Last updated: March 12, 2018 @ 01:38PM

Edward Sternin

John E. Black, Stuart M. Rothstein, Ramesh C. Shukla

Shyamal K. Bose, Douglas H. Bruce, David A. Crandles, Bozidar Mitrovic, Fereidoon S. Razavi, Maureen Reedyk, Kirill Samokhin, Art van der Est

Thad A. Harroun, Edward Sternin

Santo D'Agostino

Stephen Anco, Henryk Fuks, Alexander Odesskii, Thomas Wolf

Richard Akis, John Katsaras, Reinhard Kremer, Gerald Moran, Ole Steuernagel

David Crandles, Maureen Reedyk

Frank A. Benko

Fulvio (Phil) Boseglav

Cara Krezek

Elizabeth Horvath

The department offers four-year programs of study leading to a Bachelor of Science (BSc) Honours in Physics, a BSc Honours Co-op option in Physics, a BSc with Major Physics and a three-year BSc Pass degree program. Students may take a single major in Physics or a combined major with Biological Sciences, Chemistry, Computer Science or Mathematics.

In addition, the department offers a four-year Honours program leading to a BSc degree in Physics with a concentration in Applied Optics and Laser Technology. This program combines Brock courses with those offered by Niagara College.

The core of the program is designed to provide an understanding of the principles and fundamental interactions of classical and quantum physics as well as many applications of these principles in technology and everyday life. It is possible for non-Physics degree students to take advanced courses, provided they have the physics and mathematics required in the year 1 Physics program. An experimental physics path of PHYS 2P31, 2P32 and 3P92 or a modern physics path of PHYS 2P50 and 3P91 are possible.

The Physics Co-op program combines academic and work terms over a four and one-half year period. Students spend two years in an academic setting, where they acquire the necessary background prior to taking the first work placement. In addition to the current fees for courses in academic study terms, Physics Co-op students are assessed an annual administrative fee (see the Schedule of Fees).

Eligibility to continue is based on the student's major average and non-major average. A student with a minimum 70 percent major average and a minimum 60 percent non-major average will be permitted to continue. A student with a major average lower than 70 percent will not be permitted to continue in the Physics Co-op program, but may continue in the Physics stream.

All students in the Co-operative Education program are required to read, sign and adhere to the terms of the Student Regulations Waiver and Co-op Student Manuals (brocku.ca/co-op/current-students/co-op-student-manuals) as articulated by the Co-op Programs Office. In addition, eligibility to continue in the co-op option is based on the student's major average and non-major average, and the ability to demonstrate the motivation and potential to pursue a professional career.

Each four-month co-operative education work term must be registered. Once students are registered in a co-op work term, they are expected to fulfill their commitment. If the placement accepted is for more than one four-month work term, students are committed to complete all terms. Students may not withdraw from or terminate a work term without permission from the Director, Co-op Program Office.

The Physics Co-op program designation will be awarded to those students who have honours standing and who have successfully completed a minimum of twelve months of Co-op work experience.

The department also offers a Minor in Physics program. The goal of this program is to introduce students to the fundamental concepts of various branches of physics and their applications. The selection of courses is tailored to the needs and interests of individual students with diverse backgrounds (philosophy, classics, business and finance, mathematics and other science programs). Students should consult one of the Undergraduate Student Advisers of the Physics Department (physics@brocku.ca or ext. 3412) to plan the sequence of courses most suited to their background and needs.

- Students should consult a faculty adviser when planning years 3 and 4 of the BSc programs or year 3 of the BSc Pass program.
- CHEM 1P91, 1P92, MATH 1P05 and 1P11 expect a certain level of achievement on relevant high-school courses and conduct placement tests early in the term. Students who do not meet the preparation requirements are able to enroll in alternate courses: CHEM 1P00, MATH 1P20, 1P12 and 2P12, respectively, before continuing in the courses required for their program. As a result, the students may take more than four years and 20.0 credits to graduate. Students should contact an Academic Adviser for their program.
- In 20 credit degree programs a maximum of eight credits may be numbered 1
*(alpha)*00 to 1*(alpha)*99; at least three credits must be numbered 2*(alpha)*90 or above; at least three credits must be numbered 3*(alpha)*90 or above; and the remaining credits must be numbered 2*(alpha)*00 or above.

In 15 credit degree program a maximum of eight credits may be numbered 1*(alpha)*00 to 1*(alpha)*99; at least three credits must be numbered 2*(alpha)*90 or above; and the remaining credits must be numbered 2*(alpha)*00 or above.

In some circumstances, in order to meet university degree and program requirements, more than 15 or 20 credits may be taken.

· | PHYS 1P21 or 1P91 (recommended) |

· | PHYS 1P22 or 1P92 (recommended) |

· | PHYS 1P23 or 1P93 (recommended) |

· | CHEM 1P91 and 1P92 (see program note 2) |

· | MATH 1P01 and 1P02, or MATH 1P05 and 1P06 (recommended) |

· | MATH 1P11 (see program note 2) |

· | one Humanities context credit or Social Sciences context credit |

· | PHYS 2P20, 2P31, 2P50 and 2P51 |

· | MATH 2P03, 2P08 and 3P06 |

· | the Humanities context credit or Social Sciences context credit (not taken in year 1) |

· | one-half elective credit (see program note 3) |

· | PHYS 3P35, 3P36, 3P41, 3P70 and 3P91 |

· | MATH 3P04, 3P08 and 3P09 |

· | one elective credit (see program note 3) |

· | Two PHYS credits numbered 3(alpha)90 or above |

· | PHYS 4P41 and 4P51 |

· | two elective credits (see program note 3) |

Students admitted to the Co-op program must follow the program schedule as listed below. Failure to adhere to the schedule may result in removal from the Physics Co-op program.

· | PHYS 1P21 or 1P91 (recommended) |

· | PHYS 1P22 or 1P92 (recommended) |

· | PHYS 1P23 or 1P93 (recommended) |

· | CHEM 1P91 and 1P92 (see program note 2) |

· | MATH 1P01 and 1P02, or MATH 1P05 and 1P06 (recommended) |

· | MATH 1P11 (see program note 2) |

· | one Humanities context credit or Social Sciences context credit |

· | PHYS 2P20, 2P31, 2P50 and 2P51 |

· | MATH 2P03, 2P08 and MATH 3P06 |

· | SCIE 0N90 |

· | the Humanities context credit or Social Sciences context credit (not taken in year 1) |

· | one-half elective credit (see program note 3) |

Spring/Summer Sessions:

· | PHYS 0N01 or 2C01 |

Fall Term:

· | PHYS 3P35, 3P41 and 3P70 |

· | MATH 3P08 |

· | one-half elective credit (see program note 3) |

Winter Term:

· | PHYS 0N02 and 2C02 |

Fall Term:

· | PHYS 0N03 and 2C03 |

Winter Term:

· | PHYS 3P36, 3P91 and 4P41 |

· | MATH 3P04 and 3P09 |

Spring/Summer Sessions:

· | PHYS 4F90 and 4F91 |

· | one-half elective credit |

Fall Term:

· | One PHYS credit numbered 3(alpha)90 or above |

· | PHYS 4P51 |

· | one elective credit |

· | PHYS 1P21 or 1P91 (recommended) |

· | PHYS 1P22 or 1P92 (recommended) |

· | PHYS 1P23 or 1P93 (recommended) |

· | CHEM 1P91 and 1P92 (see program note 2) |

· | MATH 1P01 and 1P02, or MATH 1P05 and 1P06 (recommended) |

· | MATH 1P11 (see program note 2) |

· | one Humanities context credit or Social Sciences context credit |

· | PHYS 2P20, 2P31, 2P50 and 2P51 |

· | MATH 2P03, 2P08 and 3P06 |

· | the Humanities context credit or Social Sciences context credit (not taken in year 1) |

· | one-half elective credit (see program note 3) |

· | PHYS 3P35, 3P36, 3P41, 3P70 and 3P91 |

· | MATH 3P04, 3P08 and 3P09 |

· | one elective credit (see program note 3) |

· | Two and one-half PHYS credits numbered 3(alpha)90 or above |

· | two and one-half elective credits (see program note 3) |

Satisfactory completion of the first three years of the Honours program entitles a student to apply for a Pass degree.

The Department of Physics and the Faculty of Education co-operate in offering two Concurrent BSc (Honours)/BEd programs. The Physics BSc (Honours)/BEd programs combines the BA Honours program or BA Integrated Studies Honours program with the teacher education program for students interested in teaching at the Intermediate/Senior level (grades 7-12) and at the Junior/Intermediate level (grades 4-10). Refer to the Education-Concurrent BSc (Honours)/BEd (Intermediate/Senior) or Education-Concurrent BSc Integrated Studies (Honours)/BEd (Junior/Intermediate) program listings for further information.

· | PHYS 1P21 or 1P91 (recommended) |

· | one of PHYS 1P22, 1P23, 1P92, 1P93 (recommended) |

· | BIOL 1P91 and 1P92 |

· | CHEM 1P91 and 1P92 (see program note 2) |

· | MATH 1P01 and 1P02, or MATH 1P05 and 1P06 (recommended) |

· | one Humanities context credit or one Social Sciences context credit |

· | PHYS 2P50 and 2P51 |

· | BIOL 2P02 and 2P03 |

· | one credit from BIOL 2P05, 2P92, 2P93, 2P96, 2P98, 2Q04 |

· | MATH 2P03 and 2P08 |

· | the Humanities context credit or Social Sciences context credit (not taken in year 1) |

· | PHYS 2P31 and 3P02 |

· | one BIOL credit (see program note 3) |

· | one and one-half BIOL credits numbered 2(alpha)00 to 3(alpha)99 or one and one-half PHYS credits numbered 2(alpha)00 to 3(alpha)99 (see program note 3) |

· | one and one-half elective credits (see program note 3) |

· | One of PHYS 4F90 and 4F91, BIOL 4F90 and 4F91, PHYS 4F90 and one elective credit, BIOL 4F92 and one elective credit (see program note 3) |

· | one PHYS credit numbered 2(alpha)90 or above (see program note 3) |

· | one BIOL credit numbered 2(alpha)90 or above (see program note 3) |

· | one credit from PHYS and/or BIOL courses numbered 2(alpha)90 or above (see program note 3) |

Satisfactory completion of the first three years of the Honours program entitles a student to apply for a Pass degree.

· | PHYS 1P21 or 1P91 (recommended) |

· | one of PHYS 1P22, 1P23, 1P92 (recommended), 1P93 |

· | COSC 1P02 and 1P03 |

· | MATH 1P01 and 1P02, or MATH 1P05 and 1P06 (recommended) |

· | MATH 1P66, and 1P67 |

· | one Humanities context credit or Social Sciences context credit |

· | PHYS 2P31 and 2P50 |

· | COSC 2P12 and 2P13 |

· | MATH 1P11, 2P03, 2P08 and 3P06 (see program note 2) |

· | the Humanities context credit or Social Sciences context credit (not taken in year 1) |

· | PHYS 2P20 and 2P32 (see program note 1) |

· | COSC 1P50, 2P03, 2P05 and 3P32 |

· | two credits from MATH 3P08, 3P09, PHYS 3P35, 3P36, 3P41, 3P70 |

· | Two PHYS credits numbered 3(alpha)90 or above |

· | two COSC credits numbered 3(alpha)90 or above |

· | COSC 4F00 |

· | PHYS 1P21 or 1P91 (recommended) |

· | one of PHYS 1P22, 1P23, 1P92 (recommended), 1P93 |

· | MATH 1P01 and 1P02, or MATH 1P05 and 1P06 (recommended) |

· | MATH 1P11 and 1P40 (see program note 2) |

· | one Humanities context credit |

· | one Social Sciences context credit |

· | PHYS 2P20, 2P50 and 2P51 |

· | MATH 2P03, 2P08, 2P12, 2P81, 2P82 and 3P06 |

· | one-half elective credit |

· | Two credits from PHYS 3P35, 3P36, 3P41, 3P70, 3P90 |

· | MATH 2P40, 3P04, 3P08 and 3P09 |

· | one elective credit |

· | PHYS 4F90 and one PHYS credit numbered 3(alpha)90 or above, or MATH 3P12 and one and one-half MATH credits numbered 3(alpha)90 or above |

· | PHYS 4P51 |

· | one PHYS credit numbered 3(alpha)90 or above |

· | one and one-half elective credit |

Consult the Chemistry entry for a listing of program requirements.

Students in other disciplines can obtain a Minor in Physics within their degree programs by completing four full credits from the following courses with a minimum 60 percent average:

· | PHYS 1P21 or 1P91 |

· | one of PHYS 1P22, 1P23, 1P92, 1P93 |

· | one-half additional PHYS credit |

· | two and one-half credits from ASTR 1P01, 1P02 or PHYS credits numbered 2(alpha)00 or above |

The concentration in Applied Optics and Laser Technology combines a basic Bachelor's education in the core fields within Physics with practical training in fibre optics, photonics, and high vacuum and laser technologies. This is a four-year honours program and involves courses offered through Brock University and Niagara College's postgraduate certificate program in Advanced Laser Technologies. Students completing the program will receive a B.Sc. Honours degree in Physics with concentration in Applied Optics and Laser Technology, as well as a postgraduate certificate in Advanced Laser Technologies from Niagara College.

The program aims to fulfill the increasing demand from the fibre optics and telecommunications industry for graduates with knowledge and technical skills in photonics, opto-electronic devices, and laser, thin film and high vacuum technologies. Normally, to acquire these qualifications students would first complete a university degree and then complete a suitable technical program at a college. The Brock-Niagara program combines the two in a single integrated package.

Students may enter this program directly in year one, or transfer to this program by the end of February of year 2 of any four-year Physics program. Enrolment will be limited, depending on the availability of lab space at Niagara College. Admission to the Concentration program will include concurrent admission to the Niagara College postgraduate certificate program in Advanced Laser Technology.

· | PHYS 1P21 or 1P91 (recommended) |

· | one of PHYS 1P22, 1P23, 1P92 (recommended), 1P93 |

· | CHEM 1P91 and 1P92 (see program note 2) |

· | MATH 1P01 and 1P02, or MATH 1P05 and 1P06 (recommended) |

· | MATH 1P11 and 1P98 (see program note 2) |

· | one Humanities context credit or Social Sciences context credit |

· | PHYS 2P20, 2P31, 2P32, 2P50 and 2P51 |

· | MATH 2P03, 2P08 and 3P06 |

· | the Humanities context credit or Social Sciences context credit (not taken in year 1) |

· | taken at Niagara College |

· | PHYS 3P35, 3P36, 3P41 and 3P70 |

· | one PHYS credit numbered 3(alpha)90 or above |

· | MATH 3P08 |

· | one and one-half elective credits |

The department offers both MSc and PhD programs in Physics. Current research interests and activities involve experimental, theoretical and computational studies in condensed matter physics, materials science, and biophysics.

For details, see the Graduate Calendar or contact the Chair of the Department.

Students must check to ensure that prerequisites are met. Students may be deregistered, at the request of the instructor, from any course for which prerequisites and/or restrictions have not been met.

ASTRONOMY COURSES

ASTR 1P01Description of the appearance of the night sky, history of astronomy, light and telescopes, measuring the properties of stars, structure and functioning of the Sun.

ASTR 1P02

Formation and evolution of stars, properties of some unusual astronomical objects, such as pulsars and black holes, galaxies, cosmology and a discussion of the planets of the solar system.

Note: ASTR 1P01 is highly recommended.

PHYSICS COURSES

PHYS 1P21Kinematics, Newton's laws and their applications to equilibrium and dynamics; special relativity.

Note: students may not concurrently register in PHYS 1P91.

Completion of this course will replace previous assigned grade and credit obtained in PHYS 1P91.

PHYS 1P22

Charges and fields, electric currents and circuits, electromagnetic waves and wave nature of light, elements of modern physics.

Prerequisite(s): PHYS 1P21 or permission of the instructor.

Note: students may not concurrently register in PHYS 1P92.

Completion of this course will replace previous assigned grade and credit obtained in PHYS 1P92.

PHYS 1P23

Fluids in equilibrium, surface tension and capillary action; fluids in motion, viscosity and turbulent flow. Heat and temperature, elements of kinetic theory and the laws of thermodynamics. Geometrical optics, waves and sound.

Note: students may not concurrently register in PHYS 1P93.

Completion of this course will replace previous assigned grade and credit obtained in PHYS 1P93.

PHYS 1P91

Combination of lectures and tutorials in PHYS 1P21 with a laboratory session.

Note: students may not concurrently register in PHYS 1P21.

Completion of this course will replace previous assigned grade and credit obtained in PHYS 1P21.

PHYS 1P92

Combination of lectures and tutorials in PHYS 1P22 with a laboratory session.

Prerequisite(s): PHYS 1P91 or permission of the instructor.

Note: students may not concurrently register in PHYS 1P22.

Completion of this course will replace previous assigned grade and credit obtained in PHYS 1P22.

PHYS 1P93

Combination of lectures and tutorials in PHYS 1P23 with a laboratory session.

Note: students may not concurrently register in PHYS 1P23.

Completion of this course will replace previous assigned grade and credit obtained in PHYS 1P23.

PHYS 2P02

Physical and chemical interactions of ionizing radiations and their biological effects, structural imaging (magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound, computed tomography and optical microscopy); nuclear medicine, therapeutic applications of radiation.

Prerequisite(s): one of 4U/M PHYS (SPH4U), PHYS 1P22, 1P23, 1P92, 1P93.

PHYS 2P20

Mechanics of particles and systems of particles by the Newtonian method; conservation of linear momentum, angular momentum and energy; elementary dynamics of rigid bodies; oscillators; motion under central forces; selected applications.

Prerequisite(s): PHYS 1P21 or 1P91 (recommended); one of PHYS 1P22, 1P23, 1P92 (recommended), 1P93; MATH 1P01 and 1P02, or MATH 1P05 and 1P06 (recommended).

PHYS 2P31

Conduction in metals and semi-conductors; circuit analysis; semi-conductor junction, diode and transistor; rectification, switching and amplification; operational amplifiers, active filters; laboratory instruments.

Prerequisite(s): PHYS 1P21 or 1P91 (recommended); one of PHYS 1P22, 1P23, 1P92 (recommended), 1P93; one MATH credit or permission of the instructor.

Note: no previous course in electricity/magnetism/electronics is required. Secondary school algebra and some basic calculus will be used in the quantitative sections.

PHYS 2P32

Principles of digital electronics; combinatorial logic and circuits; sequential circuits, counters; digital computing and control; analog-to-digital conversion; signal sampling; elements of computational science; an introduction to programming.

Prerequisite(s): PHYS 1P21 or 1P91 (recommended); one of PHYS 1P22, 1P23, 1P92 (recommended), 1P93; one MATH credit or permission of the instructor.

PHYS 2P50

Special relativity, photons, the wave-particle aspects of electromagnetic radiation and matter; introduction to wave mechanics; the hydrogen atom and atomic line spectra; orbital and spin angular momenta; lasers.

Prerequisite(s): PHYS 1P21 or 1P91 (recommended); one of PHYS 1P22, 1P23, 1P92 (recommended), 1P93; MATH 1P01 and 1P02, or MATH 1P05 and 1P06 (recommended).

PHYS 2P51

Geometrical and wave optics, reflection, refraction, lenses, matrix methods, aberrations, gradient index phenomena including fibre optics, interference, coherence, holography, Fraunhofer and Fresnel diffraction, polarization.

Prerequisite(s): PHYS 1P21 or 1P91 (recommended); one of PHYS 1P22, 1P23, 1P92 (recommended), 1P93; MATH 1P01 and 1P02, or MATH 1P05 and 1P06 (recommended).

PHYS 3P02

Introduction to the molecular biophysics of cellular membranes, structure and function of the major cell components (lipids, proteins and carbohydrates), experimental physical techniques, photobiology, biological electrokinetics, bioinformatics, biomechanics, and biomimetics.

Prerequisite(s): PHYS 1P21 or 1P91 (recommended); one of PHYS 1P22, 1P23, 1P92, 1P93 (recommended) or permission of the instructor.

PHYS 3P35

Electric field, divergence and curl of electrostatic field; relation between electric work and energy; conductors; application of Laplace's and Poisson's equation in electrostatics; electrostatic field in matter; field in polarized object and linear dielectric.

Prerequisite(s): MATH 2P03, 2P08 and 3P06.

PHYS 3P36

Magnetostatics, divergence and curl of magnetic field; magnetic vector potential; magnetic field in matter; magnetization; field of magnetic object; magnetic field inside of linear and non-linear media; electrodynamics; Ohm's law; Faraday's law and Maxwell equations; energy and momentum in electrodynamics; electromagnetic waves.

Prerequisite(s): PHYS 3P35.

PHYS 3P41

Introduction to probability distribution functions, accessible states, entropy, temperature, partition functions and relations to thermodynamic functions.

Prerequisite(s): PHYS 2P50.

PHYS 3P70

Wave particle dualism, Schrodinger equation, solution of simple one-dimensional barrier problems and the harmonic oscillator, hydrogen atom, angular momentum theory, introduction to perturbation theory and variational methods.

Prerequisite(s): PHYS 2P50, MATH 2P03, 2P08 and 3P06.

PHYS 3P90

Advanced treatment of the mechanics of particles and of rigid bodies; Lagrangian and Hamiltonian methods; Poisson brackets, applications to the theory of small oscillators and central force motions, elements of chaotic motions.

Prerequisite(s): PHYS 2P20, MATH 2P03, 2P08 and 3P06.

Completion of this course will replace previous assigned grade and credit obtained in PHYS 3P20.

PHYS 3P91

Laboratory experiments to be selected from atomic physics, nuclear physics, solid state physics.

Prerequisite(s): PHYS 2P50 or permission of the instructor.

PHYS 3P92

Operational amplifiers, converters, switches, microcomputers and their application to physical measurements.

Prerequisite(s): PHYS 2P31 and 2P32 or permission of the instructor.

PHYS 3P93

Principles of operation of solid-state devices, from the point of view of the quantum theory; electronic bands and conduction in semiconductors; operation and manufacture of silicon and germanium diodes, junction and field effect transistors; thin-film deposition technology; special topics.

Prerequisite(s): PHYS 3P70.

PHYS 3P94

Techniques of mathematical physics in the context of physically relevant problems. Vector calculus in curvilinear coordinate systems, applied linear algebra, Fourier series and Fourier transforms, special functions of mathematical physics, and least-squares approximations.

Prerequisite(s): MATH 2P03, 2P08 and 3P06 or permission of the instructor.

Completion of this course will replace previous assigned grade and credit obtained in PHYS 3V94.

PHYS 3P95

(also offered as MATH 3P95)

Topics may include Calculus of variations, Lagrangian and Hamiltonian mechanics, field theory, differential forms, vector and polyvector fields, tensor fields, Lie derivative, connection, Riemann metric, Lie groups and algebras, manifolds, and mathematical ideas of quantum mechanics. Applications to theoretical physics.

Prerequisite(s): MATH 2P03 and 2P08.

Note: MATH 2P12 is recommended.

Completion of this course will replace previous assigned grade and credit obtained in PHYS (MATH) 4P64.

PHYS 3V94-3V99

Topics may include techniques of mathematical physics and scientific computing.

Prerequisite(s): MATH 2P03, 2P08 and 3P06 or permission of the instructor.

PHYS 4F90

Small experimental, theoretical or applied physics research project to be carried out under the supervision of a member of the department.

Restriction: open to PHYS (single or combined) and CAST majors with either a minimum of 14.0 overall credits, a minimum 70 percent major average and a minimum 60 percent non-major average or approval to year 4 (honours).

Note: the project may, under special circumstances, be started in the summer months. Students must consult with the Department Chair regarding their proposed program during the first week of lectures.

PHYS 4F91

Detailed experimental, theoretical or applied physics research project to be carried out under the supervision of a member of the department.

Restriction: open to PHYS (single or combined) majors with either a minimum of 14.0 overall credits, a minimum 70 percent major average and a minimum 60 percent non-major average or approval to year 4 (honours) and permission of the Department.

Prerequisite(s): PHYS 4F90.

Note: the project may, under special circumstances, be started in the summer months. Students must consult with the Department Chair regarding their proposed program during the first week of lectures. PHYS 4F90 and 4F91 may be taken concurrently.

PHYS 4P09

(also offered as MATH 4P09)

Linear and nonlinear travelling waves. Nonlinear evolution equations (Korteweg de Vries, nonlinear Schrodinger, sine-Gordon). Soliton solutions and their interaction properties. Lax pairs, inverse scattering, zero-curvature equations and Backlund transformations, Hamiltonian structures, and conservation laws.

Prerequisite(s): one of MATH 3P08, 3P09, 3P51, 3P52.

PHYS 4P41

Fundamental postulates, equilibrium statistical mechanics and its relation to thermodynamics. Maxwell-Boltzmann, Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac statistics are derived and applied in appropriate physical situations of non-interacting and interacting particles; fluctuations; elementary treatment of transport theory.

Prerequisite(s): PHYS 3P41 and 3P70.

PHYS 4P51

Postulates about states, observables, probabilities, change of state in a measurement, and time evolution. Dirac's bra and ket notation; representation and transformation theory. Two-level systems. Complete set of commuting observables and classification of states. Symmetries and their usage in classification of states.

Prerequisite(s): PHYS 3P70, MATH 3P04, 3P08 and 3P09.

PHYS 4P61

Intrinsic properties of nuclei, nuclear binding energy; qualitative treatment of shell model; alpha, beta and gamma radioactivities, nuclear fission, characteristics of nuclear reactions.

Prerequisite(s): PHYS 2P50 and 3P70.

PHYS 4P62

Optical lattices, spatial light modulators, evanescent waves and their applications from biology to ultracold atoms. Laser cooling and optical trapping. Manipulation of crystal properties by light. Optical patterns: tweezers, mirrors, funnels, bottles. Maple-based coursework.

Prerequisite(s): PHYS 2P51 and MATH 2P03 or permission of the instructor.

PHYS 4P70

Crystal structures and crystal binding; the vibration of atoms in solids and the thermodynamics of solids; introduction to transport properties of solids.

Prerequisite(s): PHYS 3P41 and 3P70.

PHYS 4P71

Energy bands in metals and semiconductors, dynamics of electrons, Fermi surfaces and transport properties of solids, magnetism, screening in electron gas, optical properties.

Prerequisite(s): PHYS 4P70.

PHYS 4P92

Families of logic devices, selection and implementation techniques; synchronous and asynchronous sequential circuits; safety and physical constraints; programmable array logic designs; digital signal processing, optoelectronics; CAD; circuit layout.

Prerequisite(s): PHYS 3P92.

Note: completion of a project from design to a working device is required.

PHYS 4P94

(also offered as MATH 4P94)

Review of Special Relativity and Minkowski space-time. Introduction to General Relativity theory; the space-time metric, geodesics, light cones, horizons, asymptotic flatness; energy-momentum of particles and light rays. Curvature and field equations. Static black holes (Schwarzschild metric), properties of light rays and particle orbits. Rotating black holes (Kerr metric).

Prerequisite(s): PHYS 2P20, 2P50, MATH 2P03, 2P08 and 3P06 or permission of the instructor.

PHYS 4V80-4V89

Examples of topics are relativity and cosmology; surface physics and electronic states in ordered and disordered systems.

CO-OP COURSES

PHYS 0N01First co-op placement (4 months) with an approved employer.

Restriction: open to PHYS Co-op students.

PHYS 0N02

Second co-op placement (4 months) with an approved employer.

Restriction: open to PHYS Co-op students.

PHYS 0N03

Third co-op placement (4 months) with an approved employer.

Restriction: open to PHYS Co-op students.

PHYS 0N04

Co-op placement (4 months) with an approved employer.

Restriction: open to PHYS Co-op students.

PHYS 0N05

Co-op placement (4 months) with an approved employer.

Restriction: open to PHYS Co-op students.

PHYS 2C01

Provide student with the opportunity to apply what they've learned in their academic studies through career-oriented work experiences at employer sites.

Restriction: open to PHYS Co-op students.

Prerequisite(s): SCIE 0N90.

Corequisite(s): PHYS 0N01.

Note: students will be required to prepare learning objectives, participate in a site visit, write a work term report and receive a successful work term performance evaluation.

PHYS 2C02

Provide student with the opportunity to apply what they've learned in their academic studies through career-oriented work experiences at employer sites.

Restriction: open to PHYS Co-op students.

Prerequisite(s): SCIE 0N90.

Corequisite(s): PHYS 0N02.

Note: students will be required to prepare learning objectives, participate in a site visit, write a work term report and receive a successful work term performance evaluation.

PHYS 2C03

Provide student with the opportunity to apply what they've learned in their academic studies through career-oriented work experiences at employer sites.

Restriction: open to PHYS C-op students.

Prerequisite(s): SCIE 0N90.

Corequisite(s): PHYS 0N03.

Note: students will be required to prepare learning objectives, participate in a site visit, write a work term report and receive a successful work term performance evaluation.

PHYS 2C04

Provide student with the opportunity to apply what they've learned in their academic studies through career-oriented work experiences at employer sites.

Restriction: open to PHYS Co-op students.

Prerequisite(s): SCIE 0N90.

Corequisite(s): PHYS 0N04.

Note: students will be required to prepare learning objectives, participate in a site visit, write a work term report and receive a successful work term performance evaluation.

PHYS 2C05

Provide student with the opportunity to apply what they've learned in their academic studies through career-oriented work experiences at employer sites.

Restriction: open to PHYS Co-op students.

Prerequisite(s): SCIE 0N90.

Corequisite(s): PHYS 0N05.

Note: students will be required to prepare learning objectives, participate in a site visit, write a work term report and receive a successful work term performance evaluation.