Last updated: March 29, 2005 @ 11:30AM

Biological Sciences

Chair
A Joffre Mercier

Professors Emeriti
Alan Bown, Arthur H. Houston, Ralph D. Morris, Peter Nicholls, R. Peter Rand, Donald J. Ursino

Professors
Michael J. Bidochka, Douglas H. Bruce, Vincenzo De Luca, Yousef Haj-Ahmad, Fiona F. Hunter, A. Joffre Mercier, Andrew G. Reynolds

Associate Professors
Stefan Brudzynski, Robert L. Carlone, Alan J. Castle, Daniel McCarthy, John Middleton, Gary Pickering, Miriam Richards

Assistant Professors
Charles Després, David Gabriel, Debra L. Inglis, Sandra Peters, Jean Richardson, Adonis Skandalis, Gaynor Spencer, Glenn Tattersall, Litsa Tsiani

Adjunct Professors
Peter Bolli, Margaret Cliff, Peter Fernandez, Helen Fisher, Ken Giles, Javier Gracia-Garza, Isabelle Lesschaeve, Wendy McFadden-Smith, Dan Rinker, Lorne W. Stobbs, Antonet Svircev, Lining Tian

Laboratory Instructors
John Ciolfi, Jacinta Dano, Diane Eaton, Ellen Maissan, George Melvin

General Information

Administrative Assistants
Caroline Barrow
Beulah Lewis-Alexander

905-688-5550, extension 3388/3115
Mackenzie Chown MC F234
https://brocku.ca/biology

The biological sciences, or the life sciences, encompass a broad spectrum of subjects from molecular biology to ecology as well as such disciplines as biochemistry, biophysics, genetics and physiology. The program is designed to provide the student with a broad base in modern biological thought, to fulfill the basic requirements for admission to professional and advanced degree studies and to prepare graduates for careers in the biological sciences and related fields. Although the undergraduate program provides students with flexibility in selecting the areas of biology most compatible with their interests and skills, it also ensures that students develop an overview of the major concepts and problems of modern biology as expressed at all levels of biological organization.

The objectives of the undergraduate program are realized through a group of core courses in years 1 and 2, each with an associated laboratory. Laboratory classes stress the investigative approach to experimental studies. Students move progressively from structured laboratory studies to increasingly independent investigations and in the honours year undertake individual research projects. Working from the core program, students may follow a variety of curriculum patterns to satisfy their interests.

Students must consult faculty advisers when planning years 3 and 4 of the BSc (Honours) program or year 3 of the BSc (Pass) program.

The honours year provides students with the opportunity for either broadening their understanding of the biological sciences or for increased specialization. Ideally, the Honours program provides an opportunity for the synthesis of material presented in earlier years and also provides an opportunity for independent investigative work. Each honours candidate undertakes a major research study under the direct supervision of a faculty member. Students must apply to the Department of Biological Sciences in order to be admitted to year 4 (honours).

Program Notes
  1. Students registering for BIOL 1F90 should register in MATH 1P98 for the Fall Term, but should check with the Mathematics department regarding prerequisites. MATH 1P01 may be substituted for MATH 1P97.
  2. Students preparing for professional studies in health sciences should note that many such programs require completion of a laboratory physics course i.e., one credit from PHYS 1P91, 1P92 and 1P93.
  3. One credit from PHYS 1P21, 1P22, 1P23, 1P91 is strongly recommended for students who do not have Grade 12 U or OAC Physics.
  4. The third ancillary science credit must be numbered 1(alpha)00 to 2(alpha)99 and offered by a department in the Faculty of Mathematics and Science other than Biological Sciences, excluding ASTR 1F00, CHEM 1P00, ERSC 1F90, 1P92, 1P93, SCIE 1F30, BTEC courses and MATH courses numbered 1(alpha)00 to 1(alpha)99. An organic chemistry course numbered 2(alpha)00 to 2(alpha)99 is recommended.
  5. BIOL 2P95 does not carry major credit for the BSc (Honours degree). Students who submit this for credit toward the BSc Pass degree must replace it with accepted BIOL credits if they subsequently enter the Honours program.
  6. Students in year 3 are encouraged to take one of BIOL 2P92, 2P94, 2P96, 2P98 not taken in year 2.
  7. For combined BIOL/CHEM majors, CHEM 3P40 is strongly recommended for most projects in CHEM 4F90, 4F91 and should be taken in year 3 by students intending to proceed to a year 4 thesis in CHEM.
  8. For combined BIOL/CHEM majors, honours students who elect BIOL 4F90, 4F91 and who have taken only the minimum five credits in CHEM in years 1 through 3 may experience difficulty in obtaining the necessary two additional CHEM credits in year 4.
  9. All courses numbered 2(alpha)00 - 2(alpha)99 require a minimum of 3.0 overall credits. All courses numbered 3(alpha)00 - 3(alpha)99 require a minimum of 8.0 overall credits.
  10. In all 20 credit degree programs, at least 12 credits must be numbered 2(alpha)00 or above, six of which must be numbered 2(alpha)90 or above and of these, three must be numbered 3(alpha)90 or above. In all 15 credit degree programs, at least seven credits must be numbered 2(alpha)00 or above, three of which must be numbered 2(alpha)90 or above.

Honours Program

Year 1
·   BIOL 1F90 (see program note 1)
·   CHEM 1F92
·   MATH 1P97 and 1P98
·   one credit from COSC 1P93, 1P95, 1P96, ERSC 1F01, PHYS 1P21 or 1P91 (recommended), one of PHYS 1P22, 1P23, 1P92, 1P93 (recommended) (see program notes 2 and 3)
·   one Humanities context credit or one Social Science context credit
Year 2
·   BIOL 2F01, 2P05 and 2Q04
·   one credit from BIOL 2P92, 2P94, 2P96, 2P98
·   third ancillary science credit (see program note 4)
·   the Humanities context credit or Social Science context credit not taken in year 1
Year 3
·   Three BIOL or BCHM credits numbered 2(alpha)90 or above (see program notes 5, 6 and 7)
·   two elective credits
Year 4
·   BIOL 4F90 and 4F91, or BIOL 4F92 and one BIOL credit numbered 3(alpha)90 or above
·   one BIOL credit numbered 2(alpha)90 or above
·   one BIOL credit numbered 3(alpha)90 or above
·   one elective credit

Pass Program

Satisfactory completion of the first three years of the Honours program entitles a student to apply for a Pass degree.

Concurrent BSc/BEd

The Department of Biological Sciences and the Faculty of Education co-operate in offering two Concurrent BSc (Honours)/BEd programs and a BSc (Pass)/BEd program. The Biological Sciences BSc (Honours)/BEd programs combines the BSc Honours program or BSc Integrated Studies Honours program with the teacher education program for students interested in teaching at the Intermediate/Senior level (grades 7-12) and at the Junior/Intermediate level (grades 4-10.) The BSc Integrated (Pass)/BEd combines the BSc Integrated (Pass) program with the teacher education program for students interested in teaching at the Junior/Intermediate level (grades 4-10.) Refer to the Education - Concurrent BSc (Honours)/BEd (Intermediate/Senior), Education - Concurrent BSc Integrated Studies (Honours)/ BEd (Junior/Intermediate) or Education - Concurrent BSc Integrated Studies (Pass)/BEd (Junior/Intermediate) program listings for further information.

Combined Major Programs

Biological Sciences and Chemistry

Honours

Year 1
·   BIOL 1F90
·   CHEM 1F92
·   MATH 1P01 and 1P02 or MATH 1P97 and 1P98
·   PHYS 1P21 or 1P91 (recommended) (see program notes 2 and 3)
·   one of PHYS 1P22, 1P23, 1P92, 1P93 (recommended) (see program notes 2 and 3)
·   one Humanities context credit or Social Science context credit
Year 2
·   BIOL 2F01
·   CHEM 2P12 or 2P63
·   CHEM 2P20, 2P21 and 2P42
·   one credit from BIOL 2P05, 2P92, 2P94, 2P96, 2P98, 2Q04
·   the Humanities context credit or Social Science context credit not taken in year 1
Year 3
·   BCHM 3P01 and 3P02
·   CHEM 2P12 or 2P63 (not taken in year 2)
·   CHEM 2P32
·   one BIOL credit numbered 2(alpha)90 to 3(alpha)99 (BIOL 3P50 recommended)
·   one and one-half credits from CHEM 3P20, 3P21, 3P30, 3P31, 3P40, 3P41, 3P51, 3P53, 3P60 (see program notes 4 and 7)
·   one-half elective credit
Year 4
·   BIOL 4F90 and 4F91 or BIOL 4F92 and one BIOL credit numbered 3(alpha)90 or above, or CHEM 4F90 and 4F91 (see program note 8)
·   one credit from the Department of Biological Sciences in the areas of biochemistry, biophysics or molecular biology or one half credit from one of those areas plus BCHM 3P02 or BIOL 3P50
·   one CHEM credit numbered 2(alpha)90 or above
·   one elective credit (see program note 10)

Pass

Satisfactory completion of the first three years of the Honours program entitles a student to apply for a Pass degree.

Biological Sciences and Geography

Honours

Year 1
·   BIOL 1F90
·   GEOG 1F91
·   MATH 1P97 and 1P98
·   one Humanities context credit
·   one Social Science context credit (GEOG 1F90 is strongly recommended)
Year 2
·   BIOL 2P05 and 2Q04
·   one credit from BIOL 2P92, 2P94, 2P96, 2P98
·   GEOG 2P11
·   one and one-half credits from GEOG 2P04, 2P05, 2P07, 2P09
·   one elective credit
Year 3
·   Two BIOL credits
·   GEOG 3P56
·   one GEOG credit numbered 2(alpha)90 to 3(alpha)99 from group B
·   one-half GEOG credit numbered 2(alpha)90 to 3(alpha)99 from group B or C (see Geography department)
·   one elective credit
Year 4
·   Two BIOL credits
·   GEOG 4F99
·   one GEOG credit numbered 3(alpha)90 or above from group B or C (see Geography department)
·   one elective credit
BIOL 4F90 and 4F91, or BIOL 4F92 and one BIOL credit numbered 3(alpha)90 or above or GEOG 4F90 must be included

Pass

Satisfactory completion of the first three years of the Honours program entitles a student to apply for a Pass degree.

Biological Sciences and Mathematics

Honours

Year 1
·   BIOL 1F90
·   CHEM 1F92
·   MATH 1P01, 1P02, 1P40 and 1P98
·   one Humanities context credit or Social Science context credit
Year 2
·   Two credits from BIOL 2F01, 2P05, 2P92, 2P94, 2P96, 2P98, 2Q04
·   MATH 1P12, 2P03, 2P81, and 2P82
·   the Humanities context credit or Social Science context credit not taken in year 1
Year 3
·   Two BIOL credits numbered 2(alpha)90 to 3(alpha)99
·   MATH 3P81 and 3P82
·   one MATH credit
·   one elective credit
Year 4
·   Two BIOL credits numbered 2(alpha)90 or above
·   MATH 2F40, 4P81 and 4P82
·   one elective credit (see program note 11)

Pass

Satisfactory completion of the first three years of the Honours program entitles a student to apply for a Pass degree.

Biological Sciences and Psychology
Entrance to the BIOL/PSYC combined Honours program requires application to the Psychology Department.

Honours

Year 1
·   BIOL 1F90
·   PSYC 1F90
·   CHEM 1F92
·   one Humanities context credit
·   one elective credit (MATH 1F92 or 1P97 and 1P98 recommended)
Year 2
·   Two credits from BIOL 2F01, 2P05, 2P92, 2P94, 2P96, 2P98, 2Q04
·   PSYC 2F23
·   one PSYC credit numbered 2(alpha)00 or above
·   one elective credit
Year 3
·   Two BIOL credits numbered 2(alpha)90 to 3(alpha)99
·   PSYC 3P39, one and one-half PSYC credits numbered 3(alpha)00 or above that must include PSYC 3F40 or 3P30
·   one elective credit
Year 4
·   Two BIOL credits which may include BIOL 4F90 and 4F91 or BIOL 4F92
·   PSYC 4P92 and 4P93 and one PSYC credit numbered 3(alpha)90 or above (if neither BIOL 4F90 and 4F91 nor BIOL 4F92 is taken, PSYC 4F90 or 4F91 is required)
·   one elective credit
Pass

Year 1
·   BIOL 1F90
·   PSYC 1F90
·   CHEM 1F92
·   one Humanities context credit
·   one elective credit (MATH 1F92 or 1P97 and 1P98 recommended)
Year 2
·   Two credits from BIOL 2F01, 2P05, 2P92, 2P94, 2P96, 2P98, 2Q04
·   PSYC 2F23
·   one PSYC credit numbered 2(alpha)00 or above
·   one elective credit
Year 3
·   Two BIOL credits numbered 2(alpha)90 to 3(alpha)99
·   two PSYC credits numbered 3(alpha)00 or above
·   one elective credit
Biological Sciences and Earth Sciences
Consult the Earth Sciences entry for a listing of program requirements.

Biological Sciences and Physics
Consult the Physics entry for a listing of program requirements.

Minor in Biological Sciences

Students in other disciplines can obtain a minor in Biological Sciences within their degree program by completing the following courses with a minimum 60 percent overall average:
·   two BIOL credits numbered 2(alpha)00 or above
·   two BIOL credits numbered 2(alpha)90 or above

Master of Science (MSc) Program

The Department of Biological Sciences offers specialized training in a wide variety of research areas leading to the MSc degree. Candidates will normally have an Honours BSc or BA degree for admission to the program. A minimum of one year of full-time study and research is required. This must include BIOL 5F90 (MSc thesis) and a minimum course program equivalent to one and one-half credits. For details, refer to the Graduate Calendar or contact the Chair of the Department.

Description of Courses

Note that not all courses are offered in every session. Refer to the applicable term timetable for details.

# Indicates a cross listed course
* Indicates a primary offering of a cross listed course

Prerequisites and Restrictions

Students must check to ensure that prerequisites are met. Students may be deregistered, at the request of the instructor, from any course for which prerequisites and/or restrictions have not been met.
BIOL 1F25
Biology: A Human Perspective
For non-science majors: contemporary issues of human concern. For example, cardiovascular physiology, biology of cancer, issues in contemporary biology.
Lectures, 2 hours per week; lab, alternating weeks, 2 hours per week during the Fall Term.
Note: Secondary school biology is not a prerequisite for this course.

BIOL 1F90
Concepts in Biology
Topics essential to contemporary biology, including molecular biology, biological energy conversion, how plants and animals adapt, genetics and the evolutionary process.
Lectures, 3 hours per week; lab/workshop, alternating weeks, 3 hours per week.
Note: OAC or 12U biology recommended. Students registering for BIOL 1F90 should normally register for MATH 1P98 in the Fall Term. MATH 1P01 may be substituted for MATH 1P97, BIOL 1F90 is a prerequisite for most courses in the department.

BIOL 2F01
Principles of Molecular and Cellular Biology
Cellular processes and their relationship to cellular structure with emphasis on the structure and function of proteins, membranes, cell organelles and the expression of genetic information.
Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week; lab, 3 hours per week during the Winter Term.
Restriction: students must have a minimum of 3.0 overall credits.
Prerequisites: BIOL 1F90 and one CHEM credit numbered 1(alpha)80 to 1(alpha)99 or permission of the instructor.

BIOL 2P05
Principles of Population and Behavioural Ecology
Biological processes and patterns of uniformity and diversity at the individual and population levels of organization; group characteristics of populations and the evolutionary basis of animal behaviour.
Lectures, 3 hours per week; tutorial, 1 hour per week.
Restriction: students must have a minimum of 3.0 overall credits.
Prerequisite: BIOL 1F90.
Note: one-half year 1 credit in MATH strongly recommended.

BIOL 2P92
Animal Form, Function and Diversity
Introduction to evolution, animal diversity, basic body plans and anatomical structure of tissues and organs throughout the animal kingdom. Relationships of structures to such functions as movement, feeding, respiration and development. Evolutionary series illustrated where appropriate.
Lectures, lab, 6 hours per week.
Restriction: students must have a minimum of 3.0 overall credits.
Prerequisite: BIOL 1F90 or permission of the instructor.

BIOL 2P94
Plant Biology: Growth and Development
Biochemistry and cell biology of plant cell structure, organogenesis and plant life cycle. Focussing on angiosperm adaptations to the biotic and abiotic environment.
Lectures, lab/seminar, 6 hours per week.
Restriction: students must have a minimum of 3.0 overall credits.
Prerequisites: BIOL 1F90 and CHEM 1P92 or permission of the instructor.

BIOL 2P95
Bioethics
(also offered as PHIL 2P95)
Value conflicts and moral dilemmas in biology and medicine. Emphasis on specific case studies in reproductive interventions, medical experimentation, concepts of "health" and "disease", modification of behaviour, lifestyle choices, allocation of scarce or expensive medical resources, and death and dying.
Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.
Prerequisite: one BIOL or PHIL credit or permission of the instructor.
Note: may count as an elective, but not as a major credit in an Honours BIOL (single or combined) program.
Completion of this course will replace previous assigned grade in BIOL (PHIL) 2F95.

BIOL 2P96
Biology of Fungi
Structure, development, metabolism, reproduction and evolution of fungi, emphasizing the importance of fungi, in particular yeasts, to industrial processes.
Lectures, 3 hours per week; lab, 3 hours per week for six weeks.
Restriction: students must have a minimum of 3.0 overall credits.
Prerequisite: BIOL 1F90.

BIOL 2P97
Human Physiology
Normal human function with specific reference to circulatory, respiratory and excretory activities and their regulation as well as their more common genetic, environmental and lifestyle pathologies.
Lectures, 3 hours per week.
Restriction: students must have a minimum of 3.0 overall credits.
Prerequisite: BIOL 1F90.
Note: computer simulations.

BIOL 2P98
Principles of Microbiology
Diversity, evolution, physiology and genetics of micro-organisms with emphasis on applied, medical and environmental microbiology.
Lectures, 3 hours per week; lab, 3 hours alternate weeks.
Restriction: students must have a minimum of 3.0 overall credits.
Prerequisite: BIOL 1F90.

BIOL 2Q04
Principles of Community and Environmental Biology
(also offered as ENVI 2Q04)
Principles of evolutionary ecology; biological processes at the community level of biological organization; patterns and diversity in natural ecosystems in terms of environmental toxins and their bioaccumulation in food webs; factors influencing community structure, biotic diversity and energy flow through ecosystems.
Lectures, 2 hours per week; lab, 3 hours per week during the Fall Term.
Restriction: students must have a minimum of 3.0 overall credits.
Prerequisite: BIOL 1F90.
Note: one-half year 1 credit in MATH strongly recommended. Year 2 students enrolled in the ENEC program are permitted to register in BIOL 2Q04 provided they have successfully completed the MATH and GEOG requirements in year 1 of the program.

BIOL 3P28
Developmental Biology
Vertebrate, invertebrate and plant development. Topics include egg and sperm interaction; emergence of diverse cell types in the adult body from a single cell; genetic control of tissue and organ formation and morphological patterns in these structures; role of genes underlying the developmental mechanisms of evolutionary change.
Lectures, 3 hours per week; lab, 3 hours per week for 6 weeks.
Restriction: students must have a minimum of 8.0 overall credits.
Prerequisite: BIOL 2F01.

BIOL 3P34
Neurobiology
(also offered as NEUR 3P34)
Structure and function of nerve cells: Electrical properties of neurons, synaptic function and transmitters, neural plasticity and cellular basis of behaviour.
Lectures, 3 hours per week.
Restriction: students must have a minimum of 8.0 overall credits.
Prerequisite: BIOL 2F01.

BIOL 3P35
Comparative Animal Physiology
Examination of how animals work, survive and regulate physiological processes. Homeostatic mechanisms of respiration, circulation, osmoregulation, thermoregulation, locomotion and metabolism in vertebrates with comparison to selected invertebrates.
Lectures, 3 hours per week.
Restriction: students must have a minimum of 8.0 overall credits.
Prerequisites: BIOL 2F01 and 2P92 or permission of the instructor.

BIOL 3P43
Applied Microbial Ecology
(also offered as BTEC 3P43)
Ecology of micro-organisms and special adaptations that permit their use in biotechnology and applied microbiology.
Lectures, lab, 6 hours per week.
Restriction: students must have a minimum of 8.0 overall credits.
Prerequisite: BIOL 2P98 or permission of the instructor.

BIOL 3P50
Molecular Genetics
(also offered as BTEC 3P50)
Topics include the genetic code and information flow from nucleic acids to proteins, RNA and protein synthesis; prokaryotic and eukaryotic chromosomes; gene organization; transcription, RNA processing; codon usage; enhancer and transposons.
Lectures, 3 hours per week; lab, 3 hours per week for 6 weeks.
Restriction: students must have a minimum of 8.0 overall credits.
Prerequisite: BIOL 2F01 or permission of the instructor.

BIOL 3P51
Genetics: Transmission, Development, Population
Concepts of classical genetics including genetic mapping, extra-nuclear inheritance, polyploidy, genetics and development, evolutionary genetics.
Lectures, 3 hours per week; lab, 3 hours per week for 6 weeks.
Restriction: students must have a minimum of 8.0 overall credits.
Prerequisite: BIOL 1F90.

BIOL 3P60
Animal Behaviour
Emphasis on the social context of behaviour and natural selection: the evolution and significance of visual, auditory and olfactory communication; spacing behaviour and the evolution of diversity in spacing systems; mating systems and sexual selection; development of species-typical behaviour; the development and significance of periodic behaviour patterns including endogenous rhythms orientation and navigation.
Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week; lab, 3 hours per week.
Restriction: students must have a minimum of 8.0 overall credits.
Prerequisites: BIOL 2P05, 2P92 and 2Q04.

BIOL 3P64
Introductory Insect Biology
Field and laboratory exercises and lectures covering morphology, physiology, evolution, ecology, social behaviour and harmful and beneficial aspects of the insects.
Lectures, 2 hours per week; lab, 3 hours per week.
Restriction: students must have a minimum of 8.0 overall credits.
Prerequisite: BIOL 1F90 or permission of instructor.

BIOL 3P71
Ontario Universities Field Biology Course
The units offered are: arid environments, insect sampling, limnology, fish ecology, ornithology, aquatic ecology, marine biology, bat behaviour, scavenging arthropods, small mammal ecology, arctic ecology, high arctic tundra and alpine ecology.
Restriction: students must have a minimum of 8.0 overall credits and permission of the instructor.
Prerequisites: BIOL 2P05 and 2Q04.
Note: in co-operation with Carleton, Queen's, Toronto, Trent, Waterloo, Western, Windsor, and York universities, the Department of Biological Sciences participates in a series of one and two week field courses at established field stations in Algonquin Park, Lake Opinicon and the OMNR station at Dorset, Ontario. In recent years, courses have been offered outside the province at field stations in Alberta, Manitoba and the Northwest Territories. Each course is a separate unit and may include students from all participating universities. The number of units offered will vary from year-to-year, but those available will normally be scheduled during one- and two-week periods from late April through early September. Two one-week units or one two-week unit will constitute the equivalent of one-half credit. Registration must be completed by the end of January with the course Co-ordinator. Registrants normally defray their own travel expenses to the field station. Modest board and room costs are required in addition to the usual half credit registration fee.

BIOL 3P72
Ontario Universities Field Ecology Course
The units offered are: arid environments, insect sampling, limnology, fish ecology, ornithology, aquatic ecology, marine biology, bat behaviour, scavenging arthropods, small mammal ecology, arctic ecology, high arctic tundra and alpine ecology.
Restriction: students must have a minimum of 8.0 overall credits and permission of the instructor.
Prerequisites: BIOL 2P05 and 2Q04.
Prerequisite: BIOL 3P71.
Note: in co-operation with Carleton, Queen's, Toronto, Trent, Waterloo, Western, Windsor, and York universities, the Department of Biological Sciences participates in a series of one and two week field courses at established field stations in Algonquin Park, Lake Opinicon and the OMNR station at Dorset, Ontario. In recent years, courses have been offered outside the province at field stations in Alberta, Manitoba and the Northwest Territories. Each course is a separate unit and may include students from all participating universities. The number of units offered will vary from year-to-year, but those available will normally be scheduled during one- and two-week periods from late April through early September. Two one-week units or one two-week unit will constitute the equivalent of one-half credit. Registration must be completed by the end of January with the course Co-ordinator. Registrants normally defray their own travel expenses to the field station. Modest board and room costs are required in addition to the usual half credit registration fee.

BIOL 3P80
Evolution
The idea of evolution and its development; scientific method and the past; classical, modern pre-Darwinian and Darwinian concepts; the history of the earth and the fossil record; biogeographical patterns; adaptation, natural selection and the origin of species; molecular evolution; evolution of specific taxonomic groups including humans.
Lectures, 2 hours per week; seminar, 1 hour per week.
Restriction: students must have a minimum of 8.0 overall credits.
Prerequisites: BIOL 2P05 and 2Q04; one of BIOL 2P92, (2P93), 2P96, 2P98.

BIOL 3P85
Ecology of a Changing Planet
(also offered as ERSC 3P85 and GEOG 3P85)
Impact of environmental change and human activity on ecosystems. Topics include climate change and global warming, habitat fragmentation, extinction, invasive species, conservation biology and the management of ecological integrity.
Lectures, lab, 5 hours per week.
Prerequisite: one of BIOL 2P05, 2Q04, ERSC 2P09.

BIOL 3P90
Investigative Neurobiology
(also offered as NEUR 3P90)
Methods used in neurobiology and neurophysiology. Electro-physiological techniques, including intracellular and extracellular recording from nerve cells and muscle, and on theory and techniques for electro-physiological data acquisition. Other topics include intracellular staining, immunocytochemistry and assay procedures.
Lectures, 2 hours per week; lab, 3 hours per week.
Restriction: students must have a minimum of 8.0 overall credits.
Prerequisite: BIOL 2F01 or PSYC 2F36.
Note: BIOL 3P34 is strongly recommended for students who have not taken PSYC 2F36
Completion of this course will replace previous assigned grade in BIOL (NEUR) 3P84.

BIOL 3P91
Plant Physiology: Metabolic and Biophysical Processes
The metabolism of carbon and nitrogen compounds; photosynthetic and respiratory processes; mineral nutrition; water relations; gas exchange and transport processes.
Lectures, lab, 6 hours per week.
Restriction: students must have a minimum of 8.0 overall credits.
Prerequisites: BIOL 2F01 and 2P94 (2P93) or permission of the instructor.

BIOL 3P98
Wine Microbiology
(also offered as OEVI 3P98)
Identification and enumeration of indigenous micro-organisms in grape must. Alcoholic fermentation; metabolism of nitrogen compounds and organic acids; production of sulphur compounds; killer yeasts; malolactic fermentation; wine spoilage micro-organisms; genetic improvement of wine yeasts.
Lectures, lab, 6 hours per week.
Restriction: open to OEVI majors and OEVI certificate students or permission of the instructor.
Prerequisites: OEVI 3P25, BCHM 3P01, BIOL 2F01 and 2P98.
Co-requisite: BIOL 3P50.
Note: students must be a minimum of 18 years of age.

BIOL 3V90-3V99
Special Topics in Biology
(also offered as BCHM 3V90-3V99)
Selected issues in Biology on the basis of faculty expertise.
Restriction: students must have a minimum of 8.0 overall credits and permission of the Chair.
Note: under certain circumstances, a student may carry out, under faculty supervision, a detailed study of the scientific literature pertinent to a specific topic. The results of this study will be presented as a major essay and as a formal seminar.

BIOL 4F90
Honours Thesis
Each student will undertake a limited research project involving field or laboratory study under faculty supervision.
Restriction: open to BCHM and BIOL (single or combined) majors with approval to year 4 (honours) and permission of the Chair.
Note: to be taken in conjunction with BIOL 4F91. Students electing to pursue studies on non-laboratory ecological projects will be permitted to initiate their programs during the summer preceding registration in year 4, but may not include data or observations obtained as a consequence of participation in field courses such as BIOL 3P71 or 3P72. Submission and oral defence of the thesis is required.

BIOL 4F91
Literature Research and Seminar
Each student will undertake a detailed study of the scientific literature relevant to the topic of the honours thesis.Restriction: open to BCHM and BIOL (single or combined) majors with approval to year 4 (honours) and permission of the Chair.
Note: to be taken in conjunction with BIOL 4F90. Review will be included in the thesis and will be presented as a seminar.

BIOL 4F92
Library Research Essays
Each student will be required to carry out two detailed studies of the scientific literature under faculty supervision.
Restriction: open to BCHM, BIOL (single or combined) and BTEC majors with approval to year 4 (honours) and permission of the Chair.
Note: for students not registered for BIOL 4F90 and BIOL 4F91. Results of the studies will be presented in major essays and formal seminars. One research topic is to be completed each term.

BIOL 4P03
Current Topics in Photobiology
(also offered as BCHM 4P03)
The interaction of light with biological molecules. Effects of ultraviolet radiation, photosynthesis, vision and photoregulation of genes and proteins.
Lectures, seminar, lab, 3 hours per week.
Restriction: students must have a minimum of 14.0 overall credits or approval to year 4 (honours).
Prerequisite: any year 3 BCHM credit or permission of the instructor.

BIOL 4P06
Bioinformatics
(also offered as BCHM 4P06 and BTEC 4P06)
Genome sequencing projects, gene discovery and gene expression. DNA/RNA/Protein sequence data, including mutagenic processes, molecular evolution and systematics, codon usage, reconstruction of ancient molecules, and prediction of higher-level molecular structure.
Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.
Restriction: students must have a minimum of 14.0 overall credits or approval to year 4 (honours).
Note: BIOL 3P50, 3P80, BCHM 3P02 and MATH 1P98 are recommended.

BIOL 4P09
Topics in Animal and Plant Signal Transduction Pathways
(also offered as BCHM 4P09 and BTEC 4P09)
Perception of stimuli to effects on gene expression emphasizing the molecular/biochemical tools used to study these pathways.
Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.
Restriction: students must have a minimum of 14.0 overall credits or approval to year 4 (honours).
Prerequisite: BCHM 3P01.

BIOL 4P10
Microbial Pathogenesis
A molecular approach to microbial diseases in a variety of hosts focussing on human diseases. Topics include animal models for diseases, molecular diagnostics, identifying virulence factors and population genetics of pathogenic microbes.
Lectures/seminar, 3 hours per week.
Restriction: students must have a minimum of 14.0 overall credits or approval to year 4 (honours).
Prerequisite: BIOL 2P98.

BIOL 4P21
Mutagenesis in Disease and Biotechnology
(also offered as BCHM 4P21 and BTEC 4P21)
Exploration of the various mechanisms of mutagenesis of the genetic material, how they contribute to disease, and how they can be adapted to produce new biomolecules.
Lectures/seminar, 3 hours per week.
Restriction: students must have a minimum of 14.0 overall credits or approval to year 4 (honours).
Prerequisite: BIOL 3P50 or BCHM 3P02.

BIOL 4P28
Developmental Neurobiology
Principles of neural development. Topics include cell lineage and early determinative events, trophic functions, growth and plasticity, synaptogenesis and gene expression in the establishment of the nervous system.
Lectures/seminar, 3 hours per week.
Restriction: students must have a minimum of 14.0 overall credits or approval to year 4 (honours).
Prerequisites: BIOL 3P28 and 3P34 or permission of the instructor.

BIOL 4P29
Current Topics in Animal Physiology
Recent and/or controversial research in respiratory, thermoregulatory, and cardiovascular physiology and their neural control. Topics may vary from year to year.
Lectures/seminar, 3 hours per week.
Restriction: Students must have a minimum of 14.0 overall credits or approval to year 4 (honours)
Prerequisite: BIOL 3P35.
Note: BIOL 3P60 and 3P34 are recommended.

BIOL 4P30
Grape Pest Management
(also offered as OEVI 4P30)
Biology and dynamics of grapevine pest activity - insects, diseases, weeds, nematodes, vertebrates. Integrated pest management approach looking at all aspects of control chemical, biological, cultural. Application techniques, pest identification and monitoring.
Lectures, lab, 6 hours per week.
Restriction: open to OEVI majors and OEVI certificate students or permission of the instructor.
Prerequisite: OEVI 2P99.

BIOL 4P34
Systems Neurophysiology
Neuronal networks and integrative mechanisms in the nervous system. Topics may include the visual system, rhythm generators and motor function, learning and memory.
Lectures/seminar, 3 hours per week.
Restriction: students must have a minimum of 14.0 overall credits or approval to year 4 (honours).
Prerequisite: BIOL 3P34 or permission of the instructor.

BIOL 4P51
Molecular Virology
(also offered as BTEC 4P51)
Bacterial and animal viruses. Topics include biochemical properties, virus-host interaction, productive cycle, effect of virus on host cell and organism, viral vectors and gene therapy, recombinant viral vaccines and origin of virus.
Lectures, seminar, 2 hours per week.
Restriction: students must have a minimum of 14.0 overall credits or approval to year 4 (honours).
Prerequisite: BIOL 3P50 or permission of the instructor.

BIOL 4P53
Immunology
Humoral and cellular immunity; structure and synthesis of immunoglobulins; origin of antibody diversity; transplantation immunity and the importance of the major histocompatibility complex; auto-immunity and allergic reactions.
Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.
Restriction: students must have a minimum of 14.0 overall credits or approval to year 4 (honours).
Prerequisite: BIOL 3P50 or BCHM 3P01.

BIOL 4P57
Bacterial Genetics
(also offered as BTEC 4P57)
Molecular and transmission genetics of bacteria. Bacterial genetics from early descriptions of transformation and transduction to current developments in molecular genetics.
Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.
Restriction: students must have a minimum of 14.0 overall credits or approval to year 4 (honours).
Prerequisites: BIOL 2P98 and 3P50 or permission of the instructor.

BIOL 4P58
Fungal Genetics
(also offered as BTEC 4P58)
Transmission and molecular genetics of fungi. Recent advances in gene manipulation and the contribution of studies on these organisms to general genetic principles.
Lectures, seminar, 2 hours per week.
Restriction: students must have a minimum of 14.0 overall credits or approval to year 4 (honours).
Prerequisite: one of BIOL 2P96, 3P50, 3P51 or permission of the instructor.

BIOL 4P60
Advanced Seminar in Population and Behavioural Ecology
Topics selected vary from year to year partly in response to student interests.
Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.
Restriction: students must have a minimum of 14.0 overall credits or approval to year 4 (honours).
Prerequisite: BIOL 3P60 or 3P80.

BIOL 4P61
Natural Selection and Adaptation
Topics may include fitness, selection in natural populations, life history evolution, adaptive traits, forces opposing natural selection, population structure and natural selection. Emphasis on empirical studies in current literature.
Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.
Restriction: students must have a minimum of 14.0 overall credits or approval to year 4 (honours).
Prerequisite: BIOL 3P60 or 3P80.
Note: BIOL 3P80 is strongly recommended.

BIOL 4P62
Sociobiology
Examination of how natural selection shapes social behaviour emphasizing the evolution of co-operation and altruism. Interplay among social interactions between individuals, physical interactions and intrinsic factors defining societies.
Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.
Restriction: students must have a minimum of 14.0 overall credits or approval to year 4 (honours).
Prerequisites: BIOL 3P60 or 3P80.

BIOL 4P64
Insect Behaviour
Selected topics in the field of insect behaviour including: programming and integration of behaviour orientation and dispersal, feeding and plant-herbivore co-evolution, chemical, visual and acoustical communication, defensive behaviour, reproductive behaviour and the eusocial insects.
Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.
Restriction: students must have a minimum of 14.0 overall credits or approval to year 4 (honours).
Prerequisite: one of BIOL 3P60, 3P64, 3P80 or permission of the instructor.

BIOL 4P80
Dendrochronology
(also offered as GEOG 4P80 and ERSC 4P80)
Principles and use of dendrochronology to study forest dynamics, geomorphic events and paleoenvironmental change; use of tree growth in the study of climate and environmental factors; measurement and statistical analysis of tree growth records.
Lectures, lab, local field trip, 6 hours per week.
Prerequisite: one of BIOL 2P05, 2Q04, GEOG 2P09.

BIOL 4P84
Physiology of Excitable Cells
Neurons, muscle and/or neurosecretory cells at the cellular and subcellular levels. Topics include ion channel activity, patch clamp recording, intracellular messenger systems, mechanisms of neurosecretion and neural plasticity.
Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week.
Restriction: students must have a minimum of 14.0 overall credits or approval to year 4 (honours).
Prerequisite: BIOL 3P34, 3P90 (3P84) or permission of the instructor.