Newer Ideals of Peace
Prefactory Note and Table of Contents
These studies in the gradual development of the moral substitutes for war have been made in the industrial quarter of a cosmopolitan city where the morality exhibits marked social and international aspects.
Parts of two chapters have been published before in the form of addresses, and two others as articles in the North American Review and in the American Journal of Sociology. All of them however are held together by a conviction that has been maturing through many years.
3 Newer ideals of peace are dynamic; if made operative will do away with war as a natural process
4 Of the older ideals the appeal to pity is dogmatic .
5 The appeal to the sense of prudence also dogmatic and at this moment seems impotent
6 Outlook for universal peace by international arbitration
8 Primitive and profound impulses operate against impulse to war . . . . . . .
9 Appeal to pity and prudence unnecessary if the cosmopolitan interest in human affairs is utilized . 9
11 Social morality originates in social affections
13 Emotion determines social relations in the poorer quarters of a cosmopolitan city
14 New immigrants develop phenomenal powers of association
15 Their ideal of government includes kindliness as well as protection
16 Crowded city quarters the focal point of governmental progress
17 Life at these points must shape itself with reference to the demands of social justice .
18 Simple foundations laid there for an international order
20 Ideals formed "in the depth of anonymous life" make for realization
21 Impulses toward compassionate conduct imperative
24 The internationalism of good will foreseen by the philosopher
- 25 A quickening concern for human welfare; international aspects illustrated by world-wide efforts to eradicate tuberculosis, first signs of the substitution of nurture for warfare
- 26 This substitution will be a natural process
- 27 Our very hope for it, a surrender to the ideals of the humble
- 28 Accounting must be taken between survivals of militarism and manifestations of newer humanitarianism
- 29Tendency to idealization marked eighteenth-century humanitarian
- 30 Newer ideals of this century sustained only by knowledge and companionship
SURVIVALS OF MILITARISM IN CITY GOVERNMENT
31 American Republic founded under the influence of doctrinaire eighteenth-century ideals. Failure in municipal administration largely due to their inadequacy
32 Modern substitutes of the evolutionary conception of progress for eighteenth-century idealism
34 Failure of adjustment between the old form of government and present condition results in reversion to military and legal type
35 National governmental machinery provides no vehicle for organized expression of popular will
36 Historic governments dependent upon force of arms
37 Founders placed too exclusive a value upon the principles defended by the War of the Revolution. Example of the overestimation of the spoils of war
39 Immigration problem an illustration of the failure to treat our growing Republic in a spirit of progressive and developing democracy
40 Present immigration due partly to the philosophic dogmas of the eighteenth-century. Theory of naturalization still rests upon those dogmas
42 No adequate formulization of newer philosophy although immigration situation has become much more industrial than political
46 Exploitation of immigrants carried on under guise of preparation for citizenship
48 Failure to develop a government fitted to varied peoples
49 Attitude of contempt for immigrant survival of a spirit of conqueror toward inferior people
50 Contempt reflected by children toward immigrant parents
52 Universal franchise implies a recognition of social needs and ideals
54 Difficulties of administering repressive government in a democracy
56 The attempt inevitably develops the corrupt politician as a friend of the vicious
57 He must be followed by successive reformers who represent the righteous and protect tax interests
58 Illustration from the point of view of humble people
59 Dramatic see-saw must continue until we attain the ideals of an evolutionary democracy
60 Community divided into repressive and repressed, representing conqueror and conquered
FAILURE TO UTILIZE IMMIGRANTS IN CITY GOVERNMENT
62 Democratic governments must reckon with the unsuccessful if only because they represent majority of citizens
63 To demand protection from unsuccessful is to fail in self- government
64 Study of immigrants might develop result in revived enthusiasm for human possibilities reacting upon ideals of government
65 Social resources of immigrants wasted through want of recognition of old habits
- 66 Illustrated by South Italians' ability to combine community life with agricultural occupations, which is disregarded
- 67 Anglo-Saxon distrust of experiments with land tenure and taxation illustrated by Doukhobors
- 68 Immigrant's contribution to city life
- 70 Military ideals blind statesmen to connection between social life and government
- 71 Corrupt politician who sees the connection often first friend of immigrant
- 72 Real statesmen would work out scheme of naturalization founded upon social needs
- 74 Intelligent co-operation of immigrants necessary for advancing social legislation
- 75 Daily experience of immigrants not to be ignored as basis of patriotism
- 78 Lack of cosmopolitan standard widens gulf between immigrant parents and children
- 79 Government is developing most rapidly in its relation to the young criminal and to the poor and dependent
- 81 Denver Juvenile Court is significant in its attitude toward repressive government
- 83 Good education in reform schools indicates compunction on the part of the State
- 84 Government functions extended to care of detectives and dependents
- 85 Ignores normal needs of every citizen
- 86 Socialists would meet the needs of workingmen by socialized legislation, but refuse to deal with the present state
- 87 At present radical changes must come from forces outside life of the people
- 88 Imperial governments are now concerning themselves with primitive essential needs of workingmen
- 90 Republics restrict functions of the government
- 91 Is America, in clinging to eighteenth-century traditions, losing its belief in the average man?
MILITARISM AND INDUSTRIAL LEGISLATION
- 93 American cities slow to consider immigration in relation to industry
- 94 Working-men alone must regard them in relation to industrial situations
- 95 Assimilation of immigrants by workingman due both to economic pressure and to idealism
- 96 Illustrated by Stock Yards Strike
- 97 And by the strike in Anthracite Coal Fields
- 98 In the latter aroused public opinion forced Federal Government to deal with industrial conditions
- 101 In complicated modern society not always easy to see where social order lies
- 104 Chicago Stock Yards Strike illustrates such a situation
- 107 Government should have gained the enthusiasm immigrants gave to union
- 109 War element an essential part of strike
- 110 Appeal to loyalty the nearest approach to a moral appeal
- 112 Reluctance of United States Govermnent to recognize matters of industry as germane to government
- 113 Resulting neglect of civic duty .
- 114 The working-man's attitude toward war as expressed by his international organization
- 116 Commerce the modern representative of conquest
- 117 Standard of life should be the test of a nation's prosperity, so recognized by workingmen
- 118 Social amelioration undertaken by those in closest contact with social maladjustments
- 119 Present difficulties in social reform will continue until class interests are subordinated to a broader conception of social progress
- 121 If self-government were inaugurated by advanced thinkers now. they would make research into early forms of industrial governments
- 122 Autocratic European governments have recognized workingman's need of protection
- 123 Has Democracy a right to refuse this protection?
GROUP MORALITY IN THE LABOR MOVEMENT
- 124 Industrial changes which belong to the community as a whole have unfortunately divided it into two camps
- 125 These are typified by Employers' Associations and Trades Unions each developing a group morality
- 127 Trade Unions at present illustrate the eternal compromise between the inner concept and the outer act
- 128 Present moment one of crisis in Trades Union development
- 130 Newly organized unions in war state of development responsible for serious mistakes .
- 132 Tacit admission that a strike is war made during the Teamsters' Strike in Chicago in 1905 .
- 134 Temporary loss of belief in industrial arbitration
- 136 Teamsters' Strike not adjudicated in court threw the entire city into state of warfare .
- 138 New organizations of employers exhibit traits of militant youth
- 140 Public although powerless to intervene, sees grave social consequences
- 141 Division of community into classes; increase of race animosity; spirit of materialism
- 142 Class prejudice created among children still another social consequence
- 144 Disastrous effect of prolonged warfare upon the labor movement itself
- 145 Real effort of trades unions at present is for recognition of the principle of collective bargaining
- 146 Trades unions are forced to correct industrial ills inherent in the factory system itself
- 147 Illustration from limitation of output
- 148 Illustration from attitude towards improved machinery
- 149 Disregard of the machine as a social product makes for group morality on the part of the owner and employees
- 150 Contempt resulting from group morality justifies method of warfare.
PROTECTION OF CHILDREN FOR INDUSTRIAL EFFICIENCY
- 151 Deficiency in protective legislation .
- 152 Contempt for immigrant because of his economic standing
- 154 National indifference to condition of working children
- 155 Temptation to use child labor peculiar to this industrial epoch
- 155 Our sensibilities deadened by familiarity
- 156 Protection of the young the concern of government
- 158 Effect of premature labor on the child
- 161 Effect of child labor on the family
- 162 Effect on the industrial product
- 163 Effect on civilization
- 164 Intelligent labor the most valuable asset of our industrial prosperity
- 165 Results of England's foreign commercial policy
- 166 Lack of consistency in the relation of the state to the child in the United States
- 167 Failure of public school system to connect with present industrial development
- 168 Correlation of new education with industrial situation
- 169 Child labor legislation will secure to child its proper play period
- 171 Power of association developed through play
- 173 Co-operation, not coercion, the ideal factory discipline
- 174 Actual factory system divorced from the instinct of workmanship
- 175 The activity of youth should be valuable assets for citizenship as well as industry
- 176 Military survivals in city government destroys this asset
- 177 The gang a training school for group morality.
- 179 Concern of modern government in the development of its citizens .
UTILIZATION WOMEN IN CITY GOVERNMENT
- 180 The modern city founded upon military ideals
- 181 Early franchise justly given to grown men on basis of military duty .
- 182 This early test no longer fitted to the modern city whose problems are internal
- 184 Women's experience in household details valuable to civic housekeeping. No method of making it available
- 187 Municipal suffrage to be regarded not as a right or a privilege, but as a piece of governmental machinery
- 188 Franchise not only valuable as exercised by educated women, matters to be decided upon too basic to be influenced by modern education
- 189 Census of 1900 shows greater increase of workingwomen than of men and increasing youth of working women
- 191 Concerted action of women necessary to bring about industrial protection
- 192 Women can control surroundings of their work only by means of franchise
- 194 Unfair to put task of industrial protection upon women's trades unions as it often confuses issues
- 196 Closer connection between industry and government would result if working women were enfranchised
- 197 Failure to educate women to industrial life disastrous to industry itself and to women as employers
- 199 Situation must be viewed in relation to recent immigration and in connection with present stage of factory system in America
- 200 The nationality of recent immigration accounts for paucity of material for domestic service .
- 201 Unnatural isolation from larger industrial system another explanation
- 202 The attitude of understanding of the worker neces sary to preserve his power of production
- 203 Hull-House Labor Museum an effort to preserve primitive arts found among immigrants
- 204 Women must comprehend industrial organization if she would use the franchise advantageously .
- 206 Education should correct detached relation of women to industry
- 207 Two results if women enter municipal life, old duties fulfilled under safeguard of ballot, education gained by participation in actual affairs
- 208 As military idea of city becomes obsolete, woman must bear her share of civic responsibility .
PASSING OF THE WAR VIRTUES
- 209 Old habits and new compunctions may be equally powerful
- 210 War spirit justifies itself by quoting the past; stupid mistake of permitting past ideals to dominate the present
- 211 Confusion between the temporary stage of develop ment and the historic role of certain qualities
- 213 Danger of retaining virtues bequeathed by war until they become social deterrents .
- 214 Conception of patriotism too much dressed in trappings of the past. Illustrated by village and cosmopolitan standards
- 215 Foundation of patriotism on war prevents newer manifestations of courage
- 217 Practical question, How may substitutes for the war virtues be developed ?
- 219 Industrialism affords ample opportunities for their development if put upon highest level of efficiency
- 220 Militarism contrasted with industrialism in the efforts to civilize a new country
- 222 Conduct required from a democracy contrasted with British imperial methods
- 223 Soldier's contemptuous attitude formerly towards merchant, now towards laborer
- 224 Substitutes of the ideals of labor for those of warfare: Illustration from possible attitude of the German Emperor if separated from military interests and subjected to the ideas of the humble
- 227 Such change not inconsistent with the traditions of knight-errantry
- 229 Advance of constructive labor; subsidence of destructive warfare, the line of progression
- 230 Newer ideals already dominate many groups .
- 231 Tolstoy's dramatic formulization of the non-resistance of the Russian peasant. The prudential aspects of their idealism .
- 233 Continuance of war throws out humble from participation in social advance
- 234 Co-extensive with the doctrine of non-resistance is the stress upon productive labor .
- 235 Strange paths of moral evolution; world's peace movements arising from the humblest
- 236 Marked manifestation of this in the immigrant quarters of American cities
- 237 Active and tangible manifestation of the new internationalism
- 238 Forecast made by the Prophet Isaiah curiously applicable to the present moment