Students must check to ensure that prerequisites are met. Students may be deregistered, at the request of the instructor, from any course for which prerequisites and/or restrictions have not been met.
ASTRONOMY COURSES
ASTR 1P01
Introduction to Astronomy I
Description of the appearance of the night sky, history of astronomy, light and telescopes, measuring the properties of stars, structure and functioning of the Sun.
Lectures, 3 hours per week.
ASTR 1P02
Introduction to Astronomy II
Formation and evolution of stars, properties of some unusual astronomical objects, such as pulsars and black holes, galaxies, cosmology and a discussion of the planets of the solar system.
Lectures, 3 hours per week.
Note: ASTR 1P01 is highly recommended.
ENGINEERING COURSES
ENGS 1P01
The Humanist Engineer
Engineering design and construction problems, solutions, and new challenges.
seminar, laboratories, 5 hours per week.
Restriction: open to students in the Minor of Engineering Science
ENGS 2P02
Invitational Education Theory for Engineers
Exploration of teaching, learning, and practice of engineering from the perspectives of Self, Others, Knowledge, Organizations and Societal Good.
Online delivery.
Restriction: open to students in the Minor of Engineering Science.
ENGS 3P12
Feeding the World: Restorative Engineering
Engineering techniques to protect and remediate the environment. Topics include site remediation (brownfields, agricultural land, greenhouse, fish treatment plant, etc.), ecosystem restoration, and waste management. Analysis of biocommodity production from the treatment of different waste streams through the concept of circular economy.
Seminar, laboratories, 5 hours per week.
Restriction: open to students in the Minor of Engineering Science.
ENGS 3P21
Shaping the Future: New Automation
Human and nonhuman interactions, based on the notion of metaphorical software robots and artificial intelligence for processing transactions, managing data, triggering responses and communicating with digital systems.
Seminar, laboratories, 5 hours per week.
Restriction: open to students in the Minor of Engineering Science.
ENGS 3P22
Shaping the Future: Energy Frontiers
Exploration of frontiers of energy generation and consumption, their intersections with industry, environment and society. Examination of energy demand and its determinants, energy usage effectiveness and efficiency, policy dimension of energy and climate change, and potential impacts on ecosystems.
Seminar, laboratories, 5 hours per week
Restriction: open to students in the Minor of Engineering Science.
ENGS 3P41
Creating Healthy Communities: Human Mechanics
Invention of assistive devices for human augmentation (bionic technology, robotics and exoskeletons) to prolong and enhance lives. Assistive solutions for recovery from injury, improvement of sport mechanics, assistance for the elderly, and optimization of human performance for occupational workers.
Seminar, laboratories, 5 hours per week.
Restriction: open to students in the Minor of Engineering Science.
ENGS 3P42
Creating Healthy Communities: Inclusive Cities
Smart cities and navigation of the urban environment. Adaptation to climate change, sustainable methods of transportation, reducing, reusing, and recycling waste, and making urban centers more compassionate. Consideration of local needs of St. Catharines and neighboring cities.
Seminar, laboratories, 5 hours per week.
Restriction: open to students in the Minor of Engineering Science.
PHYSICS COURSES
PHYS 1P21
Introductory Physics I
Kinematics, Newton's laws and their applications to equilibrium and dynamics; conservation laws; oscillations, waves and sound.
Lectures, 4 hours per week.
Note: students may not concurrently register in PHYS 1P91.
Completion of this course will replace previous assigned grade and credit obtained in PHYS 1P91.
PHYS 1P22
Introductory Physics II
Statics and dynamics of fluids; heat and thermodynamics; geometrical and wave optics; electric and magnetic forces; DC circuits; atomic and nuclear physics.
Lectures, 4 hours per week.
Prerequisite(s): PHYS 1P21 or permission of the instructor.
Note: students may not concurrently register in PHYS 1P92.
Completion of this course will replace previous assigned grade and credit obtained in PHYS 1P23, 1P92 and 1P93.
PHYS 1P91
Introductory Physics I with Laboratory
Combination of lectures in PHYS 1P21 with a laboratory session.
Lectures, 4 hours per week; lab, alternating weeks, 3 hours per week.
Note: students may not concurrently register in PHYS 1P21. Materials fee required.
Completion of this course will replace previous assigned grade and credit obtained in PHYS 1P21.
PHYS 1P92
Introductory Physics II with Laboratory
Combination of lectures in PHYS 1P22 with a laboratory session.
Lectures, 4 hours per week; lab, alternating weeks, 3 hours per week.
Prerequisite(s): PHYS 1P91 or permission of the instructor.
Note: students may not concurrently register in PHYS 1P22.Materials fee required.
Completion of this course will replace previous assigned grade and credit obtained in PHYS 1P22, 1P23 and 1P93.
PHYS 1P94
Introductory Physics III
Calculusbased course covering rotational and centerofmass motion; work done by a variable force; electric and magnetic fields; electric potential and potential energy; magnetic induction; AC circuits and resonance; waveparticle duality; elements of modern physics. Use of computers for data acquisition, visualization and analysis; elements of computer programming; principles of scientific writing and communications.
Lectures, 3 hours per week; lab 3 hours per week.
Prerequisite(s): PHYS 1P21 or 1P91; one of MATH 1P01, 1P05, 1P97 or permission of the instructor.
Note: materials fee required.
PHYS 2P02
Introduction to Medical Physics
Physical and chemical interactions of ionizing radiations and their biological effects, structural imaging (magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound, computed tomography and optical microscopy); nuclear medicine, therapeutic applications of radiation.
Lectures, 3 hours per week; tutorial, 1 hour per week.
Prerequisite(s): one of 4U/M PHYS (SPH4U), PHYS 1P22, 1P92.
PHYS 2P20
Introductory Mechanics
Mechanics of particles and systems of particles by the Newtonian method; conservation of linear momentum, angular momentum and energy; elementary dynamics of rigid bodies; oscillators; motion under central forces; selected applications.
Lectures, problem sessions, 3 hours per week; lab, tutorial, 3 hours per week.
Prerequisite(s): PHYS 1P21 or 1P91 (recommended); PHYS 1P22 or 1P92 (recommended); MATH 1P01 and 1P02, or MATH 1P05 and 1P06 (recommended).
Note: materials fee required.
PHYS 2P30
Introduction to Electronics
Conduction in metals and semiconductors; circuit analysis; timedependent currents, transients, AC circuits, filters, resonance; semiconductor junction, diode and transistor; rectification, switching and amplification; operational amplifiers; combinatorial logic and circuits; sequential circuits, counters; analogtodigital conversion; laboratory instruments.
Lectures, lab, 6 hours per week.
Prerequisite(s): PHYS 1P21 or 1P91 (recommended); PHYS 1P22 or 1P92 (recommended); one MATH credit or permission of the instructor.
Note: no previous course in electricity/magnetism/electronics is required. Secondary school algebra and some basic calculus will be used in the quantitative sections. Materials fee required.
Completion of this course will replace previously obtained grade and credit in PHYS 2P31.
PHYS 2P50
Modern Physics
Special relativity, photons, the waveparticle aspects of electromagnetic radiation and matter; introduction to wave mechanics; the hydrogen atom and atomic line spectra; orbital and spin angular momenta; lasers.
Lectures, tutorial, 4 hours per week.
Prerequisite(s): PHYS 1P21 or 1P91 (recommended); PHYS 1P22 or 1P92 (recommended); MATH 1P01 and 1P02, or MATH 1P05 and 1P06 (recommended).
PHYS 2P51
Introduction to Classical and Modern Optics
Geometrical and wave optics, reflection, refraction, lenses, matrix methods, aberrations, gradient index phenomena including fibre optics, interference, coherence, holography, Fraunhofer and Fresnel diffraction, polarization.
Lectures, lab, 6 hours per week.
Prerequisite(s): PHYS 1P21 or 1P91 (recommended); PHYS 1P22 or 1P92 (recommended); MATH 1P01 and 1P02, or MATH 1P05 and 1P06 (recommended).
Note: materials fee required.
PHYS 3P02
Cellular Biophysics
Introduction to the molecular biophysics of cellular membranes, structure and function of the major cell components (lipids, proteins and carbohydrates), experimental physical techniques, photobiology, biological electrokinetics, bioinformatics, biomechanics, and biomimetics.
Lectures, 3 hours per week; lab, alternate week, 4 hours per week.
Prerequisite(s): PHYS 1P21 or 1P91 (recommended); PHYS 1P22 or 1P92 (recommended) or permission of the instructor.
PHYS 3P35
Electromagnetism I
Electric field, divergence and curl of electrostatic field; relation between electric work and energy; conductors; application of Laplace's and Poisson's equation in electrostatics; electrostatic field in matter; field in polarized object and linear dielectric.
Lectures, 3 hours per week.
Prerequisite(s): MATH 2P03, 2P08 and 3P06.
PHYS 3P36
Electromagnetism II
Magnetostatics, divergence and curl of magnetic field; magnetic vector potential; magnetic field in matter; magnetization; field of magnetic object; magnetic field inside of linear and nonlinear media; electrodynamics; Ohm's law; Faraday's law and Maxwell equations; energy and momentum in electrodynamics; electromagnetic waves.
Lectures, 3 hours per week.
Prerequisite(s): PHYS 3P35.
PHYS 3P41
Statistical Physics I
Introduction to probability distribution functions, accessible states, entropy, temperature, partition functions and relations to thermodynamic functions.
Lectures, 3 hours per week; tutorial, 1 hour per week.
Prerequisite(s): PHYS 2P50.
PHYS 3P70
Introduction to Quantum Mechanics
Wave particle dualism, Schrodinger equation, solution of simple onedimensional barrier problems and the harmonic oscillator, hydrogen atom, angular momentum theory, introduction to perturbation theory and variational methods.
Lectures, lab/problem sessions, 4 hours per week.
Prerequisite(s): PHYS 2P50, MATH 2P03, 2P08 and 3P06.
PHYS 3P90
Classical Mechanics
Advanced treatment of the mechanics of particles and of rigid bodies; Lagrangian and Hamiltonian methods; Poisson brackets, applications to the theory of small oscillators and central force motions, elements of chaotic motions.
Lectures, 3 hours per week.
Prerequisite(s): PHYS 2P20, MATH 2P03, 2P08 and 3P06.
Completion of this course will replace previous assigned grade and credit obtained in PHYS 3P20.
PHYS 3P91
Experimental Physics I
Laboratory experiments to be selected from atomic physics, nuclear physics, solid state physics.
Lab, 1 day per week.
Prerequisite(s): PHYS 2P50 or permission of the instructor.
Note: materials fee required.
PHYS 3P92
Experimental Physics (Electronics) II
Operational amplifiers, converters, switches, microcomputers and their application to physical measurements.
Lab, 1 day per week.
Prerequisite(s): PHYS 2P30 (2P31) or permission of the instructor.
Note: materials fee required.
PHYS 3P93
SolidState Devices
Principles of operation of solidstate devices, from the point of view of the quantum theory; electronic bands and conduction in semiconductors; operation and manufacture of silicon and germanium diodes, junction and field effect transistors; thinfilm deposition technology; special topics.
Lectures, lab, 6 hours per week.
Prerequisite(s): PHYS 3P70.
PHYS 3P94
Mathematical Methods in Physics
Techniques of mathematical physics in the context of physically relevant problems. Vector calculus in curvilinear coordinate systems, applied linear algebra, Fourier series and Fourier transforms, special functions of mathematical physics, and leastsquares approximations.
Lectures, 3 hours per week; tutorial, 1 hour per week.
Prerequisite(s): MATH 2P03, 2P08 and 3P06 or permission of the instructor.
Completion of this course will replace previous assigned grade and credit obtained in PHYS 3V94.
*PHYS 3P95
Introduction to Mathematical Physics
(also offered as MATH 3P95)
Topics may include Calculus of variations, Lagrangian and Hamiltonian mechanics, field theory, differential forms, vector and polyvector fields, tensor fields, Lie derivative, connection, Riemann metric, Lie groups and algebras, manifolds, and mathematical ideas of quantum mechanics. Applications to theoretical physics.
Lectures, 3 hours per week; lab/tutorial, 1 hour per week.
Prerequisite(s): MATH 2P03 and 2P08.
Note: MATH 2P12 is recommended.
Completion of this course will replace previous assigned grade and credit obtained in PHYS (MATH) 4P64.
PHYS 3V943V99
Special Topics
Topics may include techniques of mathematical physics and scientific computing.
Prerequisite(s): MATH 2P03, 2P08 and 3P06 or permission of the instructor.
PHYS 4F90
Research Project I
Small experimental, theoretical or applied physics research project to be carried out under the supervision of a member of the department.
Restriction: open to PHYS (single or combined) and CAST majors with either a minimum of 14.0 overall credits, a minimum 70 percent major average and a minimum 60 percent nonmajor average or approval to year 4 (honours).
Note: the project may, under special circumstances, be started in the summer months. Students must consult with the Department Chair regarding their proposed program during the first week of lectures.
PHYS 4F91
Research Project II
Detailed experimental, theoretical or applied physics research project to be carried out under the supervision of a member of the department.
Restriction: open to PHYS (single or combined) majors with either a minimum of 14.0 overall credits, a minimum 70 percent major average and a minimum 60 percent nonmajor average or approval to year 4 (honours) and permission of the Department.
Prerequisite(s): PHYS 4F90.
Note: the project may, under special circumstances, be started in the summer months. Students must consult with the Department Chair regarding their proposed program during the first week of lectures. PHYS 4F90 and 4F91 may be taken concurrently.
#PHYS 4P09
Solitons and Nonlinear Wave Equations
(also offered as MATH 4P09)
Linear and nonlinear travelling waves. Nonlinear evolution equations (Korteweg de Vries, nonlinear Schrodinger, sineGordon). Soliton solutions and their interaction properties. Lax pairs, inverse scattering, zerocurvature equations and Backlund transformations, Hamiltonian structures, and conservation laws.
Lectures, 3 hours per week; lab/tutorial, 1 hour per week.
Prerequisite(s): one of MATH 3P08, 3P09, 3P51, 3P52.
PHYS 4P10
Introduction to Scientific Computing
Computational methods and techniques commonly used in condensed matter physics research; graphing and visualization of data; elements of programming and programming style; use of subroutine libraries; common numerical tasks; symbolic computing systems. Disciplinespecific scientific writing.
Lectures, tutorial, 3 hours per week.
Restriction: permission of the instructor.
Note: case studies from various areas of computational physics. Preparation of documents and presentations.
PHYS 4P41
Statistical Physics II
Fundamental postulates, equilibrium statistical mechanics and its relation to thermodynamics. MaxwellBoltzmann, BoseEinstein and FermiDirac statistics are derived and applied in appropriate physical situations of noninteracting and interacting particles; fluctuations; elementary treatment of transport theory.
Lectures, 3 hours per week; tutorial, 1 hour per week.
Prerequisite(s): PHYS 3P41 and 3P70.
PHYS 4P51
Quantum Mechanics
Postulates about states, observables, probabilities, change of state in a measurement, and time evolution. Dirac's bra and ket notation; representation and transformation theory. Twolevel systems. Complete set of commuting observables and classification of states. Symmetries and their usage in classification of states.
Lectures, 3 hours per week.
Prerequisite(s): PHYS 3P70, MATH 3P04, 3P08 and 3P09.
PHYS 4P61
Nuclear Physics
Intrinsic properties of nuclei, nuclear binding energy; qualitative treatment of shell model; alpha, beta and gamma radioactivities, nuclear fission, characteristics of nuclear reactions.
Lectures, problem sessions, 3 hours per week.
Prerequisite(s): PHYS 2P50 and 3P70.
PHYS 4P62
Modern Wave Optics: Optical Tweezers to Atom Clouds
Optical lattices, spatial light modulators, evanescent waves and their applications from biology to ultracold atoms. Laser cooling and optical trapping. Manipulation of crystal properties by light. Optical patterns: tweezers, mirrors, funnels, bottles. Maplebased coursework.
Lectures, tutorial, 4 hours per week.
Prerequisite(s): PHYS 2P51 and MATH 2P03 or permission of the instructor.
PHYS 4P70
Condensed Matter Physics I
Crystal structures and crystal binding; the vibration of atoms in solids and the thermodynamics of solids; introduction to transport properties of solids.
Lectures, 3 hours per week; tutorial, 1 hour per week.
Prerequisite(s): PHYS 3P41 and 3P70.
PHYS 4P71
Condensed Matter Physics II
Energy bands in metals and semiconductors, dynamics of electrons, Fermi surfaces and transport properties of solids, magnetism, screening in electron gas, optical properties.
Lectures, 3 hours per week; tutorial, 1 hour per week.
Prerequisite(s): PHYS 4P70.
PHYS 4P92
Advanced Electronics Laboratory
Families of logic devices, selection and implementation techniques; synchronous and asynchronous sequential circuits; safety and physical constraints; programmable array logic designs; digital signal processing, optoelectronics; CAD; circuit layout.
Lab, 1 day per week.
Prerequisite(s): PHYS 3P92.
Note: completion of a project from design to a working device is required.
#PHYS 4P94
Relativity Theory and Black Holes
(also offered as MATH 4P94)
Review of Special Relativity and Minkowski spacetime. Introduction to General Relativity theory; the spacetime metric, geodesics, light cones, horizons, asymptotic flatness; energymomentum of particles and light rays. Curvature and field equations. Static black holes (Schwarzschild metric), properties of light rays and particle orbits. Rotating black holes (Kerr metric).
Lectures, 3 hours; lab/tutorial, 1 hour per week.
Prerequisite(s): PHYS 2P20, 2P50, MATH 2P03, 2P08 and 3P06 or permission of the instructor.
PHYS 4V804V89
Special Topics
Examples of topics are relativity and cosmology; surface physics and electronic states in ordered and disordered systems.
Lectures, problem sessions, 4 hours per week.
COOP COURSES
PHYS 0N01
Coop Work Placement I
First coop placement (4 months) with an approved employer.
Restriction: open to PHYS Coop students.
PHYS 0N02
Coop Work Placement II
Second coop placement (4 months) with an approved employer.
Restriction: open to PHYS Coop students.
PHYS 0N03
Coop Work Placement III
Third coop placement (4 months) with an approved employer.
Restriction: open to PHYS Coop students.
PHYS 0N04
Coop Work Placement IV
Coop placement (4 months) with an approved employer.
Restriction: open to PHYS Coop students.
PHYS 0N05
Coop Work Placement V
Coop placement (4 months) with an approved employer.
Restriction: open to PHYS Coop students.
PHYS 2C01
Coop Reflective Learning and Integration I
Provide student with the opportunity to apply what they've learned in their academic studies through careeroriented work experiences at employer sites.
Restriction: open to PHYS Coop students.
Prerequisite(s): SCIE 0N90.
Corequisite(s): PHYS 0N01.
Note: students will be required to prepare learning objectives, participate in a site visit, write a work term report and receive a successful work term performance evaluation.
PHYS 2C02
Coop Reflective Learning and Integration II
Provide student with the opportunity to apply what they've learned in their academic studies through careeroriented work experiences at employer sites.
Restriction: open to PHYS Coop students.
Prerequisite(s): SCIE 0N90.
Corequisite(s): PHYS 0N02.
Note: students will be required to prepare learning objectives, participate in a site visit, write a work term report and receive a successful work term performance evaluation.
PHYS 2C03
Coop Reflective Learning and Integration III
Provide student with the opportunity to apply what they've learned in their academic studies through careeroriented work experiences at employer sites.
Restriction: open to PHYS Cop students.
Prerequisite(s): SCIE 0N90.
Corequisite(s): PHYS 0N03.
Note: students will be required to prepare learning objectives, participate in a site visit, write a work term report and receive a successful work term performance evaluation.
PHYS 2C04
Coop Reflective Learning and Integration IV
Provide student with the opportunity to apply what they've learned in their academic studies through careeroriented work experiences at employer sites.
Restriction: open to PHYS Coop students.
Prerequisite(s): SCIE 0N90.
Corequisite(s): PHYS 0N04.
Note: students will be required to prepare learning objectives, participate in a site visit, write a work term report and receive a successful work term performance evaluation.
PHYS 2C05
Coop Reflective Learning and Integration V
Provide student with the opportunity to apply what they've learned in their academic studies through careeroriented work experiences at employer sites.
Restriction: open to PHYS Coop students.
Prerequisite(s): SCIE 0N90.
Corequisite(s): PHYS 0N05.
Note: students will be required to prepare learning objectives, participate in a site visit, write a work term report and receive a successful work term performance evaluation.

