & Park, K.B. (2000). Psychometric properties of the Nonverbal Personality Questionnaire in Korea. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 60, 131-141.

Ashton, M.C., & Esses, V.M. (1999). Stereotype accuracy: Estimating the academic performance of ethnic groups. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 25, 225-236.

Hahn, D.W., Lee, K., & Ashton, M.C. (1999). A factor analysis of the most frequently used Korean personality trait adjectives. European Journal of Personality, 13, 261-282.

Ashton, M.C., Jackson, D.N., Helmes, E., & Paunonen, S.V. (1998). Joint factor analysis of the Personality Research Form and the Jackson Personality Inventory: comparisons with the Big Five. Journal of Research in Personality, 32, 243-250.

Ashton, M.C. (1998). Personality and job performance: the importance of narrow traits. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 19, 289-303.

Ashton, M.C., Paunonen, S.V., Helmes, E., & Jackson, D.N. (1998). Kin altruism, reciprocal altruism, and the Big Five personality factors. Evolution and Human Behavior, 19, 243-255.