A Report on Vocational Training in Chicago and in Other Cities
Chapter 5: Industrial Schools and Courses in Chicago
This chapter presents - I, a description, with comments, of public industrial schools and courses in Chicago; II, an outline statement of present provisions for public industrial education in day schools in Chicago and in five other cities, viewing each city as a whole; and III, a description of some private industrial schools in Chicago. All the schools described were visited by the writer.
I- PUBLIC INDUSTRIAL SCHOOLS AND COURSES
1. In the Chicago high schools four years of manual or technical training are offered in each of three schools. In eleven other high schools one year of manual training is offered at present. The school administration is working toward the plan of having the first two Years of manual training and vocational courses in all high schools except the three technical high schools, which " will receive those pupils only who wish to continue their vocational work after two years and will give them advanced technical training beyond that now offered in the technical high schools of Chicago."
Before the school year of 1910-11 the work of the three technical high schools was in what may be regarded as a stage of transition from purely manual training work to truly technical work. For, in the first place, a considerably larger potion of the school time has been given to shopwork and drawing than is given to these subjects in the usual manual-training school, and yet this amount of time is not sufficient to adequately meet the needs of technical education in the high school.
In the second place. the shopwork differs from that done in the usual manual training high school, in that the projects made partake less of the character of mere "exercises" and more of the character of articles of real use.
In addition to the usual manual training " exercises," pieces of furniture, and articles for ornament, the following objects for more practical use were made in one technical high school in 1909-10: 6 speed lathes, 1 two-cylinder engine, 20 metal counting slates for blind children, 3 metal clock faces for neighboring school, electric motors (complete), 35 molder's benches (iron), turning chisels, machine tools, and various parts of machines. For the year 1410-11, machinery and furniture to the value of $3,000 to $5,00(sic) was being made for the Board of Education.
In another technical high school the following products were under construction in 1909-10: 6 speed lathes, 12 jack screws, 6 high-speed drillpresses, 13 marine engines, electric motor, 2 rheostats, iron pulleys, machine tools, and various parts of machines.
In the third technical high school comparatively little work of the above character is done.
It should be added. that a semester course has been given in the fourth year, in elementary engineering or electrical construction, which is technical in character.
In the third place, comparatively little has been done in relating the academic instruction to the shopwork and to industrial needs.
Only one of the three technical high schools, so far as could be learned, has done definitely planned work of this kind in day classes. The principal of this school states that about one-fourth of the compositions in English classes are based on shop and industrial subjects. These compositions are criticized by the shop instructor and by the English instructor. Outside reading is assigned on the lives of great inventors, discoverers, and explorers. In physiography about six weeks is given to a study of trees and ores. The study of trees includes elementary forestry, the structure of the various woods used in the school, and the location of the forest regions of the world. The work on ores includes an examination of the samples of iron ores, the locations of ore beds, smelters, rolling mills, coal fields, shipping routes, and the making of steel and coke.
In the night classes of this school some interesting work is given in shop mathematics, including mensuration, speed of pulleys and gearing, gearing of the lathe and screw thread calculations, calculations of spur, bevel, spiral and worm gearing; speed of machine tools, elementary principles of graphic statics, elements of theory of stresses as applied to machine design, use of tables of natural functions and of logarithms in shop calculations; the slide rule.
2. With the inauguration of the two-year vocational courses in September, 1910, the Chicago high schools begin to offer instruction
(85) distinctly industrial in character. These two-year courses are a part of a completely revised curriculum for the high schools which went into effect the second semester of 1910-11. There are 21 courses of study in the revised curriculum, 11 being four-year courses and 10 two-year courses.
Of the four-year courses, five may be regarded as vocational: one commercial -the business course; and four industrial courses -manual training, builders, household arts, architectural. The particular subjects offered in the manual training and builders' courses are as follows
|7.- Manual Training Course|
|Physiography (with special reference to|
|woods and ores)||20||5||.4|
|Foundry, forge and patternmaking .||20||10||.5|
|Foundry, forge and patternmaking||20||10||.5|
|Choose one of the following:|
|Machine or architectural drawing||20||4||.3|
|Choose one of the following:|
|United States history||20||4||.4|
|Machine or architectural drawing||20||3||2|
|* If chemistry is not taken now it must be taken in he fourth year.|
|Machine or architectural drawing||20||3||.2|
|Electrical or gas engine construction||40||6||1.0|
|Electrical or gas engine construction||20||4||.4|
One semester of English must be chosen during this year by those who have not taken a foreign language.
|8.- Builders' Course|
|Arithmetic and bookkeeping||20||4|
|Bricklaying, masonry, etc .||20||10|
|Arithmetic and bookkeeping||20||4|
|Bricklaying, masonry, etc .||20||10|
|First Semester: THIRD YEAR|
|Mathematics, including trigonometry and surveying||20||4|
|Mathematics, including trigonometry and surveying||20||4|
|Building specifications and estimating||20||4|
|Strength of materials||20||4|
|Building contracts and ordinances||20||4|
Comment. The distinctive features of the four industrial courses are
(1) A slight increase in the amount of time given to shopwork and drawing.
(2) The " industrialized " character of some of the academic subjects, such as industrial history, business English, civic and industrial Chicago.
With repect(sic) to both of these features there is evident an effort to make the four courses truly vocational in character. If, however, they are to reach their full development, the close relation of the academic subjects to industrial needs should be carried to still other subjects than those indicated in the present outlines. If the physics, chemistry and mathematics are to be of the greatest service in the industrial courses, the content of these subjects should be closely adapted to the particular needs in the different courses.
Under present conditions it is difficult to organize the subjects of history, mathematics and science in their direct application to industrial needs. This is partly due to a lack of suitable text and reference books, and to the prevailing influence of college entrance requirements on secondary school curricula. But the need and the opportunity for such instruction in technical high-school courses are both very great. _ Some schools are now making commendable efforts in this direction
In the household arts course, something less than half the time is given to handwork, including art, an increase of only two periods a week over former courses. This is less time than is given to these subjects in the industrial courses for girls in the high schools at
(90) Boston, Cleveland and Cincinnati [see pages 193-195]. These cities also provide for specialization in the last two or three years of the course, in order to prepare definitely for the vocations open to girls. No specialization is offered in the corresponding course in Chicago.
In the manual training course the time given to shop and drawing is still somewhat less than in the Cincinnati and Cleveland courses, and the opportunity for specialization is not so great. In Cincinnati the usual four years of manual training is completed in the first two years, five-eighths of the school time being given to shop and drawing. In the last two years students specialize in some trade as apprentices, spending alternate weeks in factory and school, the shopwork for the week in school being specialized. The same general plan is followed in Cleveland, the usual four years of manual training being completed in the first two and one-third years. Both Cincinnati and Cleveland require a longer school week for the technical courses than Chicago requires. In the Chicago manual training course 21 to 25 hours 160 minutes each) a week are required, as compared with 30 in Cleveland and 25 1/2 in Cincinnati.
The builders' course is the only four-year course of that character in public high schools of the country, so far as the writer knows. By giving introductory shopwork in a number of the building trades, with related academic subjects and drawing, the course prepares primarily for positions as foreman, superintendent or general contractor. From 50 to 5; per cent of the time is devoted to shopwork and drawing. As outlined, it is an excellent example of a course in which the academic subjects are closely related to the constructive industries. In chemistry and physics, the outlines do not indicate whether the subject-matter is to be presented in terms of its application to the building industries, but the opportunity for such application is especially good in these subjects.
The architectural course prepares for work in architecture and in drafting-rooms, and gives from two-fifths to one-half of the school time to shopwork, drawing and architectural design. Shopwork is offered in the first year only.
In the business course the subjects offered are as follows:
|6.- Business Course|
|Business forms and penmanship||20||2||.15|
|Civic and industrial Chicago||20||5||.4|
|Business forms and penmanship||20||2||.15|
|Business English .||20||4||.4|
|Commercial geography .||20||5||.4|
|Business methods and office practice||20||4||.3|
Bookkeeping (one-half year) is required for those not intending to take bookkeeping in the third or fourth year in the vocational courses.
Choose from the list of optional studies enough to complete four credits for the year's work: at least .8 credits each semester must be for commercial studies.
|Economics and commercial law||20||4||.4|
|United States history and civics||20||4||.4|
|Economics and commercial law||20||4||.4|
|United States history and civics||20||4||.4|
Choose from the list of optional studies enough to complete four credits for the year's work: at least .8 credits each semester must be for commercial studies.
The time given to mathematics in the business course is less than half as much as is given to this subject in the first two years in the Cleveland High School of Commerce. In the Cleveland school attention is given to mental arithmetic, rapid calculation and penmanship incidentally throughout the entire course.
In the third and fourth years of the business course at least .8 credits each semester must be for commercial subjects listed with the general group of optional studies for all courses. A clearer idea of the content of the business course would be obtained by parents and pupils if the technical subjects, as accounting, stenography, etc., which should form the backbone of the course, were given a more definite place in the outline of the course.
3. The two-year vocational courses are open to graduates of the eighth grade only, and are intended mainly for students who can not give four years to a general high-school education, but who can give two years to training along definite vocational lines. It is expected by the school authorities that these courses will attract to the high school a considerable number of students who would not otherwise enter. Full credit is allowed toward graduation from a regular four-year course, in case students decide to continue beyond the two years.
The following ten courses are offered: 12, accounting; 13. stenography; 14, mechanical drawing; 15, design; 16, advanced carpentry; 17, patternmaking ; 18, machine-shop work; 19, electricity; 20, household arts; and 21, printing. The first two may be regarded as commercial and the remaining courses as industrial in character.
The particular subjects offered in patternmaking and in electricity are as follows"
|17.-Two-year Course in Fatternmaking|
|(a) General woodwork (one semester) .|
|(b) Elementary patternmaking (one semester).||40||10|
|Physiology (first semester)||20||5|
|Freehand drawing (second semester)||20||4|
|English or other modern language||40||4|
|Geometry, or history with special reference to industrial and economic conditions, and civics||40||4|
|Shop-Foundry and advanced patternmaking .||40||12|
|19.-Two-year Course in Electricity|
|Physiology (first semester)||20||5|
|Elementary physics (first semester)||20||5|
|Elementary electricity (second semester)||20||8|
|English or other modern language||40||4|
|Geometry, or history with special reference to industrial and economic conditions, and civics||40||4|
The distinctive features of the two-year industrial courses are
(1) The large portion of time (from one-half to two-thirds) allotted to shop work and drawing;
(2) The specialization in a particular trade required from the beginning;
(3) The " industrialized " character of some of the academic courses, such as shop mathematics, business English, and industrial history.
Comment. With respect to the first and third features mentioned above, the courses compare favorably with industrial courses in other cities. It should be noted that industrial geography is not offered in any of the courses, and that technical instruction in applied science is provided for in only one course - in electricity.
With respect to the second feature it should be noted that the subjects in each course are closely related to a particular trade. The courses differ, therefore, from the usual technical high-school courses which give an all-around shop training before specialization is permitted. They differ also from the trade course proper, which in common practice gives very little instruction in related academic subjects. They may, therefore, be regarded as technical courses restricted to a particular trade.
No other public high school, so far as the writer knows, offers technical courses so restricted. The present practice is to give an all-around technical training for at least two or three years before specialization is permitted. Certain private schools offer technical courses restricted to a particular trade, but the students are commonly sixteen years of age or older when entering upon these courses, and the schools operate under conditions which enable them to secure a rather select body of students.
In the Chicago two-year courses the student is asked to specialize - to choose his trade -when he enters the high school, and this specialization is required on the basis of no previous shop training other than the elementary woodwork of the grades, which is not vocational in purpose. There is in general no objection to a boy specializing in a trade whenever he is mature enough to do the work and to really know what he wants to do. Whether or not there are many such students in the first year of high school remains to be seen. Surely, for those who have not reached that stage of maturity by the first year of high school, the two years of all-around practical training, as provided in Cincinnati, would be more desirable even if the last two years of specialized work are not taken in school.
As stated before, the two-year courses are planned for students
(96) who can not give nor a than two years to a high-school course. The number of these is very likely not so great as is sometimes supposed. The tacit assumption frequently made that most pupils who leave school in the intermediate grades do so because they can not afford to continue is not supported by evidence. Indeed, the evidence that exists [see pages 36-391 lends color to the assumption that they leave because the school does not provide the kind of training needed. It is probable that many of those who now drop out in the first year or two of the high school would remain for a four-year course if they understood that the training of those four years was not mainly a preparation for more training in college, but was a true finishing course preparing definitely for a life career after high school.
It is, therefore, pertinent to inquire whether what is wanted on the high-school level is a short course so much as it is a course that is very practical. The present four-year course in manual training provides for those who go on to college and for those who are interested in manual training for general educational purposes, regardless of specific training for industrial pursuits. For those students, however, who desire to enter the industries at once after four years in the high school, the present manual training course does not make adequate provision. Courses like those in Cincinnati and Cleveland, with specialization in the last two years, are desirable. It is just this specialization in the last two years, on the basis of an all-around training in the first two years, which makes these courses the finishing courses needed by those who are to enter the industries at once upon completion of the high school.
The question is whether a course like that at Cincinnati or Cleveland would not hold for the full four years many of those who are now supposed to be unable to remain longer than two years. For those who are really unable to remain the four years, provision could be made by relating the instruction in each year of the four-year course so closely to industrial needs that each year's work is a unit of definite practical value to those who leave at the end of that year. Furthermore, the opportunity to specialize at various points in the course could also be given to students whose maturity, financial condition, and prerequisite training make such specialization desirable.
The main point here in mind is that the two-year industrial
(97) courses provide for the relatively small number who, upon graduation from the eighth grade, have the necessary maturity and the prerequisite training to profit by the specialized courses offered, and who are really unable for financial reasons to remain longer than two years. In providing a more practical kind of instruction than heretofore offered, the two-year courses are undoubtedly a step in advance and as such are to be commended. That they may fill a present need must be admitted. It is here contended, however, that this need is comparatively small and that the greatest need in the high school is for a four-year course of the kind referred to, still more practical as a finishing course than the present four-year course. An appropriate degree of flexibility in such a four-year course would, no doubt, adequately meet the needs of all students for whom the present two-year courses are planned.
It is the plan to offer some or all of the ten vocational courses in Chicago in each of the nineteen high schools. The number and per cent of pupils enrolled in the first nine courses in the third week of September, 1910. were as follows:
It is hardly possible to draw reliable conclusions from the number of pupils registered in the two-year courses, since they are as yet too new to have been adequately brought to the attention of parents and pupils. The numbers in the above table, however, do not contradict the statement that practical training along commercial lines is attractive to beginning high-school pupils. Electricity and mechanical drawing are next in order of popularity. These two courses, together with the commercial courses, enroll about 94 per cent of the pupils.
The small numbers in courses 16, 17 and 18 are worthy of note. With reference to these courses, it may be suggested that in order to eventually attract large numbers of high-school pupils it must be well understood by parents and pupils that the courses prepare for ultimate positions above that of the ordinary mechanic. For high-school students have the academic preparation, and it is safe to assume that they have, for the most part, the ambition and the family " push " to take advantage of distinctly technical instruction leading ultimately to advanced positions. For this reason the technical phases of the academic subjects should receive greater emphasis than the present outlines show, by introducing applied science and more of the applied mathematics, especially in the second year. The more narrow trade training, preparing mainly for the work of the actual mechanic. is more appropriate on the lower academic levels, for the large number of children, fourteen years of age, who leave school in grades below the eighth, to go to work, although the industries offer little or no opportunity for appropriate training at this age. Even here specialization would be appropriately preceded by a period of all-around shopwork, and as much as possible of technical instruction in applied science, mathematics, etc., should, of course, be given. The high school is, however, preeminently the place to train the leaders, at least the non-commissioned officers in the industrial army, whereas the rank and file are and probably will be obtained mainly from the lower academic levels.
The character of the instruction now given in the two-year industrial courses varies considerably in the nine high schools visited by the committee's representative. In the shop work in carpentry, for example, two of the schools visited are giving actual carpenter work while the remaining schools are giving the conventional manual training work in wood. In the course in electricity some schools are introducing the actual construction work done in the trade, while
(99) other schools are confining themselves to theory. In the drawing and mathematics required in several of the courses, some schools are making commendable efforts to present subject-matter in direct relation to shop and trade work; other schools are doing very little in this direction. One school, operating under specially favorable conditions, has prepared excellent detailed outlines of a tentative nature for some of the shop and academic subjects.
That the character of the instruction should vary in the different high schools is not surprising in view of the newness of the courses and the different conditions prevailing in the different high schools. Not all the instructors are specially prepared to give the kind of instruction needed. A very few were found who seemed to be not in full sympathy with the vocational courses. One principal seemed to think that the vocational courses were merely " on paper." Apparently, some organization and unity of effort are needed whereby the good work done in some schools may be made available to other schools.
In the two-year commercial courses considerable improvement has been made in providing more time than formerly for practice in stenography and accounting. All but two of the schools visited now have enough typewriting machines for the practice work in typewriting. The main criticism to be made on the commercial work is that many of the teachers are not properly prepared for the work Too frequently teachers with no special knowledge of commercial subjects are taken from the Latin department, for example, to teach business arithmetic, or from the science department to teach bookkeeping. Some teachers of stenography are unable to take dictation themselves. According to the statements of a number of principals and teachers, very few of the teachers of commercial subjects have had experience in business offices. No organized effort is made to study present business practices and office needs or to secure the cooperation and advice of business men with a view to organizing a commercial course suited to present needs. Such study and cooperation is strongly urged by Chicago businessmen, and is carried on in the commercial high schools of Cleveland and Boston. If the Chicago courses are to be truly commercial, if they are really to be what they pretend to be, this close contact with business needs must, undoubtedly, be secured.
4. In August, 1911, the Chicago Board of Education voted to establish a two-year technical college course in the three technical schools of the city. The courses are planned to provide a broad ground preparing for the work of the third and fourth years of the best engineering schools. Following is the tentative course of study now in operation at the Crane and Lane high schools.
|College Engineering Course|
|Chemistry (qualitative analysis)||10|
|French or German||5|
|Shopwork||10 or 5|
|Chemistry (additional) .:||5|
|Machine or architectural design||5|
|Chemistry (quantitative analysis) . .||10|
|Machine or architectural design||5|
|French or German||5|
|Shopwork||10 or 5|
|Machine or architectural design (additional)||5|
Work will be arranged so that pupil concentrates on the kind of work desired. French or German is elective if the student presents 2 units for entrance, otherwise it is required.
|Shopwork||5 or 10|
|French or German||5|
|Shopwork||5 or 10|
|French or German||5|
Comment. This course is in line with the present movement to take into the high school the work of the first two years of college courses, thus making the curricula of secondary schools in this country similar to those of France and Germany. The course in Chicago provides for some specialization, particularly in the second year, for those who do not wish to go on to engineering schools.
This suggests the desirability of establishing also more highly specialized technical courses in the fifth and sixth years for students who do not continue their work in engineering schools. Such specialized courses could give a high grade of preparation for studentsgirls as well as boys - to enter the higher ranks of industry below the rank of engineer, or to become teachers of shopwork or drawing in the technical high schools.
5. The Flower Technical High School, for girls, was opened for the first time in September, 1911, offering a four-year course and a two-year course, embracing work tentatively characterized as follows
(A) A Four-year Course, embracing
1. General household science (including cooking, laundry work, house sanitation and management, and household accounts) ; intensified training to be given to those who wish to become institutional workers, managers of kitchens and lunchrooms, invalid and diet workers, and emergency workers.
2. Household arts (including plain sewing, dressmaking, millinery, embroidery, lacemaking, infants' and children's clothing, care of hospital and hotel linen, and interior decorating) ; intensified training to be given to those who wish to fit themselves for supervising and for special work; machines ran by electricity and foot power to be used.
3. Science (including chemistry and biology, taught with a view to understanding the experiences and needs of daily life, as well as with the idea of gaining an insight into scientific method and theory).
4. Art, with specialized work in costume, millinery and embroidery designing.
5.. English, both utilitarian and cultural.
6. Applied mathematics.
7. Geography, history and civics, with special reference to the needs of women in Chicago.
8.. Physical education and physiology, with the idea of improving health and of giving recreation and training in social requirements.
9. Music as a recreative and cultural study.
(b) A Two-year Course, coinciding in part with the four-year course, but shaped to fit students for industrial employment by the end of the second year.
Courses in salesmanship, typesetting, boxmaking, and other industries to be organized as needed
The school will contain a fully equipped lunchroom.
The school-week is 25 hours, about two-fifths of the time being given to handwork, including drawing. The present tentative plans provide for specialization in a particular trade during the last two years, more or less, of the four-year course, and for the last half of the two-year course. In these specialized courses somewhat more than two-fifths of the school time will probably be given to shopwork and drawing. It is also planned to add a fifth and a sixth year to the four-year course as the need arises.
For the present, the building is used also by an elementary industrial class, which is intended primarily for over-age girls from grades 4 to 8, inclusive. who are at least fourteen years of age and at least two years behind grade. About one-half of the 25-hour week is given to handwork, including drawing, in this class, the remaining time being devoted to such elementary academic studies as are suited to the needs o the pupils.
About 65 pupils were enrolled in the high-school classes in November, 1911, and about 35 in the elementary industrial class. In the high school, one class is now in operation in the first year, and one in the second year, of the four-year course, and one class in the first year of the two-sear course. In addition, a few students with an academic status above that of the second year of the high school are accommodated.
Comment. In providing for specialized work in particular trades the Flower Technical High School aims to be a true finishing school, giving direct preparation for girls to enter the industries at once after graduation, and in this respect compares favorably with similar schools in Boston, Cleveland and Cincinnati. The latter schools, however, give more time to handwork, including drawing, than is at present given to these subjects in the Flower Technical High School. The Flower School gives no more time to these subjects in the first two years than is provided in the regular high-school course of study for the household-arts course. The time allotted to these subjects should be increased to one-half or five-eighths of the school time in the first year or two, and in the latter part of the course should occupy two-thirds or more of the school time.
The school has not at the present writing provided a definite and
complete curriculum for any of the courses. It is the desire of the authorities to leave some freedom for the development of a curriculum as the needs of the school arise. The school is also at present too new for one to pass complete judgment on its work. Some excellent work was observed by the writer in drawing related to the sewing work, and in botany related to the cooking and to the textiles used by pupils. It i_ apparently planned to relate all the academic subjects closely to the shopwork and to industrial needs. In sewing, considerable order work is done for individuals and for institutions, and articles are made for use in the school.Elementary schools
1. In the Farragut Elementary School, industrial classes were started February 1. 1910, with 75 boys and 25 girls, from grades 6, 7 and 8, who were one year or more behind grade. An effort had previously been made to organize industrial classes in this school on the cooperative plan, with pupils alternating between factory and school in two-week periods. This effort failed partly because the boys were unwilling to make the necessary financial sacrifice for the period in school.The classes are at present, then, essentially for over-age children. Instruction is provided in English, history, arithmetic, business forms and correspondence, drawing, and in woodwork for boys and sewing and cooking for girls. Some instruction in civics is given by way of supplementary reading. About one-third of the time is given to shop and drawing for the boys, and to cooking, sewing and drawing for the girls. Plans are under way to add elementary electrical work, and shopwork in forge and foundry. Classes are not segregated in the academic studies and drawing.
About 75 pupils were in attendance in November, 1910. From 30 to 40 applicants were turned away in September for lack of room. The average age of pupils is between fourteen and fifteen years. Sessions are held 5 days a week, 5 hours a day for one group and 54/4 hours for another group.
Comment. Special effort is made to overcome the deficiencies of the children in the regular academic subjects and excellent progress has been made in this direction. Especially noticeable are the good results obtained in arithmetic by means of frequent drills for speed and accuracy in the fundamental processes, in which the pupils take great interest.
Teachers endeavor to introduce into the academic subjects as much as possible of the applications of these subjects. In arithmetic about fifty problems relating to woodwork have been collected. In history, an elementary study is made of the cotton, wool, linen and silk industries, using for this purpose a number of the current supplementary reading-books on industrial history. In English, some composition subjects are related to shopwork.
In drawing, the boys give about half of the time to working drawings of all projects made in the shop, and the remaining time to the usual mechanical drawing exercises. The girls make the same working drawings that the boys make, and go through the same series of mechanical drawing exercises. It may be noted here that all the drawing for girls in the Albany Vocational School takes the form of design related to sewing and to house planning, decorating, and furnishing. In the Farragut School a very little work in design is given in the sewing period.
In the shopwork for boys the following products have been made:
Cutting board, book-rack, footstool, candlestick, towel holder, handkerchief box, bill file, toothbrush holder, envelope holder, key rack, whiskbroom holder, pot shelf, spool holder, nail box, clock shelf, table mat, mission bench, thirty looms for school use.
The girls' sewing has included the following:
Dish towel, hand towel, sewing apron, cooking apron, flannel and muslin undergarments, gingham dress, gymnasium suit, corset cover, white apron, crocheting.
The shopwork for boys and the cooking and sewing for girls are practically the same in character as the corresponding courses in the regular elementary grades and in the first year of high school. The additional time given to these subjects in the Farragut School serves the purpose of providing more training of the same general kind on the manual side. There is, however, in comparison with similar schools in other cities, little of a distinctly vocational character in this work. Moreover, in other cities from one-half to twothirds of the school time is given to handwork, including drawing, as compared with one-third in the Farragut School.
The writer is not altogether certain that it is the aim of the school authorities to provide for these classes instruction which is industrial in the sense used in this report-namely, that it shall prepare definitely for vocations. If this is not the aim, it is unfortu-
(106) -nate, for these over-age children, most of them more than fourteen years of age, and living in the midst of a large manufacturing district, are precisely the ones in whom the vocational interest is strong and the school interest comparatively weak. If, then, these children are to be retained long in school, instruction must be provided which is distinctly and frankly vocational in purpose, and pupils and parents should clearly understand that such is the purpose of the school. The importance of this point is seen in the fact that of the 93 pupils attending the school in June, 1910, 48.3 per cent did not return in September.
Industrial training. therefore, as distinguished from manual training, would here be appropriate. It is true that the school has been in operation only a short time, and that its full development into a vocational school is at present handicapped somewhat by a lack of room. This lack of room makes it impossible, for example, to provide in the school a dining-room, bedroom, etc., about which the girls' work in homemaking could be centered, as is done in the Albany Vocational School and in the Washington-Allston School, Boston. In planning. furnishing, decorating and caring for such home rooms large opportunity may be found for practical work in the shop, and in sewing. design, arithmetic, English, and a study of materials. Excellent training could also be provided if a school luncheon were given each day, to be prepared and managed by the girls, as at the Albans- Vocational School. Even with the present lack of room, however. it should be possible to introduce more work in sewing of a practical character, such as the darning and patching needed in the home.
In the shopwork for boys much more practical work could be done. It should be acknowledged that the present work, for its kind, is well done - the teaching is good. It should also be acknowledged that the shopwork for boys has very little of the character of mere " exercise " work. for the problems of technic are nearly always a part of the making of a complete article for ornament or use in the home or school. The projects made do appeal to the home interest and to a very slight extent to the school interest, but it is questionable whether the objects for home use are made to fill a real need. The thirty looms made for school used do fill a real need, and it is here contended that much more of this kind of work could and should be done. to give the shopwork more of the quality of real work to the pupil.
Opportunities must exist in this school, similar to those found in other cities, for basing the shopwork on the general repair work needed in and around school buildings, and on the making of apparatus and other equipment for the schools. Much suggestive work of this character is presented in the lists of projects given in the description of schools in Chapter VII. In some public schools products are also made for sale. and boys are sometimes paid for work done for the school outside of school hours. Girls, too, do order work in sewing, and sometimes sell the products of the kitchen to private families. By all these means the effort is made to give the schoolwork the flavor of real life to the pupils.
It would also be well for some of the woodwork in the Farragut School to take the form of carpentry. If more room were available, the elementary phases of trades using materials other than wood should also be introduced, in order to reach the varied interests and develop the different abilities of pupils. In addition to the electrical and forge work now being planned, the following trades are suggested by the curricula of schools in other cities: printing, tinsmithing, sheet-metal work, plumbing, bricklaying, concrete work, and bench and vise work on metal.
That the more practical, industrial work referred to above is not beyond the powers of the over-age children in the Farragut School is evident from the fact that in the schools where this work is done over-age children are present in large numbers because of the low requirements for admission. It may be added that this more practical work makes it possible to relate the academic studies and drawing to the shopwork, and to the industries in general, in a much more direct and vital way than can be done with the kind of shopwork now offered.
In the Farragut School the opportunity exists to attack the problem of industrial education in Chicago at the most important point in grades 6 to 8, when the largest number of pupils leave school to go to work, and at the age when the industries offer little or no opportunity for appropriate training. These years are at present largely wasted, both to the child and to the industries. The statistics presented in Chapters II, III and IV show the great need for industrial training at this point. It must be emphasized, however, that if this training is to really attract and hold the pupils, and if it is to
(108) vein the confidence of employers and parents, it must be truly practical in character, it must include the elementary phases of actual tradework, and it must be offered under conditions which approximate as closely as possible the best conditions prevailing in the industries themselves.
2. An elementary industrial course for grades 6, 7 and 8, is authorized in the Course of Study for Elementary Schools adopted June 29, 1911. Graduates of this course are to be admitted to all high-school courses. As shown in Table 23, 615 minutes a week are
|Industrial course||General course|
|Grades 6. 7 and 8||Grade 6||Grade 7||Grade 8|
|English, history and civics, mathematics, geography (including special Chicago course), penmanship, nature study||560||795||735||735|
|Physical education, music, opening exercises, study, general use, recesses||325||435||495||555|
|Art, industrial arts||615||270||270||210|
given to art and industrial arts, as compared with 270 or 210 minutes, in the general course. The 560 minutes allotted to the academic subjects is 175 minutes (nearly 3 hours) a week less in the industrial course than in grades 7 and 8 of the general course.
The work in industrial arts, as outlined for the industrial course, includes the following subjects not outlined for the general course: for boys, venetian ironwork, plumbing, concrete construction, elementary electrical construction, photography; for girls, embroidery, millinery, waitress work.
The outlines of academic subjects for the industrial course are similar, in the main, to those for the general course, with some omissions from the outlines for the general course, and with suggestions that special emphasis be placed upon the industrial and
109) commercial phases of the various subjects. In mathematics, an excellent detailed outline is given of sources for problems in the work in household arts.
The statement is made in the Course of Study that the industrial course is, for the present, to be offered only on the special permission of the superintendent, and in districts where the demand is sufficient to call for at least four divisions of pupils. At the present writing no school is actually giving the course.
Comment. The large amount of time (10 1/4 hours a week) allotted to shopwork and drawing places the Chicago elementary industrial course, so far as the time element alone is concerned, clearly in the class of prevocational courses in the elementary school. The Chicago industrial course, however, should not, in the writer's opinion, be offered to pupils of normal age in grade 6. This opinion is based upon two principles which may be said to be fairly definitely settled in current practice in industrial schools or courses which assign to shopwork and drawing as much as 10 hours or more a week. In the first place, such courses are not in general offered to pupils below the age of twelve. In the second place, the completion of the sixth grade (or of higher grades) is commonly accepted as a standard, on the academic side, for admission to such courses.
These two principles may be defended on several grounds. In the first place, it is questionable whether the interest in vocation is definitely aroused in most cases before the age of twelve, and whether the child is sufficiently mature before that age to undertake with profit the kind of shopwork which should be offered in a distinctly vocational course. Moreover, one of the objects of vocational courses in the elementary school is to develop an appreciation on the part of the pupil of the value of further school training after the compulsory attendance period. If this appreciation can not be aroused in two years, beginning at twelve, it is difficult to see how it could be aroused by beginning one year earlier. Again, it is questionable whether the academic subject-matter as at present outlined and presented in the elementary school should be reduced in quantity to the extent that is involved in the time schedule for the Chicago elementary industrial course. Present practice also assumes that
110) the completion of the sixth grade is necessary in order to insure for the academic subjects a degree of mastery of the fundamentals which is needed if the applications of these subjects are to he pursued successfully in vocational courses.
In view of the principles above stated it is therefore the opinion of the writer that the Chicago elementary industrial course should in general not be offered to pupils under twelve years of age, and should be limited to those who have completed grade 6. For the normal pupil these age and grade limits coincide. The over-age pupils at twelve years of age are somewhere below the sixth grade. For such pupils different provisions should be made. They should have the opportunity, no matter what grade they are in, at the age of twelve, of entering an industrial course in which shopwork plays a large part, but which aims primarily, and largely by individual work, to advance the pupils on the academic side as rapidly as possible until the standard of the sixth grade is completed.
In short, the Chicago elementary industrial course by beginning in grade 6 begins too early for the pupil of normal age, and fails to reach the retarded pupils below grade 6 who are twelve years of age. 
If, then, we assume that the elementary industrial course should be restricted to grades 7 and 8, it is still unnecessary and unwise to give so little time to the academic subjects as is provided in the Chicago time schedule. With the large amount of time (10 1/4 hours a week) allotted to handwork, it should be possible to lengthen the school week from 25 hours to 30 hours without bringing undue fatigue upon the pupils. A weekly schedule of at least 30 hours is common in present elementary industrial schools, and is required in the vocational courses in the grammar grades of Fitchburg, Massachusetts [see pp. 162-182, especially p. 164]. In the Farragut School, Chicago, one group of the industrial class attends school 28 1/4 hours a week [see p. 104]. With a schedule of 30 hours a week, and with 10 hours allotted to shop and drawing, 20 hours would be available for academic subjects, general use, etc.. as compared with 14 1/4 hours in the present elementary industrial course, 201/2 hours in grade 7 of the general course, and 21 1/2 hours in grade 8. It should be recognized that just because these pupils are likely
(111) to enter the industries earl-, it is all the more important to give them as much as possible of the academic training which is enlightening and liberating in connection with their vocation.
In the outlines of academic subjects some general suggestions are given for relating the subject-matter to industrial conditions ; in only one subject (mathematics) are specific suggestions given. To a certain extent the kind of academic subject-matter appropriate to such a course can not at present be outlined in detail; it must be developed by the teacher himself as the instruction progresses in close contact with the shopwork. It is, therefore, important in the present experimental stage of industrial courses to have instructors especially fitted for this work and to provide an independent organization of the teaching staff with considerable freedom from conventional academic standards. The outlines of the course of study give no assurance that such an organization is intended, although the possibility of bringing about such an organization is provided for in the statement that "No divisions should begin the work without special permission from the superintendent."
The woodwork for boys, as outlined in the industrial course, is about the same in character as that outlined for the general course. This work should be made much more practical in character, should be given a stronger vocational trend, by requiring the making of apparatus, equipment and other articles of a distinctly commercial standard which are actually needed and put to use in the schools or elsewhere. The remaining shopwork for boys is very slightingly treated in the outlines by merely mentioning the names of the trades to be introduced, such as plumbing, concrete construction, and electrical work, without indicating in detail the character of the work to be done in these subjects. Detailed outlines should be provided for all the shopwork, setting up a definite vocational standard, and avoiding the dilettante work which might be done in the absence of such outlines. Detailed illustrations of the kind of shopwork here in mind are given in the descriptions of schools on pages 162-182 of this report.
1. The Apprentice Schools were started in January, 1901, and now offer day instruction to carpenter apprentices from January to March, inclusive.
According to the Articles of Agreement between the Carpenters' and Builders' Association, of Chicago, and the Carpenters' Executive Council, of Chicago, Cook County and Vicinity, all apprentices are required to attend some school each year during January, February- and March, and while attending school receive from the masters the regular wage provided by the apprenticeship indenture -namely, $6 a week the first year, $7 the second, $8.50 the third, and $11 the fourth year. The apprentices are under the control of the joint Arbitration Board composed of members of the two associations. This Board exacts fines from the apprentices for non-attendance at school. Of the 417 carpenter apprentices in Chicago, Cook County and vicinity, in November, 1910, 279 were enrolled in the two public schools that year." The average membership in the two schools in 1910 was 222.5. The ages of students range from sixteen to twenty-five years, the average being about nineteen years.In past years the bricklayers and stonemasons made similar requirements of their apprentices, but these requirements are not now in force.
In the public Apprentice Schools special effort has been made in the 1911 school term to provide practical instruction suited to the needs of the apprentices. Teachers have been sought who have special qualifications for this work. Outlines of a course of study were submitted to the school authorities by the joint Arbitration Board. Shopwork is offered for the first time in the history of the Schools. The teachers are preparing outlines of the courses in drawing and shopwork. In the academic courses, teachers are endeavoring to present a more practical kind of subject-matter than that which was formerly offered. Since these efforts were started only a short time before the schools were opened they are not vet sufficiently matured to make it possible to present in full detail a statement of the courses to be offered. The following statement of the present tentative plans and of the instruction now given. may, however, be made.
Four hours a week are given to shopwork and from 7 1/2 to 10 hours a week to drawing. Since the school sessions are from 31 to 34 hours a week, the time devoted to shop and drawing is about
113) two-fifths of the total. The academic subjects include arithmetic, history and civics, writing, spelling, English composition and geography.
An effort is being made to grade the work according to the advancement of pupils in the apprenticeship term. To a considerable extent, however, the work is the same for the different apprenticeship years. This is explained in part by the fact that the grading has heretofore been comparatively loose and the present teachers have no record of the stage of advancement reached by the pupils, and in part by the fact that some of the subject-matter now offered is comparatively new to most of the apprentices.In arithmetic an excellent text-book, Shop Problems in Mathematics, was adopted for this year, and is used in all classes.
The history in some classes takes the form of a discussion of current events based on the reading of newspapers, some geography being introduced therewith. In other classes the industrial portions of the regular elementary school text (McMaster's) are used. In one class that portion of McMaster's text is used which deals with the Constitution and Articles of Confederation. In still another class the general history of the United States is followed, outlined by presidential administrations.
The civics is likewise presented in some classes in connection with current events in newspapers; in other classes the current elementary texts are used. It is worthy of note in this connection that instruction on trades unions and builders' unions was recommended in the course of study prepared by the joint Arbitration Board. In one school some instruction is now given on the organization and relations of these unions.
The geography is largely commercial in character, the material being obtained from the commercial portions of the regular elementary school text (Dodge), and from Adams' Commercial Geography.
In English some excellent work is done in writing compositions on specifications and contracts, building laws, business forms, notes, etc.
In drawing, a notable improvement is made this year in the elimination of many of the formal exercises previously given and in the introduction of more practical work in estimating quantities and cost of material, in specifications, strength of materials, and
(114) building laws. All the drawing instructors have had practical experience in architectural drafting.
In the shopwork there is at present a difference of opinion as to what the content of the course should be. The tentative outlines prepared by the instructors include, for both schools, the care, use and sharpening of tools, and carpentry work in house framing, roofing and stair-building, with the addition, in one school, of interior woodwork and finishing, and in the other, of cabinet-making and finishing in hardwood. The representative of the joint Arbitration Board, however, has criticized this work, on the occasion of a visit to one of the schools, saying that instruction in actual carpentry was not needed in the school shops, because this instruction was provided " on the job." In his opinion only the finer work with tools should be given -in the school shops, but he failed to state what that work should be- As a consequence of this criticism the shopwork in this school seems to be tending, for the present term, in the direction of the conventional manual-training work. The work begins with the usual " exercises " designed solely for the development of fine technic -the planing of a small piece of board "perfectly true, square and smooth," and gauging and sawing to "perfect" dimensions. After these exercises it is apparently contemplated to proceed to the malting of book-racks, lamp-stands, candlesticks, glove boxes, tabouret, etc., and, perhaps, into patternmaking.
In the other school the shopwork starts at once on stair-building. The first and second year apprentices are to spend part of the term on the elementary- phases of this work and will later take up houseframing and roofing. The third and fourth year apprentices are to spend the entire term on the building and finishing of stairs. In this school instruction and practice in technic and in the use and sharpening of tools are given as needed in the progress of the work.
Comment. The Chicago Apprentice Schools were probably the first public day continuation schools for trade apprentices to be established in this country. The only other school of that character, so far as the writer knows, is the Cincinnati Continuation School for machinist apprentices, established in September, 1909. Commercial schools of the day continuation type were established in the Boston public school in April, 1910.
In Boston and Cincinnati the students receive full pay from
employers while attending school. In Chicago the apprentices receive while attending school the regular wage called for by the apprenticeship indenture, but some apprentices receive a higher wage when working at the trade. In Munich, Germany, the apprentices are paid in some cases while attending continuation schools.
The Chicago Apprentice Schools have about 1,600 hours at their disposal for the four-year apprenticeship. The Cincinnati school has about $32 hours, and the continuation school for the building trades in Munich, Germany, has about 910 hours for the three-year course. The Chicago schools have, therefore, nearly twice as much time at their disposal as the Cincinnati school, and about three-fourths more than the Munich school. Moreover, since the apprentices in the Chicago schools are taken from the tradework for the entire three months of the school term, there is, apparently, no reason on the side of the apprentices why they should not be required to spend the same number of hours a week in school that they spend at the trade when not in school -namely, 44 hours. This plan would afford a total of about 2,112 hours for the four years, about one-third more than at present, and about two and one-third times as much as the three-year course in the corresponding school in Munich.
Chicago thus has an exceptionally good opportunity, with respect to the conditions above noted, to provide instruction of the day-continuation type in the Apprentice Schools already established. There has been much discussion, in the newspapers and elsewhere, over the importance of starting day continuation schools in Chicago, apparently overlooking the fact that an excellent start had already been made so far as external organization is concerned.
But a comparison of the instruction offered in the Chicago schools previous to the present term, with that offered in the continuation school for the building trades in Munich, Germany, leads one to conclude that Chicago has not risen to her opportunity, in this respect, as adequately as she might. The Cincinnati and Boston schools, while yet in their infancy, are making earnest efforts to provide practical instruction closely related to the students' needs.
The Apprentice School conducted by the Chicago Young Men's Christian Association has also developed some good work.The Chicago Apprentice Schools have been in operation ten years, but apparently no thoroughly organized effort has been made before the present year to work out in detail a curriculum in which the needs of the apprentices is made the center. With the exception of drawing, the instruction has been much the same in character as that given in grades six, seven and eight of the regular elementary school.
Even the drawing has lacked the practical character needed in a course for-carpenter apprentices. In the academic studies comparatively little was done by way of introducing applications to the building trades. What was offered of this practical character was what the individual teacher happened to have at his command out of his previous experience. One teacher went so far as to say " it practically amounts to nothing." Another teacher, in his three years of service in the Apprentice Schools, had accumulated a considerable number of practical problems in arithmetic, and in the third year of his tenure presented some valuable instruction on plans, specifications and estimating. But no permanent record of this work was made, in a detailed course of study, and when he left the service the value of this work was lost for the future of the school.
In short, the Apprentice Schools have been allowed to shift largely for themselves, with reference to the adaptation of the instruction to the special needs of apprentices. New teachers have had to find out from the pupils themselves what subject-matter was covered in preceding rears, and it was largely a matter of chance that suitable instruction of a practical character was occasionally offered.
The result of this condition is what one would naturally expect - a lack of interest on the part of apprentices, testified to by teachers and others, poor attendance, and some difficulty with the discipline. The fact that about fifty building-trade apprentices attend the Y. M. C. A. school, and that some carpenter apprentices attend Lewis Institute. Armour Institute, and the Chicago Technical College, in all of which schools tuition is required, may or may not indicate dis-
(117) satisfaction with the public schools in the past, but the fact is at least worthy of consideration.
The present efforts to revise the course of study in the direction of more practical work deserve commendation. There are now some places in which the courses overlap, and there is a certain lack of correlation among some departments. These deficiencies are, no doubt, due to the newness of the course of study and should, in time, be overcome.Because of the practical character of the subject-matter needed in the Apprentice Schools, and because of the shortness of the course, it is especially important to provide a curriculum outlined in considerable detail and graded throughout to correspond to the apprenticeship years. This is also desirable because of the frequent changes of teachers and principals, which are seemingly unavoidable under present conditions.
There is an apparent difficulty in the way of such a grading of the courses, arising from the fact that apprentices come to the school with varying degrees of academic preparation. But this difficulty would largely disappear if the course were related to industrial needs as closely as it should be. An excellent example of such a course of study is the one for the continuation school for building-trade workers, Munich, Germany, a translation of which is given below [page 119 ff.]. With the larger amount of time available to the Chicago schools they should be able to cover considerably more ground than the Munich school.
Since the course of study for the Apprentice Schools is now in an early formative stage, some suggestions, based on a study of the work of the schools and of industrial schools in other cities, may not be out of order.
(a) The courses in history and geography now offered, in so far as they are industrial, are so in a general way very largely. No provision is made, so far as could be learned, for a study of the history and geography related in a very intimate way to the building industries. To a considerable extent it should be possible, and it is desirable, to start with a concrete study of the history-geography of the building industries and then branch out into the more general industrial and into political and social phases. It would be desirable
(118) also to include a history of unionism and the mediaeval guilds in connection with the instruction on trades and builders' unions proposed by the joint Arbitration Board.
(b) A much closer correlation than at present exists should be made between drawing and sbopwork. The outlines of the course of study for the Munich continuation school, given below, are suggestive in this direction. The writer understands that this matter is now being considered by the school authorities.
(c) There should be no hesitation in providing actual carpenter work in the school shops. The apprentices themselves are eager to get such instruction. A number have stated to the writer that it is exceedingly difficult to get adequate instruction " on the job," unless the apprentice is associated with his father, who takes an interest in his advancement. It is well known that this difficulty prevails generally under modern industrial conditions. Last year a petition was presented by the apprentices to the joint Arbitration Board asking for instruction in shopwork, including the use of the steel square. Again this year a petition was presented by apprentices in the school not now offering carpentry asking for instruction in the use of the steel square. The writer can testify to the greater interest displayed by the apprentices in the school which starts with actual carpenter work, as compared with the school which starts with formal exercises in technic.
(d) More than 4 hours a week for shopwork could be used to advantage. A 44-hour week for the schools, with Saturday morning sessions, would be desirable.
(e) The difficulty experienced in securing for the more technical phases of the work instructors who have expert first-hand knowledge of building conditions suggests the advisability of seeking the cooperation of employers and workmen in securing such instructors. Since the Apprentice Schools are in session only in the dull season for the building trades, this cooperation should be readily obtained.
(f) Many of the obstacles now in the way of the full development of the Apprentice Schools could be overcome if the course were extended to include instruction for apprentices in other trades in the autumn and spring. The machinist trade for the autumn quarter and the plumbing and steam-fitting trades for the spring quarter have been suggested. Full legal authority for such addi-
(119) -tional schools exists in the following quotation from the Illinois State law, approved May 15, 1903.
In all municipalities where a manual-training school is maintained for the technical instruction of apprentices, such indentures shall further provide that it shall be the duty of the master to cause the apprentice to attend such school for at least three consecutive months in each year .,.ithout expense to the apprentice.
(g) It is unfortunate that apprentices in the bricklaying and stonemason trades are no longer required to attend the Apprentice Schools, for the three building trades form a natural group with closely allied interests. A combined course of study similar to the Munich course given below could be prepared which would be of greater value to a particular trade because of its relations to the other two. If a thoroughly practical course of studs- were arranged for the three trades it is not unlikely that the bricklavers and stonemasons could be persuaded to resume their former relations to the schools.
(h) The per capita cost of the Apprentice Schools in 1910, for teachers' salaries only, was $12.72. Reduced to a ten-months basis this gives $42.40, compared with $25.85. for elementary schools and $70.65 for technical high schools. Since the apprentices are older than the high-school students it would not be inappropriate to pay at least as much for technical instruction in the Apprentice Schools, if necessary, as is paid in the technical high schools.The following is an outline of the organization and course of study for the continuation school for building-trade workers in Munich, Germany.
PRINCIPLES OF REORGANIZATION
a. The trade school for workers in the building trades comprises, corresponding to the term of apprenticeship of the pupils, three progressive yearly classes, instruction in which is given during the period from September 15 until July 14 in each year.
b. Attendance at these classes is compulsory for all masons'. stonecutters' and carpenters' apprentices during the entire period of their apprenticeship, or until the completion of the eighteenth year of their age.
c. Instruction is confined strictly to the above-mentioned trades,
(120) and includes the following subjects: Religion, Business Composition and Reading. Trade Arithmetic and Bookkeeping, Hygiene and Civics. Trade Drawing and Practical Instruction in Materials and Tools.
d. The hours of instruction are ten per week in all three trades during the winter semester, that is, from October 15 to March 15; and during the summer semester, that is, from March 15 to October 15, six hours. In the winter these hours fall on a single workday from 7 to 12 o'clock in the forenoon and from 2 to 7 o'clock in the afternoon; and in the summer, on the afternoon of a single workday, from 1 to 7 o'clock. Care is to be taken, however, that apprentices of different grades coming from the same concern do not attend school on the same day.
e. The course of study is distributed as follows over the three school years and the respective ten and six hours of instruction:
|Subject||Hours per week in the three classes|
|In winter semester||In summer semester|
|Business composition and reading||1||1|
|Trade arithmetic and bookkeeping||1||1|
|Hygiene and civics||1||1|
|Practical instruction in materials and tools||3||..|
f. The instruction in drawing and the practical instruction in materials and tools is to be imparted by craftsmen; the remaining instruction is to be given by the trained teaching staff of the public and continuation schools of Munich. It is, however, provided in advance that all the teachers shall be in very close touch with the trades, so that, with a view to practical application. they may be familiar with trade requirements.
g. The defrayal of the expenses of instruction. as well as the provision of the necessary classrooms, remains as heretofore the duty of the community of Munich.
h. The Guild of Master Builders. Masons, Stonecutters and Carpenters announces its willingness to undertake to supplement the supply of wood and plaster models for the drawing instruction or of observation models for the instruction in materials, where such need shall at times arise.
SCOPE AND DISTRIBUTION OF THE SUBJECT-MATTER OF INSTRUCTION
The subject-matter of instruction, with regard to the vocation of the pupils, shall accord with the following schedule:
a. Religion. Lessons following the regulations of the Archiepiscopal Inspectorate, or the Protestant Superior Council.
b. Business Composition and Reading. The instruction in Composition aims at preparing the pupil to draft with grammatical, orthographical and formal correctness all of the more important forms of private
(121) and business correspondence. Class I. Ordinary private letters to members of the family, relatives and friends. relating to events in the life and vocation of the pupil; inquiries and replies, applications for employment, announcements, statements of acceptance, declinations. indentures. (In connection with this, postal forms.) Compositions on the subjects of hygiene and materials. Class II. Compositions on matters of purchase and labor: written and open bids on building materials, inquiries as to prices, orders for goods and labor, purchase and labor agreements, business instructions, deliver notices, bills, cash payments, receipts, part payments. refusal of payments and suspension of payments. (In connection with this, the procedure of the money and parcels post and of the freight traffic.) Complaints, excuses, opinions. certificates, recommendations. Compositions on the subject of materials. Class III. Compositions on the subject of indebtedness; shipments of goods on credit. certificates of indebtedness and security bonds, dunning letters. claim letters, letters of respite, abatements, correspondence on bills of exchange, drawing-up of mortgages and notification on same. Correspondence with officials: petitions to magistrates, to the city building commissioner, state building officials, commercial and industrial commissions, the government and trade tribunals. The instruction in reading is intended above all to promote the general and moral education of the pupil. It is also designed to arouse the pupil's interest in the best literary works. For this purpose the school library is also to be utilized, and now and again a classic poem should be read. In order to further the above objects, the teacher in each class is to make a suitable, systematic choice of appropriate selections.
c, Arithmetic and Bookkeeping. The instruction in arithmetic has for its object primarily to impress on the pupil the necessity for acquiring a thorough system of private and business accounting and to instruct him in the proper method of conducting the same. But in addition it shall prepare the pupil to make, with as much self-dependence as possible, the more simple calculations of cost and estimates. and in particular it shall ensure his adequate skill in special building calculations. The work in arithmetic for the three classes is arranged as follows: Class I. Personal accounts: earnings and living expenses of the building-trades workman; reckoning of hourly, daily and weekly wage=_. wages ledger and pay-roll, monthly and yearly income, comparison and equalization of summer and winter earnings; the daily, weekly, monthly and yearly expenditures of an individual, of a family; household expense book, monthly and yearly balances. Calculations of percentages: savings accounts and interest (various methods of calculating interest, up to absolute accuracy). Geometrical calculations with direct reference to problems in building, exercises in lines, simple surfaces and solids (square, extraction of square root, rectangle, cube, four: sided prism), calculation, especially. of extent of walls on metric system, old-style measurements and their conversion (foot. square foot, land measure, decimals). Class II. Geometrical calculations, extension of the work in surfaces and solids (rhombus, rhomboid, trapezium, triangle, Pythag-
(122) -orean theorem, triangular prism, circle, circumference, cylinder, hollow cylinder, pyramid, and cone and sphere, with special application to examples from masons', stonecutters' and carpenters' practice). In connection with the above, practical calculation of weights. Class III. a. Business accounts: with the instruction of this class in business accounts is connected the bookkeeping, as far as its formal completion can be effected in the classroom. Purchase of building materials. purchase and sale of land and buildings, with accompanying profit and loss, calculation of averages and more complicated problems in percentage. Work by the day and jobwork, including partnership calculations, transportation of building materials and outfit. sundry other trade calculations. Cost-figuring for building trades. Calculations and estimates of a simple character. Liquidation of debt, instalment calculations, computing the value of financial paper, notes and checks, calculations of tax and insurance.
d. Hygiene and Civics. The instruction in hygiene and civics has the purpose of familiarizing the pupil with a rational way of living, physical and intellectual, and consequently relates on the one hand to sanitary matters, with special consideration of workshop hygiene: on the other hand, it deals with the duties of life in the vocation, the community and the state, and above all else, with those affairs from which the pupil will most quickly gain a recognition of the necessary interdependence of interest of all social and industrial groups. Class I. a. The apprentice: admission to employment, indentures. The workshops and factories from the hygienic aspect, the observance of cleanliness. b. Deportment: behavior at home, in the school, toward fellow workmen and employers in the workshop, on the street, in social gatherings. c. Hygiene: construction of the human body in general, nourishment, food and food luxuries, according to their value or uselessness. Respiration and the circulation of the blood. Lodging and clothing. Work and recreation, care of the sense organs and nervous system. First aid to the injured, practice in bandaging. Class II. Trade history: development of architectural plans and processes, especially in Germany; in connection therewith, the conditions of the building-trades craftsman; masters who have been prominent in the building trades. The development of the building-trades guild in Munich from the fourteenth century to the present time; trade guilds and associations, the free corporation. Class III. The most important features of trade organization. Journeymen's and masters' examinations. Workmen's protection and social legislation. Trades Council. Trade arbitration. Trade tribunals. The building-trades craftsman as a member of the community. Community organization. Problems of the community. Honorary offices of the citizens of the community. The building-trades artisan as a citizen of the state. The state constitution of Bavaria. Objects of the state organization. Honorary offices of citizens of the state. Government of the Bavarian Kingdom. Duties of the state authorities. Constitution of the German Empire. Trade and commerce in modern times and its importance to the welfare of the citizen. Competition. Allied
(123) trades. The importance of labor in the state. The interconnection of trade interests. The value of the German foreign consulate.
e. Drawing. The instruction in drawing is intended to impart to the student, in addition to the greatest possible accuracy and dexterity in the use of drawing tools. the capacity for presenting clear and intelligible drawings of individual masonry, stonecutting and carpentry operations and constructions, as well as for drafting simple sketches of plans correctly and preparing original plans. He must, therefore, be made acquainted with the various methods of drawing and coloring. Where it appears practicable, the student's comprehension of his work shall be promoted and tested by the execution of working plans, or the isometric reproductions of single parts. A further feature of this instruction is to be found in the arousal and increase of the interest of the pupil in the buildings and architectural affairs of the city, as well as of his aesthetic and artistic taste in general. The instruction is divided into mechanical and freehand drawing. The latter is in every respect to be so planned that. wherever possible, it shall support and supplement the former; in all classes. as far as possible, practice is to be given on designs or models that are actually used in the trade. The general principles of drawing that prevail in all trade schools are to be kept in view. The subject-matter of instruction is as follows:
A. Masons: Class I. Geometrical and projective drawing. The most important geometrical elements, with constant reference to their technical execution and their application to practical examples of masonry; linear designs, erection of perpendiculars on a brick wall, line division for a wall design. metrical measurement for a pedestal with reduction to scale, angle division for a crown arch. The circle and its elements in a round window. Finding the center point for arch construction. circular division and polygons in a chimney plan. Tangential theory in door and window plans. Diminished arch for a church window. Ellipse in a house entry. Building-stone measurement. Patterns for facing walls. Class II. Technical drawing (from models only). The elements of mouldings and their combinations to form mouldings. Simple solids used in building done in horizontal, vertical and side projection, and horizontal and vertical cross sections of the same; isometrical representation of single building stones and simple elements of building construction. The different styles of wall bonds (stretcher, binder, English and lateral bond), wall angles, joining and crossing walls; chimneys, hollow walls, buttresses. Construction of main and partition walls for several adjoining apartments. Class III. Technical drawing (from models only). Irregular forms of walls; arch construction in brick (crown, depressed, round, flat. pointed and relief arches), their form-stones and mouldings. Decorative work on windows and doorways. Simple dome construction; simple lunettes. Freehand drawing: in freehand drawing for masons and stonecutters the object is, in all three classes. to impress the principle that only such decorative work is of value and artistic importance as answers a constructive purpose or which is designed to give the building and its
124) surfaces rhythm, articulation and graceful proportions. For this reason no model is to be drawn, unless its connection with the whole is clear to the pupil. Besides, there can be selected as models simple serial ornaments for wall bands and parts of mouldings; various fillings for square, rectangular, circular and oval wall surfaces, for wall friezes and pilaster strips, for window casings. etc.; simpler and more ornate foliage and flower forms for templet work or ornament; spiral scrolls and their decoration, their use in consoles, keystones and gables. Coats of arms. shields and cartouches for facade ornamentation.
B. Stonecutters: Class I. Geometric and projective drawing. The geometric elements, with constant regard to their practical-technical execution and their employment in stonecutting: line patterns, layingout angles from a stone base. Line dividing on a free-stone wall. scale and transfer of scale on a stone pedestal, angles and their division in bossage or a window lintel. The circle and its parts, finding the center of a segment arch or a circular window. Circular division and polygons in a stone filling. Tangent problems in a torsional twist in a window scale. Basket handle arch for a church window. Ellipse on a bridge arch. Spiral in a stairway. Class II. Technical drawing (from models only). Moulding details and their combination into mouldings. Simple forms of stones in ground, front and side plan. Cut forms and isometric representations of the same. Cut-stone bonds, building them into brickwork. The various types of arch construction (crown, depressed, round, pointed and elliptic arches, smooth and serrated arches, coupled arches). Pillars, railings and balustrades. Simple projections. Class III. Technical drawing (from models only). Patterns of garden pillars and columns. Base, belt and main moulding courses and building them into brick walls. Round and pointed arch moulding. More ornate window and doorway construction. Niches. Free and wall curbs. Simple open steps. Projection of complicated stones. Freehand drawing: for each of the three years there is a systematic selection of suitable patterns in stone sculpture. adapted to the proficiency of the students in drawing, such as egg and leaf-stem mouldings. other serial ornaments, various fillings in friezes and pilaster strips, in stone bases and pediments, in door and window scrolls. in balustrades and other railings. Stone volutes and their ornamentation. Scroll, leaf and flower work for wall surfaces, door jambs, capitals and key-stones. Foliage and fruit scrollwork, arms. shields and cartouches as facade decorations, for pilaster and pillar ornament, decorative columns, simple animal forms and allegorical figures. lettering.
C. Carpenters: Class I. Geometrical and technical drawing: elements of geometrical drawing, with constant regard to their technical execution and application to carpentry. Line patterns and laying-out of rectangles. Line division in board and picket fence. Metric measurement, reduced scale, and transfer of measurements on a wooden column. Angles and their division in a garden gate. The circle and its parts in a roof window. Circle division and polygon in a well enclosure. Tangent exercises on a sawed-out gable. Three-centered arch in a window
125) frame. Ellipse for a gallery. Moulding elements and their assembly. Class II. Technical drawing: simple wood solids done in horizontal. vertical and side projection, cross-sections of the same, their design in isometrical presentation. Beam joints (running joint, tie joint, mortise joint, dovetail joint, skew-notch joint, upper strut, hanging tie, strut frame-all from models). Close-walls, balconies. Simple doors and gates. Centering. Class III. Technical drawing: roof plans, location of beams, simple raising. Roof-prop parts. Roof-prop details at the eaves, at the intermediate purlins, at the ridge (by use of models). Jack rafters. Simple roof supports: standing, lying purlins, collar-beam and truss-frame roofs, dormer-window plans. Plans for simple stairways. Freehand drawing: adapting the various exercises to the drawing ability of the students during the entire three years' course, a suitable and systematic selection is made from the manifold forms of beam and board ornamentation: various patterns of hanging tenons, upperstrut and beam-head decorations, tappets, coronas, barge, verge and hanging boards. Other kinds of sawed work. Simple carved panels of smaller and larger dimensions. Sketches of details of peasants' houses obtained on walking excursions.
f. Practical instruction in materials and tools: the object of this instruction is to familiarize the student with the most important tools, instruments and machines of his trade. and with the appearance, properties and varieties, the relations and comparative prices, the proper manipulation and the practical use of the materials used in the trade. This instruction is designed especially to fit the student for making correct estimates, and for this reason as close a connection as possible is to be made with the instruction in arithmetic, in order to have it become a real aid in estimating. The lessons include the following subjects, given separately for the three trade branches of the school, and related in matter as closely as possible to the given field:
A. Masons: Class I. Purpose of the school workshop: general idea of building; lessons on tools: scaffold building; instruction in brickwork bonds (English and lateral bond. partly with model stones, partly in the form of dry masonry, with bricks and sand). Lessons on materials: lime, lime slaking, preparation and hardening of air mortar. Bricks: face bricks, moulded, perforated and arch bricks. Dutch bricks, paving tiles, flags, roof tiles. earthenware pipe, chamotte clay and stone. Class II. Instruction in bonding acute and obtuse wall angles. as well as bonded-in walls and piers. Suavian and Dutch bond, herring-bone bond. Exercises in English and cross-bond with adhesive material. Lessons on materials: cement (its production, properties and application, Roman and Portland cements), concrete, concrete moulding, plaster and its use; wall decay by efflorescence (its cause and prevention); wood fungus (its cause and prevention); sand, gravel (river and pit sand); the natural building stones: limestone, sandstone, volcanic stones (trass. from near Nordlingen), granite; gompholite (its origin). Class III. Masonry with facing stones, masonry of chimneys and arches with practical exercises. Arch masonry work. Setting of window and
(126) door uprights. Caulking the interstices of window uprights with excelsior or similar material. Protecting structural parts from climatic influence. Setting and building in overload supports. The finishing coat. Its preparation with lime and cement mortar (inside and outside finish) mouldings with bends, etc. Explanation in regard to the nature and construction of foundations. Anchoring and under-pinning the structural parts. Preparation, clearing the ground, etc., for quite simple rectangular buildings. Method of constructing simple firing contrivances (washfire places, country baking ovens). Steps for the protection of wood against danger of fire. Suggestions regarding drainage arrangements of buildings. Rabitz, Monier and plaster-board walls. Concrete ceiling. Covering of iron parts.
B. Stonecutters: Class I. Explanation of the tools used by masons and stonecutters. Various lifting apparatuses (from the iron crowbar to the devices for power operation). Setting up scaffolding. Setting into the brick masonry bond (English bond with three-quarter and split stones). Practical exercises in slaking lime and building (foundations, carrying out of stairways, setting cut stone). Working cut stone (practical exercise on an easily cut stone and one more difficult to cut, limestone and granite). gurletted, chiselled, granulated, axed. smoothed and polished. Instruction in materials: properties, production and uses of bricks; properties, production and uses of air or white lime mortar. Quarries and quarry operation. Masonry of unfinished and cut stone. Concerning the setting of cut stone. limestone and varieties of gypsum. Class II. Stone-working machines. Pneumatic chisel, lathes. rubbing machines, etc. Practical exercise in making setting-joints (explanation of stonecutting). Exercise in stonecutting on plaster models or soft stones. Working on model in granite (entry steps, steps without profile, end step with nosing, main-exit steps with pedestals, steps with profile). Models in limestone (simple stonecutting. various mouldings). Lessons in materials: all the stones occurring in nature, with regard to their applicability to building (granite, limestone, sandstone and volcanic stone and clays, e. g.. pozzolana. terranova, etc.). Class III. Practical exercises: splitting and working up of simple and complicated stones (for instance, core arches, wagon vault and groined vaulting), first of all in gypsum. Making of various springers and keystones in limestone. Making the necessary wood forms for core arches. Making core-arch springers of granite. Lessons on materials: plaster mortar, water, hydraulic or cement mortar; the cements (Roman and Portland cement) in greater detail. Concrete and artificial stone.
C. Carpenters: Class I. Tools and instruments. Practical exercises, first of all in the use of tools. Technology of wood: wood as building material; its growth, properties, varieties, defects and diseases (wood fungus, its origin and prevention). Felling and further working-up of wood into cut goods. Priming and impregnation of wood. Class II. Exhaustive consideration of the domestic varieties of wood: fir, pine, spruce, larch. summer and winter oak, red and white beech, maple, ash (,woods more rarely used: alder, lime, elm, birch, poplar,
(127) willow. pitch pine). The utilization of these woods according to their properties. The most important fruit trees and foreign building woods. Woodworking machines. In the practical exercises, making of the various simple wood joints, always in connection with the drawing instruction. Concrete moulds. Class III. Extension of the practical instruction to include the more difficult joints, beam setting and roof joining, according to the ability and advancement of the individual students. Note.-The practical instruction for the third and fourth classes is related to the drawing lessons in the respective classes.
2. Evening continuation classes. Beginning with the winter of 1909, certain buildings used for evening instruction have been given over exclusively to industrial classes with the object of enabling principals and teachers to give their attention exclusively to the problem of making this instruction of more practical value than formerly to persons at work during the day who have left school at an early age. Recently, more teachers with practical experience in commercial shops have been added, temporary teachers' certificates being granted for this purpose.
This tendency to make the evening industrial classes more practical is in line with the development of such courses in other cities, and in general it may be said that the industrial. courses offered compare favorably with similar courses in other cities. Of the three technical high schools in which such instruction is now offered, excellent work is being done in at least one which was observed by the writer. The principal of this school reports that 2,265 students were in attendance the opening night, the machine and electrical shops being so crowded that an extra session had to be provided at 5:30 in the afternoon to accommodate the overflow. The large attendance in this one school when compared with the combined enrolment, the first week, of about 3.000 in the three schools a year ago, shows the increasing popularity of these courses, and seems to indicate that further development and extension of the evening industrial courses would be desirable.
3. Further provisions for day continuation classes. The school administration has recognized the need and the importance of making further provisions for continuation schools and classes, especially for part-time day classes for the younger persons already at
(128) work. Only the more capable and ambitious, and the older persons are attracted to the evening classes: " It is beyond the resources of the average boy, whether in body or character, to give up two hours an evening for half the year in a desire to better his training, and yet the city ought to do something for the average boy and girl. It is deplorable to see a boy enter upon what has been described as a `blind alley' occupation, an occupation where he will be no further ahead at eighteen than when he begins work, where he will receive no training for advanced work, and where he may look forward to an entire life without betterment. The Board of Education should furnish opportunity for all pupils to better their condition, and this can be done by offering the right kind of continuation schoolwork."
But the cooperation of employers, necessary for the part-time day classes, has not been forthcoming, although efforts have been made to secure such cooperation. The Board of Education has even considered the plan o: securing State legislation requiring employers to cause their employees between fourteen and sixteen years of age to attend school from six to ten hours a week.While it may be admitted that the complete cooperation of employers will not be secured without compulsory legislation, the experience of other cities indicates that a good start might be made without such legislation. The following suggestions may be drawn from the experience of these cities with the cooperative plan in the public-school system.
(a) The alternate week plan of cooperation is most likely to succeed on the high-school level, and in connection with school instruction distinctly- technical in character, preparing for positions of responsibility above that of the actual mechanic. For employers can hardly be expected to give full pay for half-time, and the financial sacrifice thus demanded of students limits the alternate week plan to those students who are able and willing to make the sacrifice and who have the ambition and the necessary academic preparation
(129) to profit by technical instruction leading to advanced positions. Such students are most likely to be found on the high-school level.
(b) The experience of Cincinnati and Boston shows that large numbers of employers are willing to give from four to fifteen hours a week to their employees. on full pay, for day continuation instruction very definitely related to the daily work. In Cincinnati many of the employers cooperating are convinced that the increased efficiency resulting from such instruction more than compensates for the time taken from shopwork. Officers of the New York Central Railroad Company also testify that shop production is actually increased as a result of their apprentice schools, although four hours a week are taken from shopwork for the academic studies and drawing.
(c) Most of the successful efforts at cooperation have been made through associations of employers and workmen, and have been accompanied by the appointment of advisory committees of employers and unions to secure their continued interest and their criticism and advice on the work of the schools.
(d) Provision should be made for some kind of supervision by the school of the work of the students while in the factory. There are two reasons why this should be done: first, to enable the school to relate its instruction as closely as possible to industrial needs and conditions; second, to afford some protection to the student against possible exploitation by the employer, to see that the student advances on the shop side of his training as rapidly as his ability permits.
It should be added that one obstacle to the adoption of the cooperative plan is the lack of confidence on the part of employers in the immediately practical value of the school instruction, due to the hesitancy on the part of the schools to provide the practical instruction needed. This difficulty was pointed out in the Superintendent's Report, 1910, and a step forward was suggested by way of providing more skilled shop instruction in evening classes. It may not be amiss to add that a specially favorable opportunity is
(130) presented in the Apprentice Schools and in the Farragut Industrial School to win the confidence of employers and workmen, alike, by making the instruction in these schools practical in character.
The generally favorable attitude of employers toward industrial schools, as shown in Chapter III, and the definite offers of cooperation made in the comments of some individual employers, indicate that properly directed efforts to secure voluntary cooperation might not be wholly unsuccessful. Furthermore, the cooperation of employers already secured in two of Chicago's schools - Lewis Institute and the Apprentice Schools - at least gives faith that what has been done might be done again.
4. State legislation. Some interesting legislation bearing on continuation schools is shown in the following provisions of the Ohio compulsory education law, in effect, May, 1910.
Boards of Education are authorized to establish part time day schools for those who are at work, and then may require all who have not completed the eighth grade to continue their schooling until they are sixteen years of age. Those who are at work may be required to attend eight hours a week between the hours of eight A.m. and five P.m. Those who are not employed are required to attend school full time until they are sixteen, no matter what grade they have reached.
The Board of Education of Cincinnati has adopted a resolution to provide " Continuation Schools " to meet the provisions of the law, and therefore all certificates to work hereafter granted will be with the condition that the Board may require attendance at school eight hours a week.
The law expressly provides that certificates to work are to be given only to youths, between fourteen and sixteen years of age, who have completed the fifth grade. Pupils must present to the Superintendent of Schools a written statement from an employer agreeing to give the child legal employment, and to return to the Superintendent of Schools the "certificate" within two days after the child's employment shall cease, with the reason for the withdrawal or dismissal.
Any child between fourteen and sixteen years of age who ceases to work must report at once to the Superintendent of Schools; and said child must be returned to school if employment be not found in two weeks.
II. A COMPARISON WITH OTHER CITIES
For purposes of comparison it will be profitable to take a bird's-eye view of present provisions for public industrial education in day schools in Chicago and in each of five other cities visited by the committee's representative. The outline here given shows in condensed form what is being done by each city as a whole.
1. The Farragut Elementary Industrial School.
2. The Apprentice Schools.
3. Two-year and four-year vocational courses in high schools.
4. Industrial course in grades 6, 7 and 8 under consideration.
In Boston, Massachusetts
1. Optional industrial courses are provided in grades 6 to 8, inclusive. requiring five hours a week, but not jeopardizing the pupils' chances of being graduated in the usual time from the elementary school. Four schools offer such courses in woodwork and bookbinding. Similar courses in printing and in cobbling or elementary leather work are under consideration. One school has 140 pupils in these courses; another school has 75.
2. In two schools. 10 hours, or more, a week, are given in grades 6 to 8 for optional courses in woodwork and elementary metal. Students in these classes have little or no chance of being graduated in the usual time from the elementary school. About 40 students are enrolled in metal work.
3. A Boys' Vocational Class of 20 pupils from the upper grades of one public school building. This class is conducted by the North Bennett Street Industrial School (a social settlement school) in cooperation with the public school authorities. A little less than half-time is given to woodwork, printing and drawing, and the remainder to related academic work. A two-year course in general vocational training is planned for this school, with the possible addition of a third year of more specialized and intensive trade training.
4. The establishment of a girls' vocational class similar to the boys' class is under consideration.
5. A pre-apprentice school giving a two-year course for boys who want to become printers' apprentices at sixteen years of age.
(132) One-half time to trade instruction and one-half to related academic work.
6. A pre-apprentice school in bookbinding is under consideration.
7. A "home school" for pupils in grades 4 to 8 of one school. A five-room apartment is being furnished completely- by pupils in woodwork, brass and sewing classes, and is used for work in domestic science and homemaking. A garden is connected with the school. Pupils in grades ? and 8 give 4 hours a week to this work.
Similar work in another elementary school is under consideration.
8. A girls' trade school, giving one-year practical trade courses in dressmaking, millinery, clothing-machine operating, and strawmachine operating. for girls between fourteen and eighteen years of age. About two-thirds of the time is given to trade instruction and one-third to supplementary academic work. Two hundred students. Subsidized by the State.
9. An independent industrial school admitting boys of fourteen years to four-year trade courses, under State subsidy, is being planned.
10. Girls' High School of Practical Arts. A four-year high school, distinctly technical in character, open to graduates of the elementary school. About one-half of the time is given to industrial work, and one-half to related academic work. College preparation is abandoned. Three hundred and sixty students.
11. The Mechanic Arts High School, which has thus far been the only high school in Boston offering a four-year course in manual training, is revising its course of study to the end that it shall prepare its pupils for industrial efficiency, and not for entrance to college or higher technical institutions.
12. Afternoon industrial classes in two high schools offer work in jewelry and silver.-mithing and in elementary electrical manufacturing. Admission is limited to pupils regularly enrolled in the high school. About four hours a week are given to this work. Twenty-two students were enrolled in the class in jewelry and silversmithing, in May, 1910.
13. Day Continuation Schools  are provided which meet four or five hours a week for 10 consecutive weeks. Courses are offered
(133) in preparatory salesmanship, and in the dry goods and shoe and leather industries, for young men and women already employed in these industries. Students attend these classes during working time without loss of pay. Employers cooperate in meeting the expense of the schools and in furnishing experts in the industries to give the instruction. One hundred and seventy-four students. Courses for bank clerks and for persons in the wool industry are under consideration.
In Newton, Massachusetts
A good schematic presentation of the facilities afforded by the public schools of Newton. Massachusetts, to meet the needs of all classes of children is given by the outline taken from the Superintendent's report and presented herewith [p. 134].
Special attention is called to the articulation (shown by the arrows) of the Independent Industrial School with the grammar grades and with the Technical High School. The last four courses in the Technical High School do not offer preparation for college. All high-school courses are four years in length.
1. In the Extra Technical Course the usual four years' work in manual training for boys is completed in the first three years, about one-half-of the school time being given to shop and drawing. In the fourth year specialized tradework is offered. Some part-time work in commercial shops may also be provided for in the fourth year.
In the handwork for girls a similar distribution of time is made.
2. The Independent Industrial School admits boys who are at least fourteen years of age from the last four grades of the elementary school (there are nine grades in the elementary school). About two-thirds of the time is given to shop and drawing. Woodwork, machinework, electricity, printing and sheet-metal work are offered. The school is at present supported by a private citizen. Forty-five pupils were enrolled in May, 1910.
In Cleveland, Ohio
1. An Elementary Industrial School is provided for pupils who are at least two years behind grade, and who have either finished the sixth grade or have tried and have failed to finish that grade.
135) Half-time is given to shopwork and half to closely related and practical bookwork. Boys have shopwork in wood and sheet metal. Girls have -cooking, machine and hand sewing, and garment-making. Classes are segregated both in academic studies and in shopwork. The course is two years in length with a year or two for specialized work to be added if the need arises. One hundred and forty-five pupils.
2. A similar school for over-age pupils in a congested district was started in the autumn, 1910, in a new building with full equipment for manual training and household arts, and with a gymnasium and swimming pool.
3. The Technical High School offers a four-year course to graduates of the elementary school. Half-time is given to shop and drawing in the first three years, and two-thirds in the fourth. Preparation for college is not the dominating aim of the school. The academic subjects are not treated in the usual manner, but are organized about the needs of the school shops and laboratories and about the demands of industrial life. Classes are segregated throughout, the subject-matter for boys being different from that for girls. The school year is divided into four quarters of twelve weeks each.
4. The establishment of another Technical High School, similar to the present one, is under consideration, to meet the demand created by the present school.
In Cincinnati, Ohio
1. Day Continuation School for machine-shop apprentices. About 200 apprentices from 18 different machine shops give 4 hours a week, without loss of pay, to instruction provided by the Board of Education. The students are divided into nine groups, each group meeting one-half day a week for 48 weeks in the year. The course is 4 years long, corresponding to the regular apprenticeship term, and is closely related to the shop needs of the apprentices. No toolwork is given in school. One instructor spends two half-days a week visiting shops, on pay.
2. The Industrial Course for Boys is a four-year high-school course, giving five-eighths of the time the first two years to drawing and shopwork, completing in that time the usual four-year course in manual training. In the third and fourth years the students specialize in some trade as apprentices in commercial shops, under pay, spending alternate weeks in school and shop.
3. The Industrial Course for Girls is similar in organization to the industrial course for boys, offering in the first two years the usual four-year course in domestic science and art, and in the last two years the cooperative plan of one week in commercial shops or stores and the next week in school.
In the above industrial courses for high-school boys and girls the academic work is closely- related to shop and industrial needs. The courses do not prepare for college. They are offered for the first time in 1910-11.
In New York, New York
1. The Vocational School for Boys offers a two-year preparatory trade course in machine shop, sheet metal, forging, plumbing, electric wiring, printing, carpentry, cabinetmaking, turning and patternmaking. One-fourth of the school-time is given to academic work closely related to the shopwork.
The school is open to graduates of the elementary school, and to those who are not graduates of the elementary school, provided the latter are fourteen years old and pass an examination on certain elementary subjects.
Sessions are from 9:00 A.M. to 5:00 P.m., 5 days a week, 11 months in the year. Three hundred students.
2. The establishment of another vocational school for boys, in a different part of the city, is under consideration.
3. A four-year industrial course for boys is offered in one high school, giving nearly one-half of the time to shopwork and drawing in the first three years, and in the last year seven-tenths of the time to advanced shopwork in a special line. Open to graduates of the elementary school.
4. A three-year technical course for girls is offered in one girls' high school, giving about two-thirds of the time in the last three years to courses for dressmakers and embroiderers, milliners, designers, printers, bookbinders and library assistants.
5. The Manhattan Trade School for Girls, formerly under private auspices, is nona part of the public school system. It offers trade courses in power-machine operating, dressmaking, millinery, novelty work and designing. About one-fifth of the school time is given to academic work closely related to tradework.
6. A plan is under consideration to open the elementary school woodshops afternoons from three to five o'clock, and evenings and
(137) Saturdays, to boys over twelve years of age, and to others, for optional work.
7. Another plan is under consideration to establish optional industrial courses in one or two elementary schools where there are 60 or more classes in grades 7 and 8.
8. The Board of Education is attempting to secure from the State authorities permission to sell the products of industrial schools in the open market at prevailing prices.
The five cities compared with Chicago in the above outline were selected because they have made more complete provisions for industrial education than any of the other cities visited by the committee's representative. Boston leads all of the cities in this respect, with -New York second.
All types of industrial courses thus far developed in public day schools in this country- are represented in the six cities mentioned. The Apprentice Schools of Chicago are the only examples in this country- of what may be called the " seasonal type " of day continuation schools. With respect to the organization of this type of continuation schools Chicago may be said to be in advance of other cities, since this type of school apparently fills a real need.
In the high school, Chicago has not provided - with the exception of the builders' course - as thoroughgoing industrial courses as Cleveland, Cincinnati and Boston. Chicago has no trade or preparatory trade schools and has very inadequate provisions for optional industrial courses in the upper elementary grades. Day continuation schools like those in Cincinnati are also lacking in Chicago.
In some of the cities a definite effort is made to articulate the industrial schools with higher schools. In Boston, for example, the industrial courses in grammar grades prepare students for any course in high school. In Newton, graduates of the preparatory trade school may enter any course in the technical high school.
III. PRIVATE INDUSTRIAL SCHOOLS
1. The Lewis Institute Cooperative Course for shop apprentices is a two-year course, distinctly technical in character, and intended to train apprentices in the machine trades for positions above that
(138) of the actual mechanic. For admission, boys must be between sixteen and twenty-one years of age. No definite academic requirements are set for admission. but only 5 of the 36 boys in the course in November, 1910, had not completed the eighth grade, and nearly half had from one to four years of high-school training. The average age is about seventeen and one-half years.
Wages are paid weekly, for the time in school and the time in the factory shops, at the rate of 7 cents an hour the first year and 9 cents an hour the second year, all time lost from school or factory being deducted at the regular rate. The tuition fee of $50 a year is paid by a private benefactor.
The course was started in January, 1909, in cooperation with the Chicago branch of the National Metal Trades Association. About 21 firms were cooperating with the Institute in November, 1910. The apprentices are grouped in two's, each boy in a group alternating with his mate between school and shop in successive weeks. The two-year course counts as half of the four-year apprentice term.
The subjects studied in school are:
|Winter and Spring:||Hours per day|
|Principles of mechanics||2|
|English composition, literature and public speaking||1|
|Machine sketching :||2|
|Chemistry, demonstration lectures, laboratory work and recitations||6|
|Principles of mechanics||2|
|English composition. literature and public speaking||1|
|Winter, Spring and Autumn:||Hours per day|
|English composition and industrial history||1|
|Machine drawing and design||2|
|Machine-shop practice and forgework||2|
|Electricity, engineering principles and practical mathematics||4|
|Laboratory work in testing machinery and strength of materials||2|
The school sessions are 24 weeks a year, 5 days a week, 8 hours a day in the autumn, winter and spring terms, and 6 hours a day in the summer term. Half of the school time is devoted to drawing and work in the school shops, except in the summer term which is given over entirely to applied science and mathematics.
Comment. That the course is technical in character, as distinguished from the more narrow trade instruction, is evident from a glance at the subjects outlined above. The instruction in mathematics is based largely on the work of students in the school shops and laboratories, and includes arithmetic, mensuration, and simple algebra and trigonometry. Some commercial arithmetic is introduced in connection with instruction in business forms, correspondence, etc.
Two hours a week are given to industrial history under the instructor in English. Lectures are given in the first hour, and the students write in the second hour on the subject of the lectures. An outline of the topics covered is given on page 222 of this report. The course treats-of the general progress of industrial history mainly in England and the United States. It may not be amiss to suggest that a more intensive history of the machine trades, at least as a point of departure, would be more closely suited to the needs and interests of the apprentices, since they are at work in those trades.
One instructor, who acts as director or supervisor for the Cooperative Course, gives considerable time to interviews with factory managers, parents and pupils, in order to make proper arrangements for placing boys in factories for the week not in school. Little or no effort is, however, made to study the daily work of the
(140) apprentices in the factory with the object of relating the school instruction in a detailed way to that work. In this connection the cooperative courses in Beverly, Massachusetts, and Cincinnati, Ohio, offer suggestions which might be of value.
An important feature of the course is the provision for shopwork in school in addition to that done in the factory. One weakness of cooperative courses is that the student may be subjected to more or less exploitation in the factory by foremen and superintendents, and that the factory training in certain highly specialized establishments may not be so broad as is desirable. Shopwork in school, together with some form of supervision by the school of the students' work in the factory, should be of service in overcoming this weakness of cooperative courses.
2. The day and evening classes of the Young Men's Christian Association, with a yearly enrolment of about 2.000 men and boys, are of interest for our present purpose mainly because they indicate a need for educational effort of the supplemental or continuation type which is at present not fully met by the public schools.
Among the technical courses offered to evening classes, the following are not covered by the public school evening classes: steam and gas engineering, engineering design, concrete construction and design, and heating, ventilating and plumbing.
A day school for apprentices in the building trades is conducted each year from January to March, inclusive, with an enrolment of about 50 students. The following subjects in the present tentative course of study indicate an effort to provide more practical instruction than that offered in the corresponding public Apprentice Schools before the year 1911.
Plan-reading, estimating and building construction. Short methods of taking off quantities, cost of material and labor, construction methods and strength of materials, with standard hand-books for texts.
Building law. Lectures on legal relations of architect, contractor and owner; building ordinances, contracts, specifications, statements; lien law, estimates and tenders.
Mechanics of beams, logarithms, slide rule, study of the steel square.
The apprentice course is at present three years in length. Business English is offered in the first year only, and practical mathematics in the second and third years. Architectural drafting is
141) given each year. No instruction is offered in geography, history, civics or shopwork.
Tuition fees, in addition to the Association membership fees, are charged for all classes.
3. A correspondence course in printing is conducted by The Inland Printer under the direction of the International Typographical Union. The course aims to prepare compositors for positions in the more artistic phases of composition work. Thirty-seven lessons, in all. are provided: nine on lettering; ten on the principles of design and color harmony; ten on the application of these principles to various kinds of composition work; one each on layout of books. papermaking and platemaking, and four lessons on imposition. The distinctive feature of the instruction is the emphasis placed upon the principles of design and color harmony, developing by this means the initiative and independence of the student compositors.
The International Typographical Union pays all expenses incident to advertising the course and gives a rebate of $5 on the regular tuition fee of $25 to every student who completes the course satisfactorily. Many local unions offer their own members an additional part of the tuition fee.
About 1,500 students were enrolled in two years from the time the course was established (March, 1908) .4. Factory apprentice schools. Of the 181 firms from whom replies were received in connection with the investigation described in Chapter III, only three reported an apprenticeship system which included instruction in academic branches and drawing. These three schools are briefly described below. They are of interest for our present purpose mainly because they show the employers' attitude on the need for supplementary instruction of the continuation school type, and because they reveal to some extent the possibility of cooperation between the public schools and the industries.
Diligent inquiry failed to discover such a system in operation in any other manufacturing establishment in Chicago. A strong argument in favor of continuation schools in Chicago is thus furnished, on the one hand, by the small number of schools of this character in the factories of the city, and the fact that only the largest establishments can afford to provide them; and, on the other hand, by the testimony of employers and unions, given in Chapters III and IV, on the great need for a better trained class of skilled workmen.
(1) The Western Electric Company has a four-year course for machinist and patternmaking apprentices. Graduates of manual-training schools are given credit for the first year's work. Two hours a week are given to instruction in mathematics, mechanical drawing, and the reading of blue-prints and specifications.
(2) The McCormick Works, of the International Harvester Company, has a four-year course for machinist apprentices. Two hours a week are given to shop arithmetic. Between 50 and 60 apprentices were in attendance in February, 1910.
(3) The School for Apprentices of the Lakeside Press admits to the composing-room only those boys who are graduates of the grammar schools and who are between fourteen and fifteen years of age. For the pressroom, sixteen years is the minimum age requirement. Boys between fourteen and sixteen years of age work 4 1/2 hours daily in the shops, and spend 3 1/2 hours daily in the factory schoolroom. One-half of the time in the school is spent in trade instruction, under an instructor in printing; the other half is given to academic studies under a special instructor in these subjects. After the first two years, apprentices are required to spend the full time in the factory shops, and must take evening instruction, three nights a week, two hours each night, in a school provided by the company.
Instruction in the factory school includes a review of arithmetic (factory problems), English, drawing, physiography, simple bookkeeping related to the printing-office, algebra, geometry, and the elements of mechanics applied to the machines, engines and motors in the factory equipment. In algebra, Wells' Shorter Course is used; in geometry, Wentworth's First Steps in Geometry. Some attention is given to the history of the alphabet and of printing.
The school was started in July, 1908. The length of the apprenticeship term is seven years. About 100 apprentices were in attendance in May, 1910.
5. The Coyne National Trade School is a short-course trade school conducted as a business undertaking for profit. Tuition fees range from $30 to $75. Courses are offered in plumbing, electricity, bricklaying, painting, decorating, paperhanging, and in architectural, mechanical, sheet-metal and carpenters' drawing. The courses in painting, decorating and paperhanging are under the direction of the Master Painters' Association, of Chicago. The catalogue states that 2 1/2 to 3 months are ordinarily required to complete a course
(143) in the day classes. No book instruction is given and no academic requirements are set for admission. The ages of students range from fourteen to fifty. The school was established in 1902. About 450 students were enrolled in 1909.
Comment. Schools of this type, run for profit, exist in many cities. Whatever may be said against them because of lack of thoroughness and because of the opposition they arouse among union men, it must be admitted that the large number of persons who are willing to pay the necessary tuition and living expenses indicates a need for instruction in the building trades not adequately met by present provisions in commercial practice. It is also evident that this need could be better met by public schools whose graduates should have a definite status as advanced apprentices.
6. The Chicago Technical College offers two-year courses in the day- school in architecture and civil and mechanical engineering. No definite academic requirements are set for admission. No shopwork is offered. Tuition in the day school is $100 for the year of nine months; in the evening school, $65, three evenings a week. The total enrolment in 1909-10 was about 400. The school was established in 1903.
- Report of the Superintendent of Schools, 1910.
- The distinction here made between the manual-training high school is about the same as that presented in the report on The Place of Industries in Public Education, by a committee of the National Council of Education, July 1910.
- From two-fifths to one-half, in the scientific course. In this statement, and similarly throughout the report, the time devoted to physical training, study, opening exercises, and music is not counted in computing the relative amounts of time given to shopwork and drawing, on the one hand, and to academic subjects, on the other.
- For a statement of the amount of time given to manual work in 159 high schools, see page 87 of the report mentioned in note 2, above.
- For the sake of completeness, the commercial courses are included in the discussion which follows.
- An average of about 51 per cent of the school time in the revised manual-training course, as compared with 46 per cent in the former scientific course.
- Reference is here made to subjects of study outlined in Chapter VIII of this report, and to outlines of mathematics, physiography and English, prepared at the Lane Technical High School, Chicago.
- See pp. 193,195.
- The only specialization now offered is in electrical or gas-engine construction in the fourth year. This subject may be taken as a year-subject, 6 periods a week, or as a semester-subject, as formerly offered, 4 periods a week.
- Course of Study, 1909.
- Except the courses in design and in household arts which give to handwork, including art, something less than half of the school time.
- Unless the biology offered in the household arts courses is to be organized as applied biology. The half year of science in certain other courses is understood to be physiography, according to the statements of principals and teachers.
- See section 5, p. 193 ff. The two-year courses in St. Louis can hardly be called technical courses, since they merely permit the individual pupil, on the approval of the principal, to lengthen his school day by doing additional work of the usual manual-training and domestic art type.
- The WÔlliamson School of Trades, the Carnegie School for Apprentices and journeymen, and the Wilmerding School of Mechanical Arts.
- Forty-seven and four-tenths per cent of the boys in the first year of all Chicago high schools were fourteen years of age or under, 30.8 per cent were fifteen, and 21.6 per cent were sixteen or over, according to the Superintendent's Report, 1909. The percentage in the older group would probably be about 16.4, if taken in the preceding September when the selection of courses is made. Hence, about 85 per cent of the boys entering high school in September were under sixteen years of age, which is the minimum age at which specialization is commonly begun.
- See p. 195.
- See pp. 193, 195. The experience of Cleveland indicates that such courses might also in time be generally endorsed by colleges as providing satisfactory preparation for college technical courses. Course 21, printing, was not offered until the second semester, 1910-11.
- The number and per cent of pupils enrolled in the ten courses in December, 1911, as furnished by the Superintendent of Schools, were as follows: [See Table A below] The table reinforces in every particular the statements made on page 98 concerning the enrolment in September, 1910.
- See Chapters IX and XI.
- The time allotted to music, physical education and study is not counted in computing this ratio.
- See pp. 193-195.
- From one-half to over two-thirds. of the school time, as compared with about two-fifths at present given in the Flower Technical High School.
- For the methods used in shopwork, see Chapter VIII.
- See especially sections 1, 2, 8, Chapter VII
- From the Course of Study for Elementary Schools, adopted June 29, 1911.
- For the sake of comparison, the 80 minutes assumed to be allotted to nature study in the industrial course is taken from the industrial arts period and is scheduled with the academic subjects.
- See Course of Study for Elementary Schools, State of New York, 1910, and the admission requirements for industrial schools, described in Chapter VII of this report. Courses intended primarily for over-age children in the lower grades are not included in the type under consideration. In such courses the aim is mainly to advance the pupil on the academic side, rather than to prepare him definitely for vocations.
- A complete system of industrial courses to meet the needs of pupils from twelve to sixteen years of age, below the academic level of the high school, is presented in items 1, 2 and 3 of the committee's recommendations on pp. 75-21 of this report.
- Statement of president of Builders' Association.
- School Report, 1910.
- Up to the end of the third week of January, 1911.
- No sessions on Saturday.
- See p. 218 for an outline of this book.
- See p. 200.
- See p. 201.
- Statement in Organisation und Lehrplane der Obligatorischen Fach and Fortbildsings-Schrlen for Knaben in Munchen, 1910.
- See p. 200 and p. 119 ff. The time given to the subject of religion in the Munich schools is not counted in this statement.
- See p. 119 ff. Detailed outlines for the Trade School for Carpenters, Amsterdam, Holland, and the School for Carpentry, Brussels, Belgium, are given in the Second Annual Report of the Massachusetts Commission on Industrial Education, January, 1908, pp. 335 ff. and 376 ff.
- See p. 140.
- The percentage of attendance in 1910 was 88.1, which was lower than that for any other division of the Chicago public schools except the kindergartens, according to the School Report, 1910.
- Statement of the president of the Carpenters' and Builders' Association.
- The criticism of the former work of the schools is based on visits to the schools by a representative of the committee, and on interviews with three former principals and with five teachers.
- From Hurd's Statutes.
- School Report, 1910.
- The translation is taken from Bulletin No. 14 of the National Society for the Promotion of Industrial Education, New York. An outline of the Munich continuation school for unskilled workers is given on p. 204 ff.
- Autumn, 1910.
- Statement of the Assistant Superintendent of Schools.
- School Reports, 1909, 1910.
- Of the 20,099 students in evening classes, 1908-9, 84.3 per cent were over eighteen years of age, 41.8 per cent were over twenty-one (School Report, 1909).
- School Report, 1909, p. 89.
- Offers to assist in securing the cooperation of employers and unions were made by the Association of Commerce and by the Federation of Labor (School Report, 1909). Efforts were also made to secure the cooperation of manufacturers in sending boys to the Farragut Elementary Industrial School on the alternate two-week plan. The latter effort failed partly because the boys were unwilling to sacrifice half of their wages for this purpose, according to a statement of the Assistant Superintendent of Schools.
- School Report, 1909.
- The alternate-week plan is in operation in Fitchburg and Beverly, Massachusetts, Freeport, Illinois, Lewis Institute, Chicago, and is under consideration in Cleveland and Cincinnati, Ohio, Worcester, Massachusetts, and Moline, Illinois. In all of these cases the plan is confined to high-school students, except in the Beverly Industrial School, which admits graduates of the sixth grade, and in the Lewis Institute Cooperative Course, which enrolls, out of a total of thirty-six students, only five who had not completed the eighth grade.
- See p. 201.
- See American Engineer and Railroad Journal, July, 1907.
- For a discussion of forms of supervision now in operation, see pp. 150, 151.
- Since the above was written, the cooperative or alternate-week plan has been started at the Lane Technical High School. By an arrangement with the Chicago Telephone Company, students to the number of forty or fifty are formed into two groups, one of which works for the company while the other group is in school. At the beginning of each week the groups change places, those at work returning to school, and those in school going to work...Students receive $9 a week while at work for the company. They receive no pay while in school. The students are selected from the fourth-year class on the basis of their knowledge of electricity because of the technical nature of the work they are called on to perform. Those who fall behind in their studies are not allowed to continue with the practical work. After graduation from the school the students are offered permanent positions with the company. Plans for extending the scheme to other lines of work are now under way.
- Taken from a circular issued by Cincinnati public-school authorities.
- Fuller descriptions of schools and courses in the five cities here included, and in other cities, are given in Chapters VI, VII, and VIII.
- The public-school authorities bear no part of the expense of the school.
- Resolution passed by the School Committee, September 7, 1909.
- Although these schools are commercial, not industrial, in character, they are here included because of the importance of continuation schools in a complete system of vocational education.
- The school is administered by the public-school authorities, and it is not unlikely that it will ultimately be supported by public funds.
- Schools and courses of college grade are not included.
- See p. 218 for an outline of a course in applied mathematics worked out mainly in other classes of Lewis Institute.
- See p. 207 and p. 201.
|No. of course||12||13||14||15||16||17||18||19||20||21||Total|
|Per cent of total enrolment||28.8||50.6||5.9||0.17||1.3||0.2||1.5||9.6||1.6||0||99.66|