2004-2005 Undergraduate Calendar

Earth Sciences  
Chair Frank Fueten Undergraduate Program Adviser Richard J. Cheel Professors Uwe Brand, Richard J. Cheel, Frank Fueten, Wayne T. Jolly, Francine McCarthy, John Menzies, Keith Tinkler Associate Professors Gregory C. Finn, Daniel McCarthy Assistant Professor Stephen J. Cook Adjunct Professors Kent Novakowski, Andy Panko Senior Lab Instructor Howard Melville Senior Lab Co-ordinator Astride Silis  
General Information Go to top of document
Administrative Assistant Diane Gadoury 905-688-5550, extension 3526 Mackenzie Chown D433 https://brocku.ca/earthsciences The field of earth sciences is central in solving current problems such as waste disposal, pollution, groundwater management, volcano and earthquake hazards. It is also vital in the exploration and utilization of natural resources such as oil and gas, minerals and aggregates. A very important area of research in the earth sciences aims to determine how the planet has evolved from its origin 4.6 billion years ago to the present. The preserved geological record, comprising the rocks of the earth, provides a long record of global change in response to a variety of stimuli. Many earth scientists are involved in the unravelling of the record of global change and in predicting future changes to the planet. The Department of Earth Sciences offers professional programs dedicated to graduating high-quality geoscientists proceeding toward registration as a Professional Geoscientist. The department offers other options for those interested in Earth Sciences, but not intending to become Professional Geoscientists. The Department of Earth Sciences offers four-year programs of study leading to a BSc Honours in Earth Sciences, BSc Honours in Environmental Geoscience, a BSc with a Major in Earth Sciences, a BSc with a Major in Environmental Geoscience and a BSc three Year (Pass) degree program. In addition, four-year Co-op programs leading to a BSc Honours degree in Earth Sciences or Environmental Geoscience are available. The four-year BSc Honours and BSc with a Major programs consist of a set of core courses in year 1, year 2 and part of year 3. During year 3 students choose from elective courses to specialize in a curriculum reflecting their personal interests. Students normally enter directly into the BSc Honours program and are required to maintain at least second-class honours standing. Students not meeting this requirement may continue in one of the BSc with a Major programs. The requirement for graduation with a Earth Sciences (Honours) degree is a minimum 70 percent major average and a minimum 60 percent non-major average. The department has teaching and research laboratories which include facilities such as radiocarbon dating, a recirculating sediment flume, a dendrochronology laboratory, a glacial micromorphology laboratory, palynology laboratory, X-ray diffraction, cathodoluminescence microscopic analysis, atomic absorption spectrometry, halogen analysis, image analysis, digitizer, water quality analysis equipment, fluorometric analysis and stable isotope preparation. These are supported by rock specimen preparation and drafting facilities, dark rooms and cold rooms. Departmental as well as University computing facilities are available. The department shares the facilities of electronic, woodworking and glass blowing shops with other departments. Co-op Program The Earth Sciences and Environmental Geoscience Co-op programs combines academic and work terms over a five year period. Students spend two years in an academic setting, where they acquire the necessary background prior to taking the first work placement. Successful completion of courses in the core areas of Earth Sciences provides the necessary academic background for the work experience. In addition to the current fees for courses in academic study terms, Earth Sciences and Environmental Geoscience Co-op students are assessed an annual administrative fee (see the Schedule of Fees). Students admitted to the Earth Sciences or Environmental Geoscience Co-op program must follow the Co-op program schedule. Failure to adhere to the schedule may result in removal from the Earth Sciences and Environmental Geoscience Co-op program. Eligibility to continue in the Co-op program is based on the student's major average and non-major average. A student with a minimum 70 percent major average and a minimum 60 percent non-major average will be permitted to continue. A student with a major average lower than 70 percent will not be permitted to continue in the Earth Sciences or Environmental Geoscience Co-op program, but may continue in the Earth Sciences and Environmental Geoscience non Co-op program. For further information, see the Co-op programs section of the Calendar, and contact the Department of Earth Sciences. The Earth Sciences and Environmental Geoscience Co-op program designation will be awarded to those students who have successfully completed a minimum of twelve month of Co-op work experience. Association of Professional Geoscientists of Ontario Graduates of any of the 20 credit single major programs offered through the Department of Earth Sciences may apply for membership in the Association of Professional Geoscientists of Ontario (APGO), allowing for the use of the designation P.Geo. (Professional Geo-scientist). Candidates who have followed the recommended program should meet the knowledge requirements for eligibility and should check with the Chair or the academic adviser prior to year 3 for more information regarding registration as a Professional Geoscientist. Field Trips Field trips form an integral component of training in the Earth Sciences and are offered in all years of study, linked to specific courses. Field trips may take place during the lab period, or involve a time period beyond the lab, over a single day or weekend trips. To offset transportation costs the department has instituted a Field Trip Levy for all courses with multiple field trips. In addition, on full or weekend trips students are expected to cover costs of accommodation and food. Field trip costs, where applicable, are in addition to the regular tuition fees associated with the course.  
Program Notes Go to top of document
1.  COSC 1P93 recommended to fulfill the APGO requirements.  
2.  The unspecified science elective credit is to be taken from BIOL, CHEM, COSC, MATH or PHYS (except ASTR 1F00, BIOL 1F25, CHEM 1P00, ERSC 1F90, 1P92, 1P93 and SCIE 1F30).  
3.  ERSC 3Q99 or BIOL 3P71 is required for entry to year 4.  
4.  ERSC 3P99 or 3Q99 is normally required at the end of year 3.  
5.  Students enrolled in the BSc Honours program are required to maintain a minimum 70 percent major average and a minimum 60 percent average in the remaining credits.  
6.  Students wishing to transfer from the BSc with a Major program into BSc Honours program are required to have a minimum 70 percent major average and a minimum 60 percent average in the remaining credits.  
7.  In all 20 credit degree programs, at least 12 credits must be numbered 2(alpha)00 or above, six of which must be numbered 2(alpha)90 or above and of these, three must be numbered 3(alpha)90 or above. In all 15 credit degree programs, at least seven credits must be numbered 2(alpha)00 or above, three of which must be numbered 2(alpha)90 or above.  
Honours Program Go to top of document
Earth Sciences Go to top of document
Year 1
- ERSC 1F01
- CHEM 1F92
- one of BIOL 1F90, PHYS 1P21 and 1P22, PHYS 1P91 and 1P92
- MATH 1P97 and 1P98
- one Humanities context credit or one Social Science context credit (see program note 5)
Year 2
- ERSC 2P05, 2P10, 2P12, 2P21, 2P22 and 2P32
- one of BIOL 1F90, PHYS 1P21 and 1P22, PHYS 1P91 and 1P92 (not taken in year 1)
- the Humanities context credit or Social Science context credit not taken in year 1
Year 3
- ERSC 3P01, 3P10, 3P21, 3P24, 3P31, and 3P61
- one ERSC credit numbered 2(alpha)00 to 3(alpha)99
- WRIT 2P14
- one-half elective credit (see program note 1)
Year 4
- ERSC 3P99
- three and one-half credits from ERSC 3P94, 3P98, 3V90-3V99, 4F91, 4P01, 4P10, 4P16, 4P22, 4P52, 4P61
- one elective credit (see program note 7)
 
Environmental Geoscience Go to top of document
Year 1
- ERSC 1F01
- one of BIOL 1F90, PHYS 1P21 and 1P22, PHYS 1P91 and 1P92
- CHEM 1F92
- MATH 1P97 and 1P98
- one Humanities context credit or one Social Science context credit (see program note 5)
Year 2
- ERSC 2P05, 2P09, 2P10, 2P12, 2P21 and 2P32
- one of BIOL 1F90, PHYS 1P21 and 1P22, PHYS 1P91 and 1P92 (not taken in year 1)
- the Humanities context credit or Social Science context credit not taken in year 1
Year 3
- ERSC 3P01, 3P10, 3P24, 3P25 3P31, 3P36, 3P61 and 3Q99
- WRIT 2P14
- one-half elective credit (see program note 1)
Year 4
- Four credits from ERSC 3P26, 3P33, 3P85, 3V90-3V99, 4F91, 4P15, 4P26, 4P28, 4P31, 4P61, 4P80
- one elective credit (see program note 7)
 
Earth Sciences Co-op (Honours only) Go to top of document
Year 1
- ERSC 1F01
- CHEM 1F92
- one of BIOL 1F90, PHYS 1P21 and 1P22, PHYS 1P91 and 1P92
- MATH 1P97 and 1P98
- one Humanities context credit or one Social Science context credit (see program note 5)
Year 2
- ERSC 2P05, 2P10, 2P12, 2P21, 2P22 and 2P32
- SCIE 0N90
- one of BIOL 1F90, PHYS 1P21 and 1P22, PHYS 1P91 and 1P92 (not taken in year 1)
- the Humanities context credit or Social Science context credit not taken in year 1
Spring/Summer Sessions:
- ERSC 0N01
Year 3 Fall Term:
- ERSC 3P10, 3P21, 3P31 and 3P61
- one-half elective credit (see program note 1)
Winter Term:
- ERSC 0N02
Year 4 Fall Term:
- ERSC 0N03
Winter Term:
- ERSC 3P01 and 3P24
- one ERSC credit numbered 2(alpha)00 to 3(alpha)99
- WRIT 2P14
Spring/Summer Sessions:
- ERSC 3P99
Year 5
- Three and one-half credits from ERSC 3P94, 3P98, 3V90-99, 4F91, 4P01, 4P10, 4P16, 4P22, 4P52, 4P61
- one elective credit (see program note 7)
 
Environmental Geoscience Co-op (Honours only) Go to top of document
Year 1
- ERSC 1F01
- CHEM 1F92
- one of BIOL 1F90, PHYS 1P21 and 1P22, PHYS 1P91 and 1P92
- MATH 1P97 and 1P98
- one Humanities context credit or one Social Science context credit (see program note 5)
Year 2
- ERSC 2P05, 2P09, 2P10, 2P12, 2P21 and 2P32
- SCIE 0N90
- one of BIOL 1F90, PHYS 1P21 and 1P22, PHYS 1P91 and 1P92 (not taken in year 1)
- the Humanities context credit or Social Science context credit not taken in year 1
Spring/Summer Sessions
- ERSC 0N01
Year 3 Fall Term:
- ERSC 3P10, 3P31, 3P36 and 3P61
- one-half elective credit (see program note 1)
Winter Term:
- ERSC 0N02
Year 4 Fall Term:
- ERSC 0N03
Winter Term:
- ERSC 3P01, 3P24 and 3P25
- WRIT 2P14
- one-half elective credit (see program note 1)
Year 5
- ERSC 3Q99
- three and one-half credits from ERSC 3P26, 3P33, 3P85, 3V90-99, 4F91, 4P15, 4P26, 4P28, 4P31, 4P61 and 4P80
- one elective credit (see program note 7)
 
BSc with a Major Program Go to top of document
This program differs from the Honours program in that honours standing is not required for entry into year 4, (see program note 6).  
Earth Sciences Go to top of document
Year 1
- ERSC 1F01
- CHEM 1F92
- one of BIOL 1F90, PHYS 1P21 and 1P22, PHYS 1P91 and 1P92
- MATH 1P97 and 1P98
- one Humanities context credit or one Social Science context credit
Year 2
- ERSC 2P05, 2P10, 2P12, 2P21, 2P22 and 2P32
- one of BIOL 1F90, PHYS 1P21 and 1P22, PHYS 1P91 and 1P92 (not taken in year 1)
- the Humanities context credit or Social Science context credit not taken in year 1
Year 3
- ERSC 3P01, 3P10, 3P21, 3P24, 3P31 and 3P61
- one ERSC credit numbered 2(alpha)00 to 3(alpha)99
- WRIT 2P14
- one-half elective credit (see program note 1)
Year 4
- ERSC 3P99
- three and one-half credits from ERSC 3P94, 3P98, 3V90-3V99, 4P01, 4P10, 4P16, 4P22, 4P52, 4P61
- one elective credit (see program note 7)
 
Environmental Geoscience Go to top of document
Year 1
- ERSC 1F01
- one of BIOL 1F90, PHYS 1P21 and 1P22, PHYS 1P91 and 1P92
- CHEM 1F92
- MATH 1P97 and 1P98
- one Humanities context credit or one Social Science context credit (see program note 5)
Year 2
- ERSC 2P05, 2P09, 2P10, 2P12, 2P21 and 2P32
- one of BIOL 1F90, PHYS 1P21 and 1P22, PHYS 1P91 and 1P92 (not taken in year 1)
- the Humanities context credit or Social Science context credit not taken in year 1
Year 3
- ERSC 3P01, 3P10, 3P24, 3P25 3P31, 3P36, 3P61and 3Q99
- WRIT 2P14
- one-half elective credit (see program note 1)
Year 4
- Four credits from ERSC 3P26, 3P33, 3P85, 3V90-3V99, 4P15, 4P26, 4P28, 4P31, 4P61, 4P80
- one elective credit (see program note 7)
 
Pass Program Go to top of document
Satisfactory completion of the first three years of a twenty credit program entitles a student to apply for a Pass degree.  
Concurrent BSc/BEd Go to top of document
The Department of Earth Sciences and the Faculty of Education co-operate in offering a Concurrent BSc Integrated Studies (Pass)/BEd program for students interested in teaching mathematics or science at the Junior/Intermediate level (grades 4-8). Refer to the Education-Concurrent BSc Integrated Studies (Pass)/BEd Program listing for additional information.  
Combined Major Programs Go to top of document
The Department of Earth Sciences, in co-operation with other departments, offers combined major programs in Earth Sciences with Biological Sciences, Chemistry, and Geography. For combinations other than those listed students should contact the Chairs/Directors of the respective departments/centres. It should be noted that not all departments/centres provide a combined major option. Prospective students should have their programs approved by the two departments/centres concerned and are advised to follow one of the following patterns:  
Earth Sciences and Biological Sciences Go to top of document
Honours Year 1
- ERSC 1F01
- BIOL 1F90
- CHEM 1F92
- MATH 1P97 and 1P98
- one Humanities context credit or one Social Science context credit
Year 2
- ERSC 2P10 and 2P32
- two credits from BIOL 2F01, 2P05, 2P92, 2P93, 2P96, 2P98, 2Q04
- one ERSC credit numbered 2(alpha)00 to 2(alpha)99
- the Humanities context credit or Social Science context credit not taken in year 1
Year 3
- Two ERSC credits numbered 2(alpha)00 to 3(alpha)99
- two BIOL credits numbered 2(alpha)90 to 3(alpha)99
- one ERSC or BIOL credit (see program note 3)
Year 4
- One and one-half ERSC credits numbered 2(alpha)90 or above
- one and one-half BIOL credits numbered 2(alpha)90 or above
- one of BIOL 4F90 and 4F91 or BIOL 4F92 and one elective credit or ERSC 4F91 and one ERSC credit numbered 3(alpha)90 or above
 
Pass Program Go to top of document
Satisfactory completion of the first three years of the Honours program entitles a student to apply for a Pass degree.  
Earth Sciences and Chemistry Go to top of document
Honours Year 1
- ERSC 1F01
- CHEM 1F92
- MATH 1P01 and 1P02
- PHYS 1P21, 1P22, 1P91 and 1P92
- one Humanities context credit or one Social Science context credit
Year 2
- ERSC 2P21 and 2P22
- CHEM 2P12, 2P20, 2P32 and 2P42
- one ERSC credit numbered 2(alpha)00 to 2(alpha)99
- the Humanities context credit or Social Science context credit not taken in year 1
Year 3
- ERSC 3P31
- CHEM 2P21 and 3P40
- one credit from CHEM 3P20, 3P21, 3P30, 3P31, 3P41, 3P51, 3P53, 3P60
- one and one-half ERSC credits numbered 2(alpha)00 to 3(alpha)99
- one elective credit in CHEM or ERSC (see program note 4)
Year 4
- One CHEM credit numbered 2(alpha)90 or above
- one ERSC credit numbered 2(alpha)90 or above
- one of CHEM 4F90 and 4F91, or ERSC 4F91 and one ERSC credit numbered 3(alpha)90 or above
- one elective credit
Pass Satisfactory completion of the first three years of the Honours program entitles a student to apply for a Pass degree.
 
Earth Sciences and Geography Go to top of document
Honours Year 1
- ERSC 1F01
- GEOG 1F91
- MATH 1P97 and 1P98
- one Social Science context credit (GEOG 1F90 strongly recommended)
- one Humanities context credit
Year 2
- ERSC 2P00, 2P11, 2P12 and 2P21
- one-half ERSC credit numbered 2(alpha)00 to 2(alpha)99
- one and one-half credits from ERSC 2P05, 2P09, GEOG 2P04, 2P07
- one elective credit
Year 3
- ERSC 2P10
- GEOG 3P56
- one and one-half ERSC credits numbered 2(alpha)00 to 3(alpha)99
- one and one-half GEOG credits numbered 2(alpha)90 to 3(alpha)99 from groups B and C (see Geography department)
- one Science credit from BIOL, CHEM, COSC, MATH or PHYS (see program note 2)
Year 4
- Two ERSC credits numbered 2(alpha)90 or above
- GEOG 4F99
- one GEOG credit numbered 3(alpha)90 or above from group B
- one elective credit (see program note 7)
Honours Satisfactory completion of the first three years of the Honours program entitles a student to apply for a Pass degree.
 
Minor in Earth Sciences Go to top of document
Students in other disciplines may obtain a Minor in Earth Sciences by successfully completing the following courses with a minimum 60 percent overall average:
- One credit from ERSC 1F01, 1F90, 1P92, 1P93
- two ERSC credits numbered 2(alpha)00 or above
- one ERSC credit numbered 2(alpha)90 or above
 
Master of Science (MSc) Program Go to top of document
Candidates normally require a four year BA or BSc degree, or equivalent, with a minimum B average for admission to the program. Applications are made through the Graduate Studies Office. Candidates holding a degree without sufficient concentration in the area of the intended Masters degree may be required to complete up to one credit in addition to the regular graduate course requirements. Candidates not holding a 4 year BA or BSc degree, or equivalent, with a B average, will be required to take a qualifying year similar to year 4 before formally enrolling for the MSc degree. Candidates may be required to write the Graduate Record Examination and/or a language examination. Candidates require a minimum of one year of residency and satisfactory completion of a program which must include ERSC 5F90 and two ERSC credits numbered 5(alpha)00 or above. Alternatively candidates may replace up to one-half ERSC 5(alpha)00 or above credit with one-half ERSC credit numbered 4(alpha)00 or above. All candidates are required to present a seminar on the topic of their thesis project before the end of the required residency year. For details, see the Graduate Calendar or consult the Chair of the department.  
Course Descriptions Go to top of document
Note that not all courses are offered in every session. Refer to the applicable term timetable for details. # Indicates a cross listed course * Indicates primary offering of a cross listed course  
Prerequisites and Restrictions Go to top of document
Students must check to ensure that prerequisites are met. Students may be deregistered, at the request of the instructor, from any course for which prerequisites and/or restrictions have not been met. ERSC 1F01 Planet Earth Earth as a member in the solar system, minerals and rocks, plate tectonics, volcanoes, and earthquakes; the fossil record and the history of life; glacial geology, geomorphology, earth surface processes; paleoclimates and future climate change; environmental geoscience, hydrologic cycle, soil-groundwater contamination, hazardous waste disposal and alternatives. Lectures, lab or local field trip, 5 hours per week. Prerequisites: any two of biology, chemistry, environmental science, earth sciences, mathematics or physics beyond grade 11 or equivalent. Completion of this course will replace previous assigned grade in ERSC 1F90, 1F95, 1P92 and 1P93. ERSC 1F90 Geology and the Environment Intended primarily for non-science majors. Current hypotheses about the history of planet Earth; the significance of understanding modern environments in interpreting ancient settings and predicting future developments. Topics include earthquake prediction, hazardous waste disposal, floods, erosion, landslides, glaciation, global climate change and historical geology. Lectures, 2 hours per week; lab, 2 hours per month. Note: secondary school sciences are not a prerequisite. Students achieving an exceptional level of performance in ERSC 1F90 may, at the discretion of the department, register in upper year courses. Completion of this course will replace previous assigned grade in ERSC 1F01, 1F95, 1P92 and 1P93. ERSC 1P92 Extreme Earth Extreme low frequency events and the geological record of their causes and effects, including earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, climatic change and impacts with extraterrestrial bodies. Lectures, 3 hours per week. Note: secondary school sciences are not a prerequisite. Completion of this course will replace previous assigned grade in ERSC 1F01, 1F90 and 1F95. ERSC 1P93 North America's Parklands: Stories in Stone Some of the Earth's most spectacular scenery, instructive geologic features and culturally significant places with North America's National, Provincial and State parks. Exploration of our continent's natural history, its dynamic processes and its influence on First Nations societies. Lectures, 3 hours per week. Note: secondary school sciences are not a prerequisite. Completion of this course will replace previous assigned grade in ERSC 1F01, 1F90 and 1F95. *ERSC 2P00 Natural Hazards (also offered as ENVI 2P00) Identification of naturally occurring atmospheric and geological hazards such as earthquakes, landslides, floods and their impacts on urban planning and development, infrastructure, public safety and policy issues. Lectures, lab, 5 hours per week. Prerequisite: one of ERSC 1F01 (1F95), 1F90, GEOG 1F91. Completion of this course will replace previous assigned grade in ERSC 1P92. ERSC 2P02 Introduction to Oceanography Overview of the oceans, their origin, composition, circulation, geology and biota, from the coastal zone to the abyss. Importance of oceanography to humans, history of oceanography, overview of marine hazards and resources, ocean-atmosphere interactions and the global climate. Lectures, lab, 5 hours per week. Prerequisite: one of ERSC 1F01 (1F95), 1F90, BIOL 1F90. *ERSC 2P05 Earth Surface Processes (also offered as ENVI 2P05 and GEOG 2P05) Earth surface processes and geomorphology within global environments. A dynamic and physically based account of processes and the Earth's surface, linking the fields of sedimentology, physical geography and fluid mechanics. Lectures, lab, field work, 5 hours per week. Prerequisite: ERSC 1F01 (1F95) or GEOG 1F91 or permission of the instructor. *ERSC 2P09 Principles of Biogeography (also offered as ENVI 2P09 and GEOG 2P09) Autoecological aspects of soils and plants including the human impact at all scales. Patterns of soils and plants and their explanation. Spatial patterns of soils and vegetation communities and their explanation. Lectures, lab, 5 hours per week. Prerequisites: one of ERSC 1F01 (1F95) and MATH 1P98, CHEM 1F92, GEOG 1F91 and MATH 1P98, or permission of the instructor. ERSC 2P10 Sedimentology Basic clastic sedimentology (grain size, shape, porosity/permeability, fabric) including fundamentals of unidirectional and oscillatory water flows, sediment transport under such flows and resulting sedimentary structures. Clastic rock classification. Lectures, lab, 5 hours per week. Prerequisite: ERSC 1F01 (1F95). Completion of this course will replace previous assigned grade in ERSC 2P31. *ERSC 2P11 Research Methods in the Geosciences (also offered as GEOG 2P11) Appraisal of scientific method. Problems of research design and the acquisition of information from the field by mapping, instrumental measurement, sampling and the use of published and unpublished data sources. Quantitative analysis of data, interpretation and the communication of results. Lectures, lab, seminar, 5 hours per week. Prerequisites: ERSC 1F01 (1F95) or GEOG 1F91; MATH 1P98 or permission of the instructor. ERSC 2P12 Earth Science Methods Introduction to the study and description, in the field and the lab, of surficial deposits, sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic rocks; analysis of geological maps and imagery. Lectures, lab, field trips, 6 hours per week, weekend field trips taken early in the semester. Prerequisite: ERSC 1F01 (1F95). Note: field trips taken during lab periods and weekends to areas of geological interest. ERSC 2P21 Introduction to Mineralogy and Mineral Associations Crystal systems, symmetry operations, introduction to the 32 crystal classes; mineral composition and structure; physics and chemistry of minerals; mineral identification. Lectures, lab, 6 hours per week. Prerequisite: ERSC 1F01 (1F95). ERSC 2P22 Optical Mineralogy Properties of light and its interaction with mineral grains: reflection, refraction, polarization, interference phenomena, extinction, colour and pleochroism. Refractometry; isotropic, uniaxial and biaxial optics; interpretation of interference figures. Transmitted light petrography in the identification of and familiarization with major rock-forming minerals in grain mounts and in thin section. Lectures, lab, 6 hours per week. Prerequisite: ERSC 2P21. ERSC 2P32 Paleontology and Earth History Fossil preservation and bias in the fossil record; ontogeny and growth of invertebrates; functional morphology of selected invertebrate groups; evolution and speciation; paleoecology; mass extinctions in the fossil record. Labs deal with the classification and morphology of the major invertebrate groups and principles of taxonomy. Lectures, lab, local field trip, 5 hours per week. Prerequisite: ERSC 1F01 (1F95) or BIOL 1F90 or permission of the instructor. ERSC 3P01 Structural Geology Measurement and effects of stress and strain. Genesis of brittle and ductile structures and their classification. Methods of structural analysis. Lectures, lab, 5 hours per week. Prerequisite: ERSC 2P12. Completion of this course will replace previous grade in ERSC 2P01. ERSC 3P10 Stratigraphy and Carbonate Sedimentology Fundamentals of lithostratigraphy and introduction to the North American Stratigraphic code; subsurface geology techniques, subsurface mapping and correlation; geology and geological history of southern Ontario; introduction to facies and facies models; sequence stratigraphy. Formation of carbonate and chemical minerals and sediments; environments of formation; classification of carbonate minerals, rocks and environments of deposition; limestone diagenesis; dolomitization; hand specimen, thin section and rock section/sequence descriptions. Lectures, lab, 6 hours per week. Prerequisite: ERSC 2P10. Completion of this course will replace previous grade in ERSC 3P71. ERSC 3P21 Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology Igneous rocks: nomenclature and classification; magmatic processes. Application of one, two and three component phase diagrams to interpret the formation of igneous rocks. Metamorphic rocks: types, classification, mineral parageneses. Labs include the study of rocks in thin section, their mineralogy, textures, origin and classification. Lectures, lab, 6 hours per week. Prerequisites: ERSC 2P22 and CHEM 1F92. *ERSC 3P24 Glacial Geomorphology/Geology (also offered as GEOG 3P24) Introduction to glaciology; glacial processes, glacial deposits; their genesis and sedimentology. Relationship of glacial processes to landforms and surface topography. Glacial systems and facies associations. Applied aspects of glacial geology, such as drift exploration. Lectures, lab, field work, 5 hours per week. Prerequisite: ERSC 2P05 or permission of the instructor. *ERSC 3P25 Quaternary Geology (also offered as GEOG 3P25) Glaciations in the geological record, causes of glaciations, biotic responses to climatic changes, eustatic and isostatic sea level changes in response to glaciation, Quaternary stratigraphy and correlation of glacial and non-glacial events, application of Quaternary geology to economic and environmental problems, methods of paleoclimatic reconstruction. Lectures, lab, 5 hours per week. Prerequisite: ERSC 2P10 or 3P24 or permission of the instructor. *ERSC 3P26 Glacial Soils and Sediments (also offered as GEOG 3P26) Applied aspects of glacial deposits. Geotechnical and pedochemical properties and structural attributes of glacial soils and sediments. Micromorphology, glacial soil discontinuity analyses. Introductory aspects of soil mechanics. Drift exploration. Landfill problems and issues related to glacial soils and sediments. Lectures, lab, 5 hours per week. Prerequisite: ERSC 3P24 or 3P25 or permission of the instructor. ERSC 3P31 Geochemistry Formation of the elements; nucleo-synthesis and cosmic abundances; classification of elements; crystal chemistry, bond energy, crystal defects and elemental partitioning/distribution; kinetic chemistry, elemental diffusion, nucleation and transformation; aqueous geochemistry, water-mineral interactions; Gibbs free energy and the formation/weathering of igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks; introduction to isotope geochemistry. Lectures, lab, 6 hours per week. Prerequisite: CHEM 1F92. Note: students must supply their own safety equipment (safety glasses and lab coats). *ERSC 3P33 Biodiversity (also offered as GEOG 3P33) Dispersal and migration, adaptation; speciation, extinction; ecological interaction, species invasion, plant and animal introductions, habitat fragmentation and application of biogeographical theory to conservation biology, and human impacts on fire regimes. Lectures, lab, field work, 6 hours per week. Prerequisite: one of ERSC 2P09, BIOL 2P05, 2Q04 or permission of the instructor. *ERSC 3P36 Fluvial Geomorphology (also offered as GEOG 3P36) River basins, channel morphology, flood frequency analysis, elementary flow mechanics and sediment transport; analysis of river records; long term changes in river systems. Introduction to HEC-RAS flow modelling. Lectures, lab, 6 hours per week. Prerequisite: ERSC 2P05 or permission of the instructor. ERSC 3P61 Groundwater Geology Occurrence, movement, exploration and exploitation of groundwater including the study of groundwater flow and principles of well hydraulics. Lectures, lab, 6 hours per week. Prerequisites: ERSC 1F01 (1F95) and MATH 1P97. *ERSC 3P85 Ecology of a Changing Planet (also offered as BIOL 3P85 and GEOG 3P85) Impact of environmental change and human activity on ecosystems. Topics include climate change and global warming, habitat fragmentation, extinction, invasive species, conservation biology and the management of ecological integrity. Lectures, lab, 5 hours per week. Prerequisite: one of ERSC 2P09, BIOL 2P05, 2Q04. ERSC 3P94 Advanced Igneous Petrology Igneous petrogenesis, with emphasis on the physical chemistry of igneous processes; igneous rock complexes; studies of a number of petrologically important areas. Lectures, lab, 6 hours per week. Prerequisite: ERSC 3P21. ERSC 3P98 Ore Geology Mode of occurrence, distribution, genesis, evaluation of and exploration for metallic and industrial mineral deposits. Includes ore petrology and geochemistry as well as theory of ore deposition in hydrothermal systems. Lectures, lab, seminar, 6 hours per week. Prerequisite: ERSC 3P21. Note: ERSC 3P31 is recommended. ERSC 3P99 Field Camp-Solid Earth Two-week immersion course offered after final examinations in year 3 introducing students to collecting, recording and synthesizing field data, airphoto mapping, preparing geologic maps and reports. Field area, situated in northern Ontario, consists of Archaean, Proterozoic and Paleozoic lithologies. Restriction: consult the department regarding permission to register. Students must have a minimum of 13.0 overall credits. Note: registrants are expected to defray the cost of travel, accommodation and other expenses. ERSC 3Q99 Field School-Quaternary Geology Field and laboratory methods for analysis of Quaternary landscapes based on field sites including fluvial, hillslope, coastal, glacial, and biosphere examples. Lectures, lab, 5 hours per week. Restriction: consult the department regarding permission to register. Prerequisite: ERSC 2P12. ERSC 3V90-3V99 Special Topics in Earth Sciences Selected issues in Earth Sciences on the basis of faculty expertise and student interest. Restriction: consult the Chair and supervising instructor regarding permission to register. Open to ERSC (single or combined) majors with a major average of 70 percent and a minimum of 10.0 overall credits. ERSC 4F91 Thesis Research on geological problems involving field or laboratory study under faculty supervision. Restriction: open to ERSC (Honours) (single or combined) majors with a minimum of 13.5 overall credits and a minimum major average of 75 percent. Note: submission and oral examination of thesis are required. ERSC 4P01 Advanced Structural Geology Deformation mechanisms; the use of kinematic indicators; relationships between micro and macrostructures; emphasis on recent topics and methods in structural geology. Lectures, seminar, lab, 5 hours per week. Prerequisite: ERSC 3P01 (2P01). ERSC 4P10 Advanced Clastic Sedimentology Team study of the subsurface geology of a selected area of a Lake Erie gas field. Drill cores and geophysical logs are used to correlate lithostratigraphic units and to construct structure contour maps and isopach maps of gas-bearing strata. Lab, seminar, 3 hours per week. Prerequisite: ERSC 3P10. ERSC 4P15 Photogeology and Remote Sensing Analysis and geologic interpretation of aerial photography, including remote sensing data from airborne and satellite imagery. Temporal evolution and denudation of land masses in relation to tectonic, sedimentologic and climatic changes. Lectures, seminar, lab, 5 hours per week. Prerequisite: one of ERSC 3P24, 3P25, 3P26, 3P36. Completion of this course will replace previous grade in ERSC 3P43. ERSC 4P16 Precambrian Geology Archaean and Proterozoic evolution of the Earth examining: geology, tectonics, stratigraphy and history of the Precambrian; evolution of the Earth's crust; Precambrian time scale; evolution of life, oceans and atmosphere. Lectures, seminar, 4 hours per week. Prerequisite: ERSC 3P21. ERSC 4P22 Advanced Metamorphic Petrology Synthesis of metamorphic textures, compositional variations and field characteristics with emphasis on the temperature-pressure relations of the metamorphic rocks and the role of fluids in metamorphism. Lectures, lab, 6 hours per week. Prerequisite: ERSC 3P21. *ERSC 4P26 Advanced Fluvial Geomorphology (also offered as GEOG 4P26) Steep, rough river systems emphasizing boulder bed and rock bed channels. Seminar, lab, field work, 3 hours per week. Prerequisite: ERSC 3P36 or permission of the instructor. *ERSC 4P28 Advanced Glacial Sedimentology (also offered as GEOG 4P28) Sedimentology of present day glacial environments and of Quaternary sediments. Thermo-mechanical principles of glacier physics as applied to past and present glacier ice conditions. Glacial lithofacies associations. Glacio-tectonics and diagenesis. Principles of glacial erosion, entrainment and deposition. Lectures, lab, local field trip, 5 hours per week. Prerequisite: ERSC 3P24, 3P26 or permission of the instructor. ERSC 4P31 Watershed Geochemistry Principles of environmental geochemistry and toxicology; aqueous geochemistry and water quality; formation of soils/sediments and impact of anthropogenic activities; assessment of anthropogenic contamination/pollution including risk assessment; watershed study and assessing quality and chemistry, sources and impacts. Lectures, lab, local field work, 6 hours per week. Prerequisite: one of ERSC 3P31, BIOL 3P71, 3P72, CHEM 2P42. Note: students must supply their own safety equipment (safety glasses and lab coats). ERSC 4P52 Industrial Mineral Deposits and Coal Industrial rocks, minerals and aggregates; geologic origin, occurrence and mutual relationships; classification, extraction, preparation and uses; properties, classification and origin of coal; structural control, exploitation of ore deposits, grade and tonnage calculation. Lectures, lab, seminar, field trip, 6 hours per week. Prerequisite: ERSC 3P98. ERSC 4P61 Surface Hydrology Distribution and variation of run-off, recurrence of floods and droughts; fluvial processes and sediment transport; hydrologic and water management techniques; computer models for hydrologic and sediment analysis. Lectures, lab, local field trip, 5 hours per week. Prerequisite: ERSC 2P05 or 2P10 or permission of the instructor. *ERSC 4P80 Dendrochronology (also offered as BIOL 4P80 and GEOG 4P80) Principles and use of dendrochronology to study forest dynamics, geomorphic events and paleoenvironmental change; use of tree growth in the study of climate and environmental factors; measurement and statistical analysis of tree growth records. Lectures, lab, local field trip, 6 hours per week. Prerequisite: one of ERSC 2P09, BIOL 2P05, 2Q04. CO-OP COURSES ERSC 0N01 Work Placement I First Co-op work placement (4 months) with an approved employer. Restriction: open to ERSC Co-op students. ERSC 0N02 Work Placement II Second Co-op work placement (4 months) with an approved employer. Restriction: open to ERSC Co-op students. ERSC 0N03 Work Placement III Third Co-op work placement (4 months) with an approved employer. Restriction: open to ERSC Co-op students. ERSC 0N04 Work Placement IV Optional Co-op work placement (4 months) with an approved employer. Restriction: open to ERSC Co-op students. ERSC 0N05 Work Placement V Optional Co-op work placement (4 months) with an approved employer. Restriction: open to ERSC Co-op students.  
Last updated: June 24, 2004 @ 03:42PM