Instinct: A study in social psychology

Chapter 9: Some Results of Investigation

Luther Lee Bernard

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This and the preceding chapter afford some idea of the great variety of ways in which the term instinct is employed in the social sciences. In many cases it is a sort of catch-all for vague and indefinite ideas about the causes or relationships of activities. Writers, unable to account clearly for the occurrence of a particular behavioristic phenomenon on a purely objective basis, bring in the term instinct and use it as a charmed word, thus sidetracking further responsibility for an explanation. Race has been a similar term to conjure with, a stop-gap to a complete explanation of social phenomena in terms of scientifically determined facts. But now, as Ross says, "more and more the time-honored appeal to race is looked upon as the resource of ignorance and indolence." [1] In like manner the gratuitous appeal to instinct hitherto so popular has begun to be looked upon with deserved suspicion and to be met by a demand for further analysis of the objective facts concerned. In response to this new demand for a more critical use of the term instinct it has been restricted to more specific and definable activities. When employed as a definite concept it is applied to some specific act, either learned or inherited. In the preceding chapters it was suggested that very commonly no clear distinction is made between learned and unlearned activities in describing acts as instinctive. In this respect the investigators in the social sciences are not wholly to blame, for they have in large measure but taken over the usage of the

(173) biologists.[2] The latter, dealing as they do primarily with lower forms of life, among which the proportion of learned to inherited activity patterns is relatively small, have uncritically applied the same conceptions and terminology to man. They are not sufficiently familiar with man and the large amount of cerebrally constructed action patterns, responding primarily to external environmental stimuli rather than to inherited structures, which civilized man possesses, to serve wisely as guides to the sociologist when he seeks to classify human activities. The sociologist must rework the field for himself and make his own classifications. He must of course make use of the data of the biological sciences, but he must be ever ready to employ this material with discrimination and to adapt it to the study of the problems to which the social life of man gives rise. He must not apply it en masse and uncritically.[2]

To ascertain the actual usage of the term instinct employed by present-day writers in the social and allied sciences an analysis of the works of several hundred contemporary authors was undertaken. These writings, published in nearly all cases since 1900, were purposely taken largely at random in connection with the general and special reading of the investigator and many of his friends. Also approximately an equal number of volumes (over 300) were searched for instincts by competent assistants. This plan was thought to be best, because it would insure that the subject-matter consulted would be that with which the average teacher would come in contact. Books on various subjects and in various fields, general and scientific articles, and in a few cases even current stories and newspaper

( 174) articles, were in this way examined with care and completeness. The results are presented in the classifications given below. This plan resulted in the utilization of books not alone from the social and mental sciences strictly speaking, that is, from sociology, economics, political science and psychology, although most of the selections are from these general fields. Other volumes from the related provinces of history, education, philosophy and the social applications of biology were made use of in order to secure as wide a range of viewpoints as possible within scientific fields. Even novels and books on travel and general literature were, in some cases, included. It was thought that such a comparison of the employment of the term instinct in these different fields of thought and interest would be of considerable value for the purposes of the study. The selection of books was not confined alone to the scholarly treatises. Academically considered the range of selection runs all the way from set treatises and text-books in the various fields concerned to the more popular works designed for the general reader. It was expected that this diversity of selection would permit of some comparison with regard to the relative extent to which a scientific terminology is employed in the formal and the informal types of writing on social and other themes.

The collected list of instincts and instinctive attitudes made use of by these various writers has grown to such proportions, consisting at the time of writing, of approximately 300 typewritten pages, that it has not been found possible to present the results of the study in full and in the language of the writers themselves. This is very much to be regretted, since such a presentation would illustrate, as no abridgment by classification can, the excessive lack of agreement and standardization on the part of writers employing the term instinct. If one made a sufficiently extensive collection of instincts, it would seem to be possible to show that almost every activity,

(175) either learned or determined by heredity, which has impressed some one as important has at some time or other been called an instinct. I have myself collected more than five thousand of these supposedly instinctive action patterns, representing a vast number of types of action and attitudes. In a very large, perhaps the larger, number of cases the action indicated is so general that no specific action pattern can be found or identified. The so-called instinct is characterized in terms of the end to be achieved or the value or function served, instead of in terms of the stimulus-response processes which constitute the psycho-physical aspects of the action or attitude. Thus the first and foremost rule for the identification and description of an instinct, as set forth in the preceding chapters, has in most cases been violated in practice by the writers studied. These facts of variation and indefiniteness of usage cannot be adequately presented by means of a mere classification, which inevitably reflects in large degree the maker's own viewpoint and preconceptions, however painstakingly he may attempt to allow the facts to speak for themselves. This could be accomplished adequately only by presenting completely and in detail the variations found, without suppressing any of them under an inclusive and arbitrary skeleton classification made by the compiler himself— a classification with which the writers cited would probably in no case agree as adequately representing them.

Following out the plan of allowing the writers to speak for themselves would, however, make it necessary frequently to present separately instincts which may properly be said to have the same meaning. Thus, it may be contended for example, that there is no difference in meaning between "instinct of acquisition" and "acquisitive instinct"; or between either of these and the "instinct of accumulation," "the collecting instinct," "hoarding instinct," and several others. With this view the compiler cannot wholly agree. Many in-

(176) -stincts which are not primarily directed towards acquisition may, under suitable conditions, assume an acquisitive bias. Thus, the so-called sex, fighting, play and construction instincts, for example, may be so expanded in application as to become secondarily acquisitive in their aims and expression. Under certain circumstances, these so-called instincts may even take on accumulative aspects, degenerating into habits of piling up the objects or experiences desired, as ends in themselves, beyond any possibility of utilization. Whether the writers employing the terms themselves intended to make such distinctions as here indicated is not ordinarily apparent from the contexts.

Again— and this is the more usual difficulty, from the standpoint of making a classification— there may appear in the collection two, five, ten, or a score or more instincts which apparently have much in common, but all of which have individually different shades of meaning. And since they are not described in terms of their psycho-physical action patterns, it becomes necessary to find, in so far as possible, some common category of aim, value, function, origin or form which will include as accurately as possible all of these different instincts under one heading. This difficulty is a very real one and may be illustrated briefly— and inadequately— from the experience of the writer in making the first of the classifications which appear in this chapter, although it applies equally well to those that follow. After throwing together those groups of instincts which more or less obviously belonged together, as indicated by some common elements of terminology, he found that this list was so long that it could not be printed. This serious difficulty however confronted him, that further condensation would in many instances necessitate the changing of terminology and thereby the shifting of meanings. A partial remedy was found in retaining significant or key words in the condensed classifica-

( 177) -tions, each word representing one of the more closely related constituent groups of instincts. Thus the groups bad, base, debased, debasing, depraved, evil, immoral, undesirable, vicious, vile, wrong, representing altogether fifteen separate classes and twenty-eight separate instances or cases of instincts, were thrown together. But these terms, besides being only more or less key words taken from twenty-eight separate sentences representing as many more or less divergent types of activity, are not equivalent in meaning. Bad, base and evil group fairly closely together, but they may differ considerably from the other terms in the list. Debased and debasing may mean quite different things. Undesirable instincts may or may not be immoral or vicious or wrong. Such a grouping may represent so many variant meanings that it is rendered largely meaningless. But it was found that even further condensation was desirable, if possible. Should, then, there also be added to this group those instincts classified under the categories of brute, brutal, brutish, representing four classes and ten instances; abnormal, morbid, perverted, representing three classes and seven instances or cases; barbaric, barbarism, barbarity, representing four classes and five cases; coarse, crude, rough-hewn, rude, representing six classes and nine cases? To make such condensations would obviously destroy the unity of the classification, with the result that the classification itself would be largely or wholly useless for the purpose for which it was made.

But condensation through classification of some sort was obviously necessary, because of the physical impossibility of utilizing the more desirable method of presenting the writers' usage in their own language. such distinctions of meaning and content as are here made or implied were, in all probability, not uniformly in the minds of the writers consulted when they made use of their terminology. This would appear to be clearly indicated by the great diversity of the classifications

(178) reproduced in the preceding chapter. Consequently these writers would doubtless in some cases object to the classifications here accorded to their particular instincts. As regrettable as is such a discrepancy, it can scarcely be avoided. The wholly tentative classificatory arrangement here presented is necessary to draw some order out of the chaos which indiscriminate usage presents and thus to prevent hopelessly confusing the reader by the presentation of a vast amount of detail. Furthermore, the classification must be made on the objective basis of the writers' own terminology, even though subjectively they may have had in mind some other shade of meaning. The classification here offered is the simplest possible consistent with a fair degree of separateness of content. It conforms closely to common usage, as well as to that of the writers consulted, thus resulting in as little confusion and contradiction of meaning as possible among those authors cited. The chief difficulty here experienced, aside from that of the confusion resulting from over-condensation, is, of course, due to the fact that the writers have usually employed their terminology at random, without having in mind any consistent classification of their own. As was remarked earlier in this chapter, only too frequently the particular instinct employed is thrown in to fill a troublesome gap in the logic of the author's exposition. But even when he is using some reputed instinct advisedly and consciously, with full conviction as to its validity, he may employ some other instinct uncritically and without investigation. One of the most frequent sources of confusion in this respect is the tendency to speak of instincts in the physiological, moral and social spheres interchangeably, in spite of the fact that these different types of terminology are not directly comparable. This oversight with respect to distinctions is doubtless due to the current tendency to interpret all phenomena, social and moral included, from the standpoint of a simple biology. It has also at times proved difficult to deter-

(179) -mine from the context what the writer had in mind. The simple classification here presented attempts to correlate the usages found in so far as this can be done. Our first need in the determination of a scientific employment of the terminology of instinct is to understand what the present usage is. With this end in view the following classifications have been adopted on the basis of the terminology employed by the authors consulted.

The compilations made by the writer fall into four general divisions. These will be discussed briefly, each under its proper heading. Owing to limitations of space, only two divisions of the classifications are presented in the text. The other two are summarized briefly. The form of the tables has been adopted as the best method of securing clearness in presentation of the results. Where a large amount of condensation seemed desirable and possible, as many of the key terms of the included classes as the limitations of space would permit have been retained in the general type classifications, for the sake of preserving, in part at least, the distinctions of usage among the writers consulted. This, however, it is to be feared, has been done very inadequately. Numerical results have been presented in four columns under the headings of Classes, Authors, Books, Cases. The term Classes refers to the groups of approximately identical or similar "instincts" collected from various writers. These "instincts" were found to be so closely similar that they could be conveniently grouped under a single word or phrase. If space had permitted the list should have been presented under these several group headings, instead of under the general types. The term Cases covers the separate of individual instincts collected. Only by publishing these as collected from the literature could an adequate presentation of current usage be made, but the publishing of their totals is better than no presentation whatever. The number of

( 180) authors does not always coincide with the number of books, because it was possible in many cases to consult more than one work of an author. It is believed that the method of presentation here adopted will make it possible for the reader to study the classifications with profit and understanding for himself.

It should be remembered at all times that the writer does not hold that the lists here offered are either legitimate or exhaustive. On the contrary, most of the "instincts" here presented are not instincts; and it has been his experience that the list of classes and cases grows constantly, with almost undiminished rapidity, as additional authors are consulted. In the industry of collecting instincts there seems to be no law of diminishing returns.1. Groups of Instincts. This is a classification of classifications of instincts. No specific instincts are included in this classification; these will be found in division number two. Here are listed all references to instincts in the plural, that is, to groups or classes of instincts, in the literature consulted. No attempt is made in this classification to distinguish between groupings of instincts on the basis of the general or specific functions served by them; that is, whether they are specific to the function or form from which they are named or whether they serve their function derivatively and by adaptation. The context from which these terms were taken do not permit of such distinctions. Consequently it is necessary to follow strictly the wording of the writers cited without attempts at interpretation. In most cases the writers themselves have not made such distinctions. For example, by the term "criminal instincts" the writer may intend to refer to instincts — specific to criminal conduct or he may have in mind all instincts, including those not specifically adapted to criminality, which may be made to aid in criminality. Thus the "sex instincts," the "domestic instincts," or even

(181) the "ethical instincts," if indeed these may be definitely enumerated, might conceivably be employed in such a manner as to promote criminality. Again, the term " reproductive instincts" may be used to cover those inherited activity structures or processes which are concerned specifically with the sex act, or it may refer to all instinctive processes concerned with the production and nurture of offspring. Such a general term as "altruistic instincts" might conceivably have reference to any instinct whatever which could serve the interests of others, the determination of the character of the instincts, in this instance as in others, being thus a matter of their functional relation to environment rather than of their biological structure. On the other hand, the term may be limited strictly to instincts involving an inherited attitude of benevolence, if there is such an inherited attitude. Even more would the "American instincts" or the "instincts of Asia" and the "Russian instincts" offer difficulties of classification. Whether the writers concerned mean to include all instincts found in those geographical areas or only those peculiar to them alone, or whether they have some other unexplained thing in mind, is not necessarily the task of the compiler to decide. The purpose here is as much to present the great diversity and lack of correlation of these groups of supposed instincts as to offer a list of the "instincts" themselves. Finally, not all of the separate types are here presented. Many, representing purely evaluative characterizations, such as separate, sound, strong, sure, have been left for listing under the category of Indefinite and Peculiar Instincts. In cases like these the type terms could have no conceivable relation to the structure of the constituent instincts. But the same may be said of many if not of most of the types actually included These omitted types were, however, either so exceedingly indefinite or so trivial in character that it seemed best not to make the list unduly long by including them. It is difficult to know

(182) where to draw the line, a fact which also bears testimony to the current confusion regarding the subject of instinct.

Classification of Instincts by General Groups
Type No.
Abnormal, morbid, perverted 3 7 7 7
Accumulation, acquisitive, appropriative, avaricious 6 6 6 6
Acquired, developed, perfected, resultant, unfolding 9 12 12 14
Active, activating, impulsive 4 5 5 5
Adaptive, coadaptation 2 4 4 15
Aesthetic, beauty, musical, musicians, rhythmic 5 S 5 6
Aggression, aggressive, assertive 3 4 6 7
Altruistic, benevolent, charitable, unselfish 8 14 14 23
American, Americans 5 2 2 5
Anger, irrascible 5 3 3 9
Animal, animals, animalism, animal-life 22 43 48 70
Antagonistic, contrary 2 3 3 7
Anti-social 5 10 10 40
Art, arts, artist, artistic 4 3 3 4
Ascetic 2 2 2 2
Atavistic 1 4 4 4
Attack, bellicose, combat, fighting, pugnacious, war 11 21 22 44
Barbaric, barbarism 4 4 4 5
Bad, base, debased, debasing, depraved, evil, immoral, low, undesirable, vicious, vile, wrong 20 27 27 42
Basic, fundamental, root, rooted 9 29 31 42
Being, biological, life, life-preservation 11 10 10 15
Blood-thirsty, blood-letting, ghoul 3 3 3 3
Bohemian, gypsy 2 2 2 2
Boy, boyhood 2 1 1 2
Brute, brutal, brutish 4 10 10 10
Business, businessman, commercialism, financial 8 7 7 9
Chain, linked 2 2 2 2
Child, childhood, childish 9 8 9 15
Cleanliness, cleansing . 2 3 3 3
Coarse, crude, rough-hewn, rude 6 8 8 9
Communal, corporate . 3 5 5 5
Competitive, rivalry 3 3 3 4
Complex, compound, compounded, combined - 4 5 5 7


Classification of Instincts by General Groups, continued
Type No.
Concealment 2 1 1 7
Conquest 1 1 4 4
Conservative, reactionary 2 6 6 6
Constructive 2 6 6 7
Cooperation, mutual 4 3 3 5
Courtship 2 2 2 4
Creative 1 4 4 5
Criminal, lawless, mischief, offender (of) 5 10 10 16
Dangerous, harmful 2 4 4 4
Defense, defensive 3 4 4 4
Deferred, delayed 2 5 S 8
Definite, fixed, formulated, hard and fast, rigid 5 10 11 21
Democratic, leveling 4 7 7 7
Destruction, destructive, to destroy 5 5 5 13
Detective 1 2 2 2
Disgust 5 1 1 13
Domestic 2 1 1 3
Egg-laying, eggs (regarding) 2 2 2 2
Ego, egoistic, egotistical 8 15 15 54
Elemental, elementary 2 6 6 6
Expansion, expansive 2 2 2 2
Family 7 8 10 12
Farmer 2 2 2 2
Fear, fright 4 5 5 16
Feeling, emotion, emotional 3 6 6 10
Female, feminine 3 3 3 4
Ferocious 2 3 3 3
Filial 2 2 2 2
Flight, flying 2 2 2 8
Food, food-getting, feeding, hunger, nutrition 7 6 6 10
Fragmentary 2 4 4 14
Friendly, friendship 2 2 2 2
Gang, crowd, herd 17 19 20 82
General, generalized 2 7 7 17
Good, decent, ethical, moral, right, virtuous,wholesome 18 27 27 35
Great, major 5 7 7 ii
Gregarious, gregariousness, association 5 15 17 22
Gross 2 2 2 2
Healthy 1 4 4 4
Hereditary, inborn, inherent, inherited, native. 11 31 31 51


Classification of Instincts by General Groups, continued
Type No.
Heretic, radical 2 1 1 2
Home-building 2 1 1 2
Human, man, mankind 25 61 70 221
Imitation, mimicry 2 2 2 2
Incomplete, immature 3 2 2 3
Independence (of) 2 2 2 2
Indefinite, non-specific, vague 3 6 6 10
Individual, individualized 3 9 9 18
Individualism, individualistic, non-comformist 3 8 8 14
Insurgent 2 2 2 3
Intellectual, reflective, thought 4 3 3 8
Jealous, jealousy 2 2 2 2
Justice 1 2 2 2
To kill, killing, murder, murderer 5 4 4 5
Lesser, minor 2 4 4 4
Licking 2 2 2 2
Locomotion, locomotory 2 2 2 8
Love 2 2 2 2
Loyal, loyalty, allegiance 4 4 4 4
Male 2 2 2 3
Mammalian 2 2 2 2
Masses 3 3 3 3
Maternal 4 9 9 12
Mating 2 3 3 4
Mechanical 2 2 2 2
Mental 3 3 3 3
Migration, migratory, nomadic, roving 4 4 4 4
Military, militarism 2 2 2 2
National 5 7 7 10
Natural 5 42 45 61
Negative 1 2 2 4
Negro 3 3 3 5
Nest-building 2 2 2 2
New, newer 2 4 4 4
Non-military, pacific 2 2 2


Normal 1 6 6 7
Organic 2 2 2 2
Original 1 3 3 5
Ownership, proprietary 2 2 2 2
Parental, parenthood 3 12 13 27
Perfect, perfected 2 1 1 2


Classification of Instincts by General Groups, continued
Type No.
Periodic 2 4 4 7
Permanent, persistent 2 2 2 2
Personal 1 2 2 4
Phylogenetic 2 1 1 2
Physiological 2 2 2 2
Play, recreational, sporting 5 7 7 11
Political 2 5 5 5
Polygamous 2 3 3 5
Popular, people (of) 5 7 7 9
Positive 1 2 2 2
Powerful, strong 9 17 18 28
Precocious 1 2 2 2
Predatory 5 12 12 14
Primary, prime, principal, dominant, chief 9 17 17 35
Primal, primitive, old, ancient, early 17 41 45 107
Profound, pronounced 2 3 3 4
Protective 2 5 5 5
Prudential 2 1 1 2
Public 2 2 2 2
Public opinion (of) 1 2 2 5
Pushing out the hands, reaching 2 2 2 2
Race, racial 12 16 17 48
Rebellious, resistance 2 2 2 2
Reflex 2 2 2 2
Regulative 1 3 3 6
Religious, devotee, piety 5 16 16 20
Repressed, suppressed 2 4 4 4
Reproduction, reproductive 4 9 9 16
Russia (of) 2 1 1 3
Savage 4 8 8 8
Savage (of) 2 3 3 4
Scholarly, scholars (of) 2 2 2 2
Scientific 3 2 2 3
Sea-faring 2 3 3 3
Secondary 1 3 3 3
Self-assertive 3 5 5 8
Self-defense 3 3 3 9
Self-maintenance 2 2 2 2
Self-preservation, self-preservative 5 14 14 36
Self-regarding 2 4 4 12
Selfish 5 7 7 7


Classification of Instincts by General Group, continued
Type No.
Sensual 1 2 2 2
Servant (of), service, slavish . 3 3 3 3
Sex, sexual 12 38 40 126
Simple 4 10 10 18
Sleep, rest 2 1 1 2
Sociability, sociable 4 3 3 6
Social 14 66 74 222
Special, specialized 2 10 10 17
Specific 1 6 6 9
Spiritual 1 2 2 2
Stealing, thieving 2 2 2 2
Subconscious, unconscious 2 2 2 2
Subjugating 2 1 1 2
Submissive 2 2 2 3
Survival 2 1 1 2
Sympathetic, kindly, generous, humane 9 15 16 20
Tender 1 2 2 2
traditional 2 2 2 2
transient, transitory 2 3 3 5
tribal 3 3 3 7
Universal 2 1 x 2
Vague 1 4 4 5
Variable, varying 2 2 2 2
Vital 1 2 2 2
Vitiated 1 2 2 4
Wagner's 2 2 2 2
Weak, waning 4 3 3 7
Women, womanly 10 9 9 13
Workers' 2 2 2 2
Miscellaneous 139 —  —  167
Totals 849 250 295 2539

The miscellaneous groups or classifications, that is, those classifications which are mentioned only once, are as follows: achieving, adolescence, adventurous, advertising (of the Romans), African, of ants, approach, Asiatic, back-dragging, of young birds, burrowing (of rodents), serious business of life, cannibalistic, capitalistic, strange instincts of cattle, central, character, of the Chinese mind, chivalrous, of civili-

(187) -zation, class, climatic, Comte's sociological instincts, contrary, contractive, of the country, England's creditor instincts, critical, curative, curiosity, danger, dictatorial, of the diggerwasp, disinterested, dramatic, of duty, of the East, of ejection, English, ennobling, environmental, forward-looking, of France, of function, gambling, genetic, of genius, of a gentleman, gynecocratic, Hellenic, of the hermit crab, heroic, historic, homing, homosexual, honor, hunting, imperialism, infantile, Jewish, law-abiding, of legality, legitimate, of the lexicographer, liberal, luxury, manipulative, marital, masterly, materialistic, mechanistic, mercenary, of the miser, modern, monogamous, of nationality, Nietzsche's, non-rational, non-social, of a painter, paternal, of the philosopher, physical, plant, plastic, polyandrous, of the preacher, preening, prophet, of proletarians, provident, psychical, of Puritanism, pursuit, perceptive, rejection, remote, Roman, running, sadistic, of the Satyr, sedimentary, self-abasement, of the objective self, self-sacrifice, sense, of shaking the body, of sheep, shelter, shrinking, silence, of the slave-owner, of the slavophile, of French and English sociologists of to-day, of solitary men, somatic, stalking, strife, success, sucking, suggestion, swimming, teasing, tertiary, town life, unChristian, undeveloped, unitary, unlawful, unsocial, vegetative, vocalization, vulgar, walking, wandering, wild, wily, workmanship.

The present survey of approximately five hundred books and periodicals, representing slightly over four hundred authors employing the concept of instinct, has disclosed no fewer than 849 separate types or variations of types of instincts. Of these, 504 titles or types, were sufficiently distinct to warrant preserving them as separate classification terms in the table although two or more titles were frequently included in one group of related types. Finally, when all condensation had been carried as far as seemed possible— too far, in fact, to preserve all reasonable marks of distinction— there remained

(188) 325 separate or irreducible groups of types or separate classes. If we consider either of these three numerical terms— 848, 504 or 325— to be a proper measure of the number of separate types, we find the number of classes of instincts sanctioned by current usage to be very large indeed. The number of separate classes used by the most extravagant author quoted in the chapter on classifications in this book is only a small fraction of the total number discovered by this analysis. More striking evidence of the chaotic condition of the theory of instinct could scarcely be anticipated.

It will also be observed in consulting the preceding table that these constituent types or classes are by no means mutually exclusive. They overlap and cut across one another in every conceivable direction. However, certain classes and types stand out especially strikingly, thus indicating a considerable uniformity of usage. Among these may be mentioned (to give only the initial or outstanding word in each group) the animal, bad, biological, criminal, crowd, egoistic, family, fear, feminine, fighting, food, gang, good, gregarious, herd, hereditary, human, natural, parental, play, popular, powerful, predatory, primary, primal, racial, religious, reproductive, savage, self-preservative, sexual, simple, social, special and sympathetic groups or classes of instincts. The classes or types of instincts implying association and sympathetic or friendly attitudes, on the one hand, and those implying anti-social action or emotion, on the other hand, bulk largest. Other general groups of classes or types implying civic attitudes, self-advancement, sexual desire or gratification, family, aesthetic, ascetic, and self-display interests were also significantly prominent.

II. Specific Instincts Classified in Groups. These are supposedly specific inherited stimulus-response activities of individuals and are presumably therefore of a biological

(189) character. They occur in the texts in the singular only, while the examples of the preceding list always appeared in the plural. Therefore, the present groups of instincts are specific instances instead of terms of classifications. Again it should be stated that no attempt is made to go beyond the terminology of the writers cited. This classification is made objectively on the basis of the language of the writers themselves. What reservations or exceptions they may have had in mind cannot be definitely ascertained and it is probably worse than useless to speculate regarding such matters. If the term "instinct of imitation" or "imitative instinct" is used, for instance, the compiler is not able to determine whether the idea which was meant to be conveyed is that there is a special mechanism for imitation or whether it is to be supposed that any instinct may be employed in the process of imitation. The presumption would normally be in favor of the former interpretation and that is the assumption here made in classifying these "instincts" as specific. That is, the most obvious meaning of the term is in each case the one applied, unless a contrary interpretation is clearly indicated. In other words, it is assumed, in keeping with the proper definition of instinct, that the instinct or activity concerned is a biological structure and process rather than a social or individual abstraction. These specific instincts are for the sake of convenience grouped under two general headings: (r) Instincts classified in groups according to similarity, and (2) Miscellaneous instincts not easily classifiable. A total of twenty-two groups or classifications have been distinguished, exclusive of the general list of miscellaneous specific instincts. These have been arranged in tables, similar to the table preceding. For the sake of economy of space specific instincts occurring only once are listed alphabetically immediately following the table which contains those instincts occurring in two or more distinct forms or functions.


The twenty-two groups or major classifications here submitted in as many tables are not necessarily the best possible ones that could be made. Other classifications cutting across these might be constructed, under perhaps as many general headings as are contained in the preceding table. However, it seems to the compiler that the usage of the various writers consulted indicates the superiority of the selection and arrangement here offered. Some compilers would doubtless have made a larger number of classifications and corresponding tables. For example, the group of so-called self-assertive instincts might easily have been broken up into major groups such as those of action, self-assertion, self-preservation, ambition, ascendancy, combativeness and egoism. The reader will discover similar possibilities of subdivision in other groups here listed. On the other hand, some compilers would doubtless have combined some of the classifications here presented separately, such as, for example, the recessive and self-abasement groups, or the family and sex classifications. It has been the aim of the present compiler, however, to follow the lead of the current usage, in so far as he could determine it, rather than his own inclinations. He merely presents what he finds, and, in the present chapter at least, does not attempt to indicate either what should be, or the truth or the falsity of the so-called instincts and instinct classifications here given.


The Aesthetic Instincts
Type No.
Aesthetic 1 3 3 12
Art, artistic, appreciation of art 7 13 13 21
Beauty, for the beautiful 3 7 7 8
Cleanliness 1 4 4 4
Dramatic, of dramatist, histrionic 4 15 15 36
Happiness, joy 2 2 2 2
Musical 1 5 5 5
Pleasure, pleasure-pain 2 2 2 4
Poetic, poetry, of poet 3 3 3 3
Rhythm, rhythmic 3 6 6 10
Style 1 4 4 21
Miscellaneous 23 16 16 26
Totals 51 50 51 152

The miscellaneous aesthetic instincts occur as follows: Lamb's fine instinct for apocalyptic passages, Apollinian, appreciation, love of ceremonials, clean-hand, instinct for contrast and harmony in tones and hues, love of festivities, to take pleasure in expressing mental states to others of the species, harmony, humor, literary, love of nature, love of ordeals, mimetic, narrative, instinct of the girl to pat and arrange her hair, personating, Brown's (Charles Brockden) instinct for realistic detail, instinct for the refinements of the feeling of liberty, rhetorical, richness of sound, to sing, symmetry.


The Altruistic Instincts
Type No.
Affection 1 2 2 4
Altruism, act for the good of others, help others 6 16 17 21
Amiable, amenity, friendly, good will 4 2 2 4
Humane, humanitarian 3 4 4 5
Kindliness 1 2 2 2
Love 2 4 4 4
Pacific, peace 2 2 2 2
Pity 1 2 2 2
Protective 6 10 11 13
Sacrifice 2 2 2 2
See others well-off and happy 2 2 2 2
Sympathy 2 18 19 28
Tender, tenderness 3 3 3 19
Miscellaneous g 7 7 11
Totals 44 49 56 119

The specific altruistic instincts not included in the above table are: To avoid unnecessary fuss and suffering, caretaking, "the drayman's instinct of chivalry," instinct of Christianity "to impregnate the meanest man with its soul," "instinct of the desire to liberate the Christian subjects of the Sultan," fighting for mates, generous instinct, instinct to please, to preserve life.


Tha Anti-Social Instincts[6]
Type No.
Aggressive, aggression, attack, hostility 4 3 3 4
Anti-sociability, surly 2 2 2 4
Instinct for blood, sanguinary 2 3 3 3
Brutal, brute 2 4 4 4
Conquer, conquest, subjection, subject others, slave-making 6 7 7 11
Crime, criminal 3 3 4 8
Cruelty 2 5 5 6
Destroy, destruction, destructiveness 6 7 7 22
Egoism, egotism 4 4 4 6
Envy 1 5 5 8
Greed 1 5 5 7
Hate, hatred . 4 5 5 5
Homicide, murder 2 2 2 2
Kill, killing 4 6 6 12
Obstructing, refuse coöperation 2 2 2 2
Persecution, impose 1 3 3 3
Plague, plaguing people 2 1 1 2
Plunder, predaceous, predation, predatory, rapacity, spoils 8 15 15 19
Pursue, pursuit 2 2 2 2
Rage 3 3 3 3
Savage, fierce 3 3 3 3
Selfishness 2 3 3 4
Teasing 1 2 2 2
Theft, fraud, steal, stealing 5 3 3 8
Threatening, threats 2 1 1 3
War, war fever, war-like, delight in war, military, belligerent, conflict, fight for fighting's sake 9 8 8 15
Miscellaneous 17 15 15 17
Totals 100 69 75 185

The miscellaneous instincts in this group distribute as follows: anarchic, instinct for autocracy, base instinct, instinct to catch small objects, instinct of the upper-class Mexicans "to consider themselves as a people apart from the lower classes,"

(194) dislike-and-indifference, instinct to dismember small objects, instinct of human wickedness, of individualism, to inflict pain, isolating instinct, instinct of lust, offensive instinct instinct for the pathological, of a vagabond and outcast, vicious instinct.

The Instincts of Disgust or Repulsion [7]
Type No.
Avoidance 2 2 2 2
Disgust, tactile disgust, visual disgust 6 5 5 15
Push or thrust a disgusting person or object 4 1 1 4
Rejection 2 2 2 2
Repulsion, repulsive 4 11 11 2 2
Retch, vomiting 2 1 1 2
Shake off a disgusting object, shaking 2 1 1 3
Spit out, spitting 3 3 3 5
Turning away the body, eyes or head 4 2 2 6
Miscellaneous 10 3 3 13
Totals 39 21 21 74

The miscellaneous instincts of disgust or repulsion are aversion to blood, food aversion, blowing out, choking, cleansing, ejection, grimacing, personal isolation, shrinking, and shuddering.


The Economic Instincts [8]
Type No.
Accumulation, collection, gathering 8 15 15 60
Acquisition, acquisitiveness 8 36 39 110
Appropriation, appropriative 3 3 3 4
Business, business man's 4 5 5 8
Commercial 2 4 4 4
Cupidity, grabbing 2 2 2 2
Economy 1 4 5 5
Hoard, hoarding, save 4 6 6 12
Ownership, possession, property, proprietary 12 24 25 58
Save, thrift 2 2 3 3
Utility, utilize 2 3 3 3
Miscellaneous 12 10 10 12
Totals 60 69 78 281

The miscellaneous economic instincts are as follows: "The accountant's instinct to put aside realized income in favor of earnings," bargain-helping, barter, competition, earning, economic, l'instinct d'esclavage, the instinct of capital to seek indefinite expansion, l'instinct de salariat, l'instinct de sewage, trading, and the instinct for wealth.

The Ethical Instincts [9]
Type No.
Ethical, moral, morality 7 18 18 23
Fair-play 2 2 2 2
Good, righteousness 2 2 2 2
Honor, honesty, personal integrity 3 3 3 3
Justice 3 8 8 8
Nobleness, which scorns a mean act 2 2 2 2
Miscellaneous 8 7 7 8
Totals 27 35 56 48

(196) The miscellaneous ethical instincts are the instincts for compensation, decency, duty to fellow man, enforcement of law, of a gentleman, of leaving another man's home alone, and "that things belong to those who most need or can best use them."

The Family Instincts [10]
Type No.
Brooding, incubation, nesting, setting 4 6 6 15
Care of offspring, feed the young 12 8 9 17
Defend family, fighting for mates, guard family 3 3 3 3
Fly to deposit eggs on meat for larvae to feed on; in gravel of shallow brook 2 2 2 2
Domestic, domesticity, domestic affections 3 6 6 6
Egg-laying 2 2 2 2
Family; family affection, life, love; loyalty; durable alliances 12 16 16 27
Filial, filial affection, infantile response to maternal impulse, react to parents 4 5 5 5
Follow the mother, following the hen 2 2 2 3
Fondle, pet 2 1 1 2
Home, home-making, housing 4 7 7 8
Of mother and young to know each other by call, odor 2 1 1 2
Maternal; maternal affection, love; maternity, mother, motherhood 14 41 44 114
Parental; parental affection, aid, love; parenthood 7 38 43 185
Paternal, paternal love 2 7 7 11
Tender; tender emotion, feeling 4 3 3 7
Miscellaneous 4 4 4 4
Totals 83 82 91 413

The family instincts here classified as miscellaneous are the feminine instinct of desire for children, kin-instinct, love for young, and singing to young.


The Fear and Flight Instincts [11]
Type No.
Avoidance of danger 3 3 3 3
Call out, crying, crying for help, screaming, wailing 6 5 5 9
Clinging, clutching . 3 3 3 4
Concealment, hide, hiding 4 6 6 18
Distrust, suspicion 2 3 3 3
Escape from danger, from restraint; flight, to flee; retire, run away, running 15 22 23 59
Fear, fearing; cat-, mouse-, precipice-, snake- fear 114 32 35 129
Immobility, lying flat on ground, paralysis, rigidity, sham death 7 4 4 11
Secretiveness r 4 4 5
Seek safety 2 2 2 2
Shrink, shrinking 5 4 4 9
Shyness 1 5 5 6
Miscellaneous 24 13 13 29
Totals 87 52 55 287

The miscellaneous fear and flight instincts include an instinct of some catastrophe, of the spider to cover its nest, of contraction, of crouching when startled, for the dangers attendant upon a spirit of expenditure, of fighting at bay, to get closer to companions, an instinct which "forbids the Turkish peasant to inhabit a lonely farmhouse," irrational response of pain, the instinct of the rabbit for leaping over pursuing dogs, the instinct which prompts us to rush out of a theater when some one shouts that it is on fire," of pushing away, of a jack rabbit to run in a circle before a coyote, of security, to seek assistance, shaking, of silence, to go to sleep under cover, of young mocking-birds to go into spasms at the sight of an owl or a cat, of starting back, of swerving suddenly from a suspicious rustling, trembling, and of turning back from a, pursuing animal.


The Food Instincts [12]
Type No.
Biting 1 2 2 5
Carrying objects to the mouth 2 2 2 4
Chase, catch food 2 3 3 5
Chewing, chew gum 2 3 3 5
Eat, eating; eating eggs, grass, meat 5 6 6 10
Feed, feeding 3 5 5 17
Fish, fishing 2 2 2 2
Food; gathering, getting, gorging, seeking, selecting food 8 13 13 26
Grinding the teeth 1 2 2 2
Hunger 2 16 18 33
Hunting, trapping 3 21 21 44
Nurse, nursing, sucking 4 13 13 19
Nutrition, nutritive, nourishment 3 10 10 18
Pecking, pick up and swallow small objects 3 7 7 it
Thirst 2 2 2 2
Miscellaneous 21 7 7 25
Totals 64 59 65 228

The miscellaneous food instincts consist of an instinct of the protozoan to absorb smaller creatures which contain nutriment, of the monkey to crack an egg against his upper teeth, instinct of "a positive chemotropism of the mother insect for the type of substance serving her as food," instinct of the sea anemone to close its tentacles over its prey, instinct of insects to "crawl directly upward on the shrub where they find the leaves on which they feed," of the monkey to hold the eggshell up to the light to see that there is no longer anything in it, of an insect to lay its eggs on a substance which serves as food, to lay up stores for winter, for intoxication, killing, looking for food, provisioning instinct of the solitary wasp, instinct of the monkey to pull the covering from a nut, roving instinct (in search of food), instinct of the fish to seize its prey by direct motion, of the monkey to suck the substance from an egg, swallowing instinct, instinct of the eagle to swoop on the rab-

(199) -bit, of the monkey to throw away an empty egg-shell, tasting instinct, and "an instinct of the Jew against Terefa, unclean food. e., unfit for consumption by the Chosen People, or prepared by non-Jews."

The Gregarious or Social Instincts [13]
Type No.
Adaptation, adaptive 2 2 2 3
Association, contact, society 6 8 9 11
Brotherhood, clan, clannishness, kind, solidarity 9 8 10 16
Communicative 2 2 2 2
Companionship, fellowship, sociable, sociability 7 15 15 28
Conformity, conform to law, conventionality, form 4 5 5 7
Cooperation, mutual aid, stand together, work in harmony 9 9 9 10
Democratic, democracy . 4 8 8 10
Ethnical isolation, ethnical separation 2 2 2 2
Fidelity; loyalty to individuals, society, state, native soil; public spirit 6 8 8 18
Gang, gang-life, gang-forming 4 6 6 11
Government, governmental 2 2 2 2
Gregarious, huddling 6 37 41 133
Group, group-action, group-forming, group self-preservation 9 12 13 17
Herd, herding, herd-preservation; masses, mob 12 24 27 146
Hospitality 2 2 2 2
For law, order; against social disturbance 3 2 2 3
For the majority, mediocrity, regularity 3 3 3 3
National; nationalism, nationality; national life, pride, self-preservation 9 11 12 16
Party, partizanship 2 2 2 2
Patriotism, devotion to state, love of native land, civic pride 6 8 8 19
Of the people, popular 5 4 4 8
Political 3 6 6 7
Race; race prejudice, purity, safety; of the breed 6 13 13 27
Social 5 65 71 170
Of the species, struggle for life of species 2 2 1 3
tribal 4 3 3 4
Miscellaneous 15 15 15 17
Totals 149 150 172 697


(200) The fifteen miscellaneous types of gregarious or social instincts are as follows: instinct of a common origin, of confidence, to be controlled by the common sentiment of their fellows, low demagogic instinct, hive instinct, instinct of the socialists towards international relationships, local attachment, moral unity, an instinct which creates the social life of an ant-hill, Augustus' wonderful instinct as a social reformer, instinct of social self-preservation, of social selfishness, of social service, to exact unified conduct even at the cost of coercion.

The Intellectual Instincts [14]
Type No.
Critical 2 2 2 2
Curiosity, inquisitive 5 38 41 138
Dialectic, discussion 2 2 2 2
Discover, divine, divining, invention, investigate 6 3 3 8
Experiment, explore 2 2 2 3
Generalizing, for theory 2 2 2 2
Historical, historical method 2 3 3 3
Intelligence, exercise intelligence 3 3 3 3
To judge, juridical, decide rightly 3 3 3 3
Know, knowing, knowledge, learning 4 4 4 4
Logical, parsimonious instinct of the human mind, dissecting and reconstructing vital problems 3 3 3 3
Mathematical 1 2 2 2
Mental, mental activity, mental control 5 3 3 15
Order 2 2 2 2
Purpose 2 2 2 2
Ratiocination, reasoning, reflection, speculative, theoretic, thinking, thought 9 8 8 11
Scientific 2 4 4 4
true, truth 3 3 3 3
Wonder 7 2 2 2
Miscellaneous 47 30 31 50
Totals 106 80 86 262

(201) The miscellaneous intellectual instincts are both numerous and, for the most part, unusual. They are as follows: Instinct of astuteness, to choose immediate ends, of comparative method, the German instinct for comprehension, instinct of the "conviction that it is better to bear the evils they have grown accustomed to, through long, even though bitter experience, than to take the risks that may be involved in new ones," of the demand for sociology, "that instinct which has hitherto recognized the vital necessity to ourselves of maintaining this doctrine (of the native equality of man) in its most uncompromising form," educative instinct, "the thoroughly English instinct that what a man cannot earn, or get for himself, he does not deserve," the politician's "unfailing instinct for exhausting every wrong device before trying the obviously right one," instinct for the expert, to find this place, "that instinct . . . which has consistently insisted that it is only through the aid of the law that unskilled labor can ever be enfranchised in its relation to capital," "a profound instinct (which) arms them (the English) against intelligence, which they recognize as the greatest foe to action," the instinct "that nothing else than the general will consciously acting under a sense of responsibility to principles transcending all the claims of existing competitors, and acting, therefore, in the interests of the process of our social evolution as a whole, can ever hold the stage open and free in the conditions in which we see modern industrial competition tending universally towards monopoly control," "instinct for picking . . . (scraps of thought) out at sight from a mass of rubbish," "the instinct of those who desire some higher authority which will prevent war," "Pure instinct of principles,'' the sociologists "instinct of the oneness of all knowledge about men," "the instinct . . . that prompts him to tell his brother what he thinks, " the instinct to recognize the justice of the demand of India and Egypt for self-governing institutions, to

(202) regulate and harmonize the instincts concerned in the life of the larger social groups, "instinct of the one animal to relate the other animal to aggression or harmless agencies in his surroundings," "the mind is a rule-demanding instinct," empiric instinct of rule of thumb, instinct of the scholar, "some instinct told us that this (that right of self-determination does not apply within the British Empire) was the case," "instinct that there is something wrong in our social machinery and that society is gravitating toward a crisis, " of choosing sides through leadership, "a sound instinct that led Mill to take up the problem of distribution before taking up the problem of value," "instinct that something in the (industrial) system is profoundly wrong," "the nation showed a sound instinct in supporting the constitutional party," "a sure instinct tells him what is intellectually bad, " "with the surest instinct he brings into prominence and analyzes each symptom of the ailment," instinct of tact, "an instinct which tells me that death plays its part in life," "some instinct taught Washington that his present lack of money would be an obstruction, though possibly not a bar to his hopes, " "instinct to test themselves in terrible trials," "some instinct had told him from the beginning that this was a bad man, an evil-minded man," instinct of understanding self, "that unerring instinct which makes the common people hit on just the right word," unifying instinct, "instinct of the unwillingness of men . . . to marry and bring up families in a state of life lower than that in which they themselves were born," instinct of utility in personal eclecticism, of visual exploration, "our English instinct which warns us against being sure that things are what to the unaided intelligence they seem to be," instinct to watch.


The Imitative Instincts [15]
Type No.
Imitation, imitative, mimicry 11 29 33 85
Suggestion, suggestibility 2 2 2 3
Miscellaneous 3 3 3 3
Totals 16 32 34 91

The miscellaneous instincts of imitation are "a general copying instinct," instinct to follow the occupation of the father, and "an instinct that leads one to do as others do."

The Migratory and Climatic Instincts [16]
Type No.
Hibernate 2 1 r 2
Home-finding, homing 5 5 6 15
Migration, migratory 8 21 21 28
Nomadic, roaming 2 2 2 3
Runaway, running-away 2 r r 2
Wander, wandering, wanderlust 3 4 4 4
Miscellaneous 9 2 2 10
Totals 31 28 29 64

The miscellaneous migratory and climatic instincts include the instinct of geese to call loudly as they go, climatic instinct, the instinct of the bobolink to fly mostly in the night, of geese to fly far, of geese to fly high, of the dog to find his way home at night by the sense of smell, periodic instinct, the instinct of geese to range themselves in wedge-shaped flocks, and of the bobolink to straggle away one at a time.


The Play Instincts [17]
Type No.
Adventure, change 4 3 3 7
Chasing, being chased 2 2 2 2
Doll 2 1 1 2
Gambling, lottery, speculative 4 8 8 15
Play, recreation, sport 15 48 51 122
Miscellaneous 17 9 10 20
Totals 44 57 61 168

The relatively numerous miscellaneous play instincts occur as follows: clog and jig dancing, to conceal, daydreaming, foolhardiness, Get-rich-quick-Wallingford instinct, instinct for a good time, to hunt for hunting's sake, of parrots to imitate the sounds they hear, of the shrike to impale small birds and beetles on the thorns about its nest, juvenile instinct (for play), instinct to make a noise, of young beasts to have mimic fights, "to people the darkness or an unfrequented wood with nameless monsters," the romantic instinct of youth, of the boy to run to fires, of parrots to talk, and of young beasts to wrestle.

The Recessive and Repose Instincts 18
Type No.
Ascetic, asceticism 2 1 1 4
Aversion to novelty, conservative 2 3 3 4
Comfort, repose, rest 3 3 3 3
Conserve, conservation 5 4 4 5
Isolation, love of solitude, privacy 3 3 3 4
Shelter, sheltering 3 1 1 4
Sleep r 2 2 2
Stay put, remain where born, take same course just taken, uphold status quo 4 4 4 4
Miscellaneous 3 3 3 0
Totals 26 19 19 36


(205) The miscellaneous recessive and repose instincts are the disinterested instinct, instinct to inactivity, and the instinct to root himself to the soil.

The Religious Instincts [19]
Type No.
Faith, against reason 4 2 2 4
Future life, immortality 2 2 2 2
Regard a higher power 1 2 2 2
Religion, religious, reverence 8 24 25 55
Superstition 1 2 2 4
Worship 3 5 5 5
Miscellaneous 11 8 8 11
Totals 30 34 36 83

The miscellaneous religious instincts are very similar to those listed above. They are the animistic instinct, instinct of Christianity, the English instinct to begloom Sunday, "the instinct in man to grow upward toward the light of his ideals, as a flower toward the sun," the English instinct to hallow Sunday, "the instinct . . . that moves the socialists who have become social reformers to cling to their earlier vision and intone, as of old, their imprecatory psalms," instinct of praise, "an instinct in us tells us that in this way alone (through experience) we come into conscious relation with God," "an instinct for something more sacramental," instinct for the supernatural, and an instinct of theology.


The Retaliative Instincts [20]
Type No.
Anger 5 15 15 37
Antagonism, attack 4


3 4
Defensive, self-defensive 5 6 6 9
Defiance, contradiction 2 2 2 5
Getting even, retaliation 2 2 2 2
Fight enemies, etc.; vindictive pugnacity 4 4 4 4
Rebel, rebellion, revolt 3 4 4 4
Resentment 2 5 5 8
Resistance, impatience with restraint, struggle 5 4 4 5
Revenge, retribution, "blood demands blood," destroy what injures us 6 10 10 15
Miscellaneous 3 1 1 3
Totals 41 45 47 96

The miscellaneous retaliative instincts are the instincts of the horse to kick, of some foxes to skulk in a circle, and of sheep to stamp. Perhaps the last two are more properly fear instincts. In fact, all three of the miscellaneous instincts are closely related to fear, as are all retaliative responses.


The Self Abasement Instincts [21]
Type No.
Acquiescence, bending 2 2 2 2
Approbation, seek approval 5 4 4 5
Confession, consultation 2 2 2 2
Embarrassment, modesty, shame 3 2 2 5
Following, giving the lead 4 6 6 8
Homage, obeisance 2 1 1 2
Keep out of sight, reticence 2 2 2 2
Negative self-feeling 1 2 2 2
Obedience, obey 4 6 6 6
Sacrifice, self-sacrifice, self-effacement, self- forgetfulness, self-neglecting 6 7 7 10
Self-abasement 1 18 18 46
Self-subjection, self-subordination, secondary role 5 7 8 19
Submission, submissive, submit 5 9 9 16
Withdrawal, yield 2 2 2 2
Miscellaneous 9 9 9 12
Totals 53 47 50 139

The miscellaneous self-abasement instincts comprise the following specific types: an instinct in men to admire what is better and more beautiful than themselves, awe, feminine sex instinct of protection-seeking, restraining instinct, instinct that vowed poverty, instinct for self-torture, peculiar instinct of sorrow, "Oswald's instinct never to `talk down' to man, woman or child," and "the instinct of women, that they all worship strength in whatever form, and seem to know it to be the child of heaven."


The Self Assertive Instincts [22]
Type No.
Action, active, activity, do things 9 10 10 77
Aggrandizement, ascendency, authority, being a cause, command, control, domination, imperial, imperious, manage, mastery, overcoming, power, rule, supremacy 41 32 35 59
Ambition, careerist, careeristina, success 8 13 13 18
Combat, fighting, pugnacious, pugnacity 18 58 67 294
Competition, competitive, emulation, rivalry 7 20 22 51
Discipline, condemn 2 2 2 2
Egoistic, personality, pride, self, self-feeling, gratification 21 30 30 56
Elation 2 1 1 2
Expansion; persevere; self-advancement, betterment, assertion 11 35 38 85
Freedom, liberty 3 4 5 7
Individualistic, independent, individual rights 4 7 7 18
Leaders, leadership 6 8 8 11
Life, to live, health 8 112 12 15
Preservative, life-preservative 7 7 7 8
Organizing 2 2 2 2
Regulative 1 2 2 2
Self-preservation, maintenance, protection; security 16 66 74 152
Survival 3 2 2 6
Cling to land a little longer and give it one more chance 1 1 1 1
Totals 170 140 161 806


The Self-Display Instincts [23]
Type No.
Adornment, clothes, dress, ornament 6 6 6 7
Babbling, making sounds, oratory, vocalization 4 4 4 7
Display, display knowledge; self-display 3 15 15 40
Distinction, distinctions, rank 6 7 7 8
Exhibitionist, self-exhibition, showing off 4 6 6 8
Expression, expressive, self-expression 4 9 9 21
Ostentation, for the theatrical 2 3 3 4
Sing, singing 2 2 2 2
Vanity r 3 3 5
Miscellaneous 5 2 2 5
Totals 37 33 34 107

The miscellaneous self-display instincts are the instincts for appearance and beauty in women and three instincts of the fish: to intensify his pigmented colors through muscular tension, to spread his fins, and to strut before the female.


The Sex Instincts [24]
Type No.
Amorous, erotic 3 3 3 3
Anadromous, ascend river to breed (salmon) 2 1 1 2
Animal, carnal, physical (implying sex) 4 4 4 6
Antisexual, isolate the sexes 2 2 2 3
Avoid close inbreeding against incest, against marriage of near kin 4 5 5 10
Chastity 2 3 3 4
Continue the race, create offspring, genetic, preservation of species, procreative, propagation, race-perpetuating, race-preservation, reproduction, reproductive, self-perpetuation, spawn 17 45 47 119
Copulation 2 2 2 2
Coquetry, coyness, "flirt in legitimate and decent ways" 3 3 3 3
Courting, courtship, wooing 5 5 5 6
Draws parents to each other, falling in love 3 3 3 3
Female, feminine 2 2 2 2
Fight, struggle for possession of female 2 1 x 2
Repugnance to hybridization, against pairing with individuals of another species 2 2 2 5
Jealousy, sexual jealousy 2 13 13 18
Love, loving, sexual love 10 17 20 53
Lust, passion 3 4 4 5
Male, masculine 2 2 2 2
Marriage among animals, mate, mating, pairing 7 19 20 33
Modesty, sexual modesty, shame 3 4 4 6
Monogamous 4 3 3 5
Philoprogenitive, philoprogenitiveness 2 2 2 4
Purity, female purity 2 1 1 2
Sex, sexual, sexuality 31 99 114 539
Miscellaneous 11 10 10 16
Totals 130 126 147 853

The miscellaneous sexual instincts are recorded as the algolagnic instinct, "the old instinct and fear of the connubium

(211) of patricians and plebeians, of the European nobility and the common people, or of the castes of India," of contrectation, detumescence, exogamy, the gynecocratic instinct, to prevent injurious unions, match-making instinct, Baudelaire's pathological sex instinct, instinct of the desire of possession, and the instinct to see a young woman.


Type No.
Architectonic, architectural 2 2 2 5
Building, construction, constructiveness 20 41 44 103
tree-climbing 2 1 1 2
Contrivance, tool-using 5 5 6 9
Creation, creative, innovating, planning 5 14 14 17
Devise, do things, experimentation 4 3 3 4
Labor, work 4 2 2 4
Manipulation 1 3 3 7
Mechanical 1 2 2 2
Occupational, professional, craft 5 6 6 8
Spinning 2 2 2 2
Workmanship, craftsmanship 5 27 32 96
Miscellaneous 7 7 7 7
Totals 63 81 89 266

The miscellaneous workmanship instincts are the instinct of an accomplished actor, to economize effort by limiting individual caprice and random experiment, to make beautiful things, teleological instinct, instinct to turn words to profit, to utilize experiments, and to write.


Type No.
Climb, climbing 2 3 3 6
Crawling, creeping 2 7 7 10
Diving, diving in birds 2 1 1 2
Grasp, grasping 3 6 6 12
Heliotropic 6 4 4 7
Improvement, onward, progressive 3 2 2 3
Laughing, smiling 2 3 3 5
Locomotion, motor, spontaneous movement 3 3 3 6
Love of sea, sea-lust, thalassophilia 3 2 2 4
Prehension 2 2 2 3
Putting objects into mouth 2 3 3 3
Reaching 2 2 2 8
Run, running 2 3 3 4
Russia, Russian 2 2 2 2
Sitting, sitting up 2 3 3 5
Swallowing 2 2 2 2
Swimming 3 6 6 10
Throwing, throwing things about 3 2 2 3
Walk, walking 2 5 5 8
Miscellaneous 96 46 50 126
Totals 144 62 66 229

The miscellaneous or ungrouped instincts of this classification are as follows: adaptation to change, instinct of the anti-realists, of approach, "an instinct to avoid eating the apples that grew in one's own orchard," "an instinct of being in contact with some strange and unsafe thing," of breaking out of the (chick's) shell, to breathe, bureaucratic, to bury their heads under their wings, burying bones, the dog's instinct of burying his excrement, to choke off discussion, to coil up, for comic situation, cooing, corporalia, craving for space, curio instinct, "to deal with things that had life and movement and significance," to defecate, of desire for results, for

(213) doing the wrong thing, of the eternity of life, of a fly-catcher, for following a moving object, of a free people, to get back to nature, to gaze into the fire, to get up in the morning, "the natural instinct of men that are conscious of their dependence on leadership is to give to those that already have," grinding the teeth, gurgling, habitation, Hellenic, of health, holding the head erect, of the Jew driving him " to seek the destruction, in his European environment, of all esteem for tradition, of all devotion for religion, of recognition of any hierarchy whatsoever," to insert the fingers into crannies to dislodge small animals hidden there, " Jefferson's instinct to keep the government close to the people," land instinct, local instinct, instinct of the neurones to lose those connections by which neurones "unready to conduct" are stimulated, "the instinct which made the Germans somewhat contemptible in the world of conflicts," mammalian instinct, instinct to move toward the anode, muscle instinct, newspaper instinct, instinct of the notion of hell, of nurture, occult instinct, "the old-world instinct against private contracts with the gods," instinct for out-of-door life, "that popular instinct which evaluates moral, juridical and political innovations in economic terms, if not in actual money," instinct of honest passion, of organization, to perch on boughs for personification, pointing instinct, instinct of the powers of non-governmental interests, instinct to prefer, "of neurones to preserve those connections by which neurones ready to conduct are stimulated," instinct for public work, of protruding lips, pulling instinct, of pulling to pieces, pushing, of raising the upper lip, blind instinct to realize again the conditions of primitive man, the revolutionary Jew's instinct, Pershing's "instinct as to what was the true role of an American commander," of rubbing the eyes, "empiric instinct of rule of thumb," of seizing, of lack of sensibility to social approval or disapproval, settling instinct, Simian instinct, of the sinuous move-

(214) ment of snakes, to sleep with our feet toward the light, somatic, "some sailor's instinct to stretch our sails to every breeze of hope," sounding instinct, of standing, of the Steppe, for striking, the roe's sure-footed instinct, telepathic instinct, to tingle and glow, touching instinct, of a town stroller, "the instinct planted so deeply in human nature for treating with utmost care and at great expense when dead those, who, when alive, have been served with careless parsimony," un-lovelike instinct, of vocalization, weeping, winking, of a woodpecker, to work with the best efforts of the whole personality.

Various problems have arisen in connection with the process of condensing the several classifications which appear in the tables of specific instincts. Some of the classifications condensed easily, very few instincts being left over for the miscellaneous category, or the number of separate groups being small in proportion to the total number of instincts included. Others show either a very large proportion of the constituent instincts in the miscellaneous group or a very large number of constituent groups. The Self-assertion instincts condensed most easily and the Intellectual least easily of all. Perhaps that is what one should expect, remembering that aggression calls for concentration of effort and that thought demands the widest possible receptivity to relevant stimuli. Perhaps in some cases greater condensation would have been possible than was accomplished, as, for example, in the case of the anti-social and gregarious instincts. But there was always present the problem of keeping the constituent groups within the general classifications sufficiently distinct and independent to preserve their identity. It is by no means certain that this aim has been accomplished.

In several cases the question arose as to which general classification certain groups of instincts should be assigned.

(215) This caused no little difficulty, because the general classifications themselves overlap at a number of points. The egoism, egotism, selfishness and war groups were included under the Anti-social classification, when they might also have been grouped under Self-assertion. In fact, some of the ego-instincts are included in both general classifications, the criterion being the meaning of each constituent type as indicated by the contexts. A similar problem arose with respect to the flight instincts. In some cases these belong to the Fear classification and in other cases to some other general classification, but, since such distinctions could not be clearly determined, all flight instincts were listed under the general category of Fear. The secretiveness, shrinking and shyness groups were also included under Fear, instead of being classified as Recessive or Self-abasement instincts. Possibly the instinct of conservation should have gone under the Economic category, instead of with the Recessive instincts.

The number of Ethical instincts found in the literature is relatively small, a fact which probably indicates a fairly widespread recognition that ethical attitudes are more or less thought out and are acquired. The Imitative instincts also constitute a small group. Very few psychologists and social scientists any longer speak of instincts of imitation. The largest single classification of instincts is that pertaining to sex and reproduction. It may seem surprising that this group should have proved to be larger than the food or self-assertion or gregariousness categories. Possibly the sex instincts were so much in the social consciousness of the writers here consulted because sex functioning is more repressed than the functions represented by the other categories with which sex is compared, a fact which would tend to bring it more into social consciousness. Also the so-called sex instincts are more nearly or more frequently genuine instincts than those of any other category or classification.

( 216)

The propriety of grouping climatic and migratory instincts together may be called in question. The chief justification for doing so is that Jordan and Kellogg, in whose work [27] one-half of all the types and practically one-fourth of all the citations are to be found, make this combination. The self-abasement and recessive instincts are, in many respects, very similar. To some it will appear that both of these groups should be included under the Self-abasement category. However, it is the intention to distinguish between the two groups by including under the Recessive classification all of those so-called instincts which imply inactivity and under the Self-abasement classification those which indicate a feeling of inferiority or self-denial. Similarly, it is not always easy to distinguish clearly between self-assertive and retaliative instincts, for the former classification necessarily includes the latter. It may appear that the whole list of instincts classified as self-display in character might have been distributed to the Self-assertive, Esthetic, Sex and Play categories. At many points, also, the Workmanship instincts overlap with the Intellectual. On the whole, however, there are probably more points in favor of the classificatory disposition here made of the specific instincts than can be found opposing it.

The results regarding the specific instincts here included and discussed are presented in part in tabular form.



Type No.
(Esthetic 51 50 51 152
Altruistic 44 49 56 119
Anti-Social 100 69 75 185
Disgust or Repulsion 39 21 21 74
Economic 60 69 78 281
Ethical 27 35 36 48
Family 83 82 91 413
Fear and Flight 86 52 55 287
Food 64 59 65 228
Gregarious or Social 149 150 172 697
Intellectual 106 80 86 262
Imitative 16 32 34 91
Migratory and Climatic 31 28 29 64
Play 44 57 61 168
Recessive and Repose 26 19 19 36
Religious 30 34 36 83
Retaliative 41 45 47 96
Self-Abasement 53 47 50 139
Self-Assertive 170 140 161 806
Self-Display 37 33 34 107
Sex 130 126 147 853
Workmanship 63 81 89 266
Miscellaneous 144 62 66 229
Grand Totals 1594 323 388 568

The following table shows the relative frequency of occurrence of the various kinds of instincts as indicated by the classifications adopted. It shows also the relative frequency with which these instincts are used by different authors. It is interesting to note that some of the instincts which occur in large numbers are made use of by relatively few writers, and vise Versa. Thus, reduced to percentage bases and comparing the four categories of types, authors, books, and cases, we find some very interesting results, which are rendered sufficiently obvious by the table itself.



Comparison of Instincts by Types, Authors,  Books and Cases Comparison of Instincts by Major Classifications
Types Authors Books Cases Types Authors Books Cases
Esthetic . 100 98 100 298 196 (319) [28] 263 268 422
Altruistic 100 111 127 270 165 (275) 258 295 331
Anti-Social . 100 69 75 185 385 (625) 363 395 514
Disgust 100 54 54 190 150 (244) 111 111 206
Economic 100 115 130 468 231 (375) 363 411 781
Ethical 100 130 133 178 104 (231) 184 189 133
Family 100 99 110 498 319 (519) 432 479 1147
Fear 100 60 64 334 331 (537) 274 289 797
Food 100 92 101 356 246 (400) 311 342 633
Gregarious 100 101 115 468 573 (931) 789 905 1936
Intellectual . 100 75 81 247 408 (662) 421 453 728
Imitative 100 200 212 569 62 (100) 168 179 253
Migratory 100 90 94 206 119 (194) 147 153 178
Play 100 130 134 382 169 (275) 300 321 467
Recessive 100 73 73 138 100 (162) 100 100 100
Religious 100 113 120 277 115 (187) 179 189 231
Retaliative . 100 110 115 234 158 (256) 237 247 267
Sef-Abasement 100 89 94 262 204 (231) 247 263 386
Self-Assertive 100 82 95 474 654 (1062) 737 847 2239
Self-Display 100 89 92 289 142 (231) 174 179 297
Sex 100 97 113 656 500(812) 663 774 2369
Workmanship 100 120 141 422 242(394) 426 468 739
Miscellaneous 100 43 46 159 554 (900) 326 347 636
Grand Totals 100 20 24 357 6131 (9962) 1700 2042 15,789

III. Indefinite and Peculiar Instincts. The nature of these so-called instincts has been sufficiently discussed in Chapter VII to enable the reader to understand that they are not specific instincts, like those classified in the several tables in

(219) section two above, but are merely characterizations of me qualities or nature or origin of such instincts. Thus we find such terms as acquired, base, inherited, crude, indefinite, natural, fine, primitive, general, specific, instincts among them. By far the larger number of the terms in this third category or general grouping are of this indefinite or qualitative sort. But here also are placed the non-specific peculiar instincts illustrated in Chapter VII. Space does not permit of the presentation of a complete list of these indefinite and peculiar instincts, because of the large number of them. They constitute approximately one-seventh of the total number of types and more than one-seventh of the total occurrences of all instincts. They are found in approximately five-eighths of all the authors and their books. The totals by count, corresponding in form to the tables presented above, are indicated in the table below.

Types Authors Books Cases
843 255 310 2238

IV. Instinctive Attitudes. Under this heading are included all activity or attitudinal processes containing the terms "instinctive" and "instinctively," instead of "instinct." Also included here are the same types of patterns when characterized in the text as native, innate, congenital, inherited, or inherent, when clearly the same thing is meant as if the terms instinctive or instinctively had been used. The list of these terms is very large, running approximately two hundred type written pages. It is, therefore, not possible to publish the findings in respect to this class of terms. The samples given in chapter VII, must serve to indicate their nature. In character they parallel closely the general groups of instincts and the specific instincts classified and listed in sections one and two of this chapter. On account of the great amount of time neces-

(220) -sarily involved in such a procedure no attempt has been made to group these attitudes in classifications paralleling those presented above. It seems, however, judging from a close general acquaintance with their content, that they would distribute numerically in much the same way as the corresponding instincts included in the preceding tables. Since each instinctive attitude or activity process must itself be essentially an instinct under another name, this group of processes might properly have been included in the totals of sections one and two above. But, several conditions, especially that of avoiding a confusing variation in terminology, appeared to justify their classification separately. They are more numerous than the indefinite and peculiar instincts, falling short, with respect to numbers, of the specific instincts only. Their totals, in the form adopted above, are as follows:

Types Authors Books Cases
2474 297 357 3585

It is now possible to make a grand summary of all of the four classes of instincts and instinctive attitudes,[29] true and false, which have been discussed in the preceding portions of this chapter. This summary follows:


General groups of instincts, totals 849 250 295 2539
Specific instincts, totals 1594 323 388 5684
Indefinite and particular instincts, totals 843 255 310 2238
Instinctive totals 2474 297 357 3585
Grand totals 5759 412 495 14,046


  1. The Foundations of Sociology, 309.
  2. While the biologists have not made a considerable use of the term instinct, the psychologists have employed this term to cover the biologists' concept of inheritance as it applies to the field of animal behavior. Instinct and inherited action patterns are identical concepts. Thus instinct is an aspect of inheritance.
  3. Several years ago a biologist of some standing remarked to the writer that it was to be regretted that the biologists had so largely neglected the human field and left it to the wild guesses of the sociologists.
  4. See workmanship, self-display, play, sex, self-assertion instincts.
  5. See the gregarious, family, ethical, self-abasement, sex instincts.
  6. See the retaliative, self-assertive, sex, fear and flight, disgust instincts.
  7. See the aesthetic, fear, food, sex, self-abasement, recessive instincts.
  8. See the self-assertive, food, family, workmanship, play, self-abasement, intellectual, anti-social instincts.
  9. See the gregarious, self-abasement, altruistic, family, intellectual, aesthetic instincts.
  10. See sex, food, altruistic, gregarious, ethical, self-abasement instincts.
  11. See self-abasement, recessive, self-assertive, family, anti-social instincts.
  12. See the family, play, disgust, anti-social, self-assertive, altruistic instincts.
  13. See altruistic, ethical, family, self-abasement, sex instincts.
  14. See the workmanship, ethical, aesthetic, self-display, self-assertive, self-abasement instincts.
  15. See the play, food, gregarious, self-assertive, aesthetic altruistic instincts.
  16. See the play, food, gregarious, workmanship, sex instincts.
  17. See the imitation, food, aesthetic, workmanship, self-assertive, intellectual, self-display, sex, anti-social, fear instincts.
  18. See the self-abasement, fear, economic instincts.
  19. See self-abasement, ethical, fear, recessive, aesthetic, self-assertive, altruistic, family, play, anti-social instincts.
  20. See the anti-social, self-assertive, fear instincts.
  21. See the recessive, religious, altruistic, gregarious, fear, ethical, and sex instincts.
  22. See the retaliative, anti-social, play, sex, food, fear, migratory, religious instincts.
  23. See the aesthetic, self-assertive, sex, play, and imitative instincts.
  24. See the aesthetic, self-assertive, sex, play, and imitative instincts.
  25. See the intellectual, aesthetic, play, sex, self-display, self-assertive instincts.
  26. Those instincts which could not be assimilated to any other classification.
  27. Animal Life.
  28. The recessive instincts are taken as the index base for the comparison of occurrence frequency in the several categories. But, since the imitative instincts have a smaller number of types than the recessive, the indices of frequency computed from the base of the type occurrence of the imitative instincts are given in parenthesis.
  29. A fifth group, including a literary use of the term instinct referred to in Chap. VII, involving the phrase "instinct with . . . ," has been omitted because only approximately one hundred to one hundred fifty cases were found.

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