Department of Psychology
Quick Links:

Gordon Hodson
Professor, Ph.D. (Western)

Office: MC B324
Phone: (905)688-5550 ext.5127

research website


- intergroup relations, prejudice, stereotyping, discrimination, and dehumanization

- personality and individual differences

- immigration and intergroup threat

- intergroup contact, intergroup friendships, and emotions (e.g., disgust, anxiety, empathy)

My primary research interests examine intergroup processes related to prejudice, stereotyping, and discrimination. This overall focus can be broken down into several key areas of investigation. First, how has contemporary prejudice transformed itself from overt and direct bias to more subtle and indicrect forms? How can these subtle biases be detected and combated among otherwise well-meaning individuals? Second, to what extent do personality constructs such as authoritarianism and social dominance predict and shape the expression of prejudice and discrimination? Third, how does the perception of intergroup threat posed by immigrants, refugees, and outgroups generally exacerbate negative intergroup outcomes? What social and personal factors trigger intergroup anxiety, and what are its consequences?

Most recently, my research addresses the contextual and personality factors involved in the attenuation of intergroup conflict, such as encouraging common ingroup categorization and identification. Specifically, I am testing the benefits of increasing positive intergroup contact and using intergroup friendships to reduce bias in a variety of settings.


Adachi, P.J.C., Hodson, G., Willoughby, T., Blank, C., & Ha, A. (in press). From outgroups to allied forces: The effect of intergroup cooperation in violent and non-violent video games on boosting favorable outgroup attitudes. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General.

Kteily, N., Hodson, G., & Bruneau, E. (in press). They see us as less than human: Meta-dehumanization predicts intergroup conflict via reciprocal dehumanization. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.

Hoffarth, M.R., & Hodson, G. (2016). Green on the outside, red on the inside: Perceived environmentalist threat as a factor explaining political polarization of climate change. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 45, 40-49. DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvp.2015.11.002

Onraet, E., Van Hiel, A., Dhont, K., Hodson, G., Schitterkatte, M., & De Pauw, S. (2015). The association of cognitive ability with right-wing ideological attitudes and prejudice: A meta-analytic review. European Journal of Personality, 29, 599-621.  DOI: 10.1002/per.2027

Adachi, P.J.C., Hodson, G., & Hoffarth, M.R. (2015). Video game play and intergroup relations: Real world implications for prejudice and discrimination. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 25, 227-236. DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2015.09.008.

Hodson, G., & Dhont, K. (2015). The person-based nature of prejudice: Individual difference predictors of intergroup negativity. European Review of Social Psychology, 26, 1-42. DOI: 10.1080/10463283.2015.1070018.

Adachi, P.J.C., Hodson, G., Willoughby, T., & Zanette, S. (2015). Brothers or sisters in arms: Intergroup cooperation in a violent shooter game can reduce intergroup prejudice. Psychology of Violence, 5, 455-462. doi:10.1037/a0037407.

MacInnis, C.C., & Hodson, G. (2015). The development of online cross-group relationships among university students: Benefits of earlier (vs. later) disclosure of stigmatized group membership. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 32, 788-809. DOI: 10.1177/0265407514548394

MacInnis, C.C., & Hodson, G. (2015). Why are heterosexual men (vs. women) particularly prejudiced toward gay men? A social dominance theory explanation.  Psychology and Sexuality, 6, 275-294. DOI: 10.1080/19419899.2014.987684

Hodson, G., & Skorska, M.N. (2015). Tapping generalized essentialism to predict outgroup prejudices. British Journal of Social Psychology, 54, 371-382. DOI:10.111/bjso.12083.

MacInnis, C.C., & Hodson, G. (2015). Do American states with more religious or conservative populations search more for sexual content on Google? Archives of Sexual Behavior, 44, 137-147. DOI: 10.1007/s10508-014-0361-8

Hodson, G., Dube, B., & Choma, B.L. (2015). Can (elaborated) imagined contact interventions reduce prejudice among those higher in intergroup disgust sensitivity (ITG-DS)? Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 45, 123-131. doi: 10.1111/jasp.12281.

Hodson, G. & MacInnis, C.C., & Costello, K. (2014).  (Over)Valuing “humanness” as an aggravator of intergroup prejudices and discrimination. In P.G. Bain, J. Vaes, & J.-Ph. Leyens (Eds.), Humanness and dehumanization (pp. 86-110). London: Psychology Press.

Hodson, G., Kteily, N.S., & Hoffarth, M. R. (2014). Of filthy pigs and subhuman mongrels: Dehumanization, disgust, and intergroup prejudice. TPM: Testing Psychometrics Methodology in Applied Psychology, 21, 267-284.  DOI: 10.4473/TPM21.3.3

Dhont, K., & Hodson, G. (2014). Does lower cognitive ability predict greater prejudice? Current Directions in Psychological Science, 23, 454-459 . DOI: 10.1177/0963721414549750

Hodson, G. (2014). Is it impolite to discuss cognitive differences between liberals and conservatives? Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 37, 313-314. doi:10.1017/S0140525X13002574.

Choma, B.L., Hanoch, Y., Hodson, G., & Gummerum, M. (2014). Risk propensity among liberals and conservatives: The effect of risk perception, expected benefits, and risk domain. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 5, 713-721. DOI: 10.1177/1948550613519682

Hoffarth, M.R., & Hodson, G. (2014). Is subjective ambivalence toward gays a modern form of bias? Personality and Individual Differences, 69, 75-80.

Costello, K. & Hodson, G. (2014). Lay beliefs about the causes of and solutions to dehumanization and prejudice: Do non-experts recognize the role of human-animal relations? Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 44, 278-288. doi:10.1111/jasp.12221

Costello, K., & Hodson, G. (2014). Explaining dehumanization among children: The interspecies model of prejudice. British Journal of Social Psychology, 53, 175-197. DOI:10.1111/bjso.12016

Dhont, K., & Hodson, G. (2014). Why do right-wing adherents engage in more animal exploitation and meat consumption? Personality and Individual Differences, 64, 12-17.

Dhont, K., & Hodson, G., Costello, K., & MacInnis, C.C. (2014). Social dominance orientation connects prejudicial human-human and human-animal relations. Personality and Individual Differences, 61-62, 105-108. DOI:

MacInnis, C.C., MacLean, M.H., & Hodson, G. (2014). Does "humanization" of the preborn explain why conservatives (vs. liberals) oppose abortion? Personality and Individual Differences, 59, 77-82.

Choma, B.L., Hanoch, Y., Gummerum, M., & Hodson, G. (2013). Relations between risk perceptions and social-political ideology are domain- and ideology-dependent. Personality and Individual Differences, 54, 29-34.

MacInnis, C.C., & Hodson, G. (2013). Is homophobia associated with an implicit same-sex attraction? Journal of Sex Research, 50, 777-785. DOI:10.1080/00224499.2012.690111.

MacInnis, C.C., Busseri, M.A., Choma, B.L., & Hodson, G. (2013). The happy cyclist: Examining the association between generalized authoritarianism and subjective well-being. Personality and Individual Differences, 55, 789-793.

MacInnis, C.C., & Hodson, G. (2013). Expecting racial outgroups to see "us" as biased: A social projection explanation of Whites' bias meta-stereotypes. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 16, 545-559. DOI: 10.1177/1368430212463454.

Hodson, G., Choma, B.L., Boisvert, J., Hafer, C., MacInnis, C.C., & Costello, K. (2013). The role of intergroup disgust in predicting negative outgroup evaluations. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 49, 195-205 .

Hodson, G., & Hewstone, M. (Eds.) (2013). Advances in intergroup contact. London, UK: Psychology Press. Paperback: 978-1-84872-114-2; Hardback: 978-1-84872-054-1

Hodson, G., Costello, K., & MacInnis, C.C. (2013). Is intergroup contact beneficial among intolerant people? Exploring individual differences in the benefits of contact on attitudes. In G. Hodson & M. Hewstone (Eds.), Advances in intergroup contact (pp. 49-80). London, UK: Psychology Press.

Hodson, G., & Hewstone, M. (2013). Introduction: Advances in intergroup contact. In G. Hodson & M. Hewstone (Eds.), Advances in intergroup contact (pp. 3-20). London, UK: Psychology Press.

Hodson, G., Hewstone, M., & Swart, H. (2013). Advances in intergroup contact: Epilogue and future directions.  In G. Hodson & M. Hewstone (Eds.), Advances in intergroup contact (pp. 262-305). London, UK: Psychology Press.

Hodson, G., & Costello, K. (2012). The human cost of devaluing animals. New Scientist, 2895, 34-35.

Hewstone, M., Swart, H., & Hodson, G. (2012). Of babies and bath-water, and rabbits and rabbit-holes: A plea for conflict-prevention, not conflict promotion. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 35, 436-437. doi:10.1017/S0140525X12001239 .

MacInnis, C.C., & Hodson, G. (2012). Intergroup bias toward “Group X”: Evidence of prejudice, dehumanization, avoidance, and discrimination against asexuals. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 15, 725-743. DOI: 10.1177/1368430212442419

MacInnis, C.C., & Hodson, G. (2012). “Where the rubber hits the road” en route to intergroup harmony: Examining contact intentions and contact behavior under meta-stereotype threat. British Journal of Social Psychology, 51, 363-373.

Bastian, B., Costello, K., Loughnan, S., & Hodson, G. (2012). When closing the human-animal divide expands moral concern: The importance of framing. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 3, 421-429 .

Choma, B.L., Hodson, G., & Costello, K. (2012). Intergroup disgust sensitivity as a predictor of Islamophobia: The modulating effect of fear. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48, 499-506 .

Hodson, G., & Busseri, M.A. (2012). Bright minds and dark attitudes: Lower cognitive ability predicts greater prejudice through right-wing ideology and low intergroup contact. Psychological Science, 23, 187-195 .

Hodson, G. (2011). Do ideologically intolerant people benefit from intergroup contact? Current Directions in Psychological Science, 20, 154-159.

Costello, K., & Hodson, G. (2011). Social dominance-based threat reactions to immigrants in need of assistance. European Journal of Social Psychology, 41, 220-231.

Hodson, G., Rush, J., & MacInnis, C.C. (2010). A "joke is just a joke" (except when it isn't): Cavalier humor beliefs facilitate the expression of group dominance motives. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 99, 660-682.

Hodson, G., MacInnis, C.C., & Rush, J. (2010). Prejudice-relevant correlates of humor temperaments and humor styles. Personality and Individual Differences, 49, 546-549.

Costello, K., & Hodson, G. (2010). Exploring the roots of dehumanization: The role of animal-human similarity in promoting immigrant humanization. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 13, 3-22.

Hodson, G., Choma, B.L., & Costello, K. (2009). Experiencing Alien-Nation: Effects of a simulation intervention on attitudes toward homosexuals. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 45, 974-978.

Hodson, G., Harry, H., & Mitchell, A. (2009). Independent benefits of contact and friendship on attitudes toward homosexuals among authoritarians and highly identified heterosexuals. European Journal of Social Psychology35, 509-525.

Hodson, G. (2009). The puzzling person-situation schism in prejudice research. Journal of Research in Personality, 43, 247-248.

Hodson, G., Hogg, S.M., & MacInnis, C.C. (2009). The role of "dark personalities" (narcissism, Machiavellianism, psychopathy), Big Five personality factors, and ideology in explaining prejudice. Journal of Research in Personality, 43, 686-690 .

Hodson, G. (2008). Interracial prison contact: The pros for (socially dominant) cons. British Journal of Social Psychology, 47, 325-351.

Esses, V.M., Veenviet, S., Hodson, G., & Mihic, L. (2008). Justice, morality,, and the dehumanization of refugees. Social Justice Research, 21, 4-25.

Hodson, G., & Costello, K. (2007). Interpersonal disgust, ideological orientations, and dehumanization as predictors of intergroup attitudes. Psychological Science, 18, 691-698.

Hodson, G., Esses, V.M., & Dovidio, J.F. (2006). Perceptions of threat, national representation, and support for policies and procedures to protect the national group. In P.R. Kimmel & C.E. Stout (Eds.), Collateral damage: The psychological consequences of America's war on terrorism (pp. 109-129). Westport, CT, USA: Praeger Press.

Esses, V.M., & Hodson, G. (2006). The role of lay perceptions of ethnic prejudice in the maintenance and perpetuation of ethnic bias. Journal of Social Issues, 62, 453-468.

Hodson, G., Hooper, H., Dovidio, J.F., & Gaertner, S.L. (2005). Aversive racism in Britain: Legal decisions and the use of inadmissible evidence. European Journal of Social Psychology, 35, 437-448 .

Hodson, G., & Olson, J.M. (2005). Testing the generality of the name letter effect: Name initials and everyday attitudes. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31, 1099-1111.

Esses, V.M., Jackson, L.M., Dovidio, J.F., & Hodson, G. (2005). Instrumental relations among groups: Group competition, conflict, and prejudice. In J.F. Dovidio, P. Glick, & L.A. Rudman (Eds), On the nature of prejudice: Fifty years after Allport (pp. 227-243). Malden, MA, USA: Blackwell Publishing.

Hodson, G., Dovidio, J.F., & Gaertner, S.L. (2004). The aversive form of racism. In J.L. Lau (Ed.), The psychology of prejudice and discrimination (Vol 1., pp. 119-135). Westport, CT: Praeger Press.

Hodson, G., & Esses, V.M. (2005). Lay perceptions of ethnic prejudice: Causes, solutions, and individual differences. European Journal of Social Psychology, 35, 329-344.

Hodson, G., Dovidio, J.F., & Esses, V.M. (2003). Ingroup identification as a moderator of positive-negative asymmetry in social discrimination. European Journal of Social Psychology, 33, 215-233.

Hodson, G., Dovidio, J.F., & Gaertner, S.L. (2002). Processes in racial discrimination: Differential weighting of conflicting information. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 460-471.

Hodson, G., & Esses, V.M. (2002). Distancing oneself from negative attributes and the personal/group discrimination discrepancy. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 38, 500-507.

Dovidio, J.F., Gaertner, S.L., Kawakami, K., & Hodson, G. (2002). Why can't we just get along? Interpersonal biases and interracial distrust. Cultural Diversity and Ethnicity Minority Psychology, 8, 88-102.

Hodson, G., & Sorrentino, R.M. (2001). Just who favors the in-group? Personality differences in reactions to uncertainty in the minimal group paradigm. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 5, 92-101.



Dr. Gordon Hodson
Department of Psychology
Brock University
1812 Sir Isaac Brock Way
St. Catharines, Ontario
Canada L2S 3A1

Telephone:1- 905-688-5550, ext. 5127
fax: 1-905-688-6922



Copyright © 2004, Brock University
Brock University Brock University