David Butz

Graduate Program Director and Professor, Geography and Tourism Studies

David Butz

Office: MC C315
905-688-5550 x3205

Core faculty member in the graduate programs in Geography, Social Justice and Equity Studies and Popular Culture

Editor-in-Chief: Studies in Social Justice

Editorial Board Member: ACME: An International E-Journal for Critical GeographiesERDKUNDE: Archive for Scientific Geography

  • Social and cultural geography
  • Qualitative research design
  • Community level social organisation in northern Pakistan
  • Mobility justice
  • Mobilities, road construction and social change in the global south
  • Transport labour in the Karakoram/Hindu-Kush/Himalaya
  • Reggae music and spatiality

Current graduate students:

  • Shannon Kitchings. “Inside Voices: Witnessing Oral Disclosures of Trauma,” MA in Social Justice & Equity Studies, Brock University. (Thesis committee member)
  • Syed Khuram Farukh. “Attabad: From a Disaster to an Opportunity in Disguise,” MA in Geography, Brock University. (Thesis supervisor)
  • Stephanie Murray. “Mobile Homes: Van-lifers in America,” MA in Geography, Brock University. (Thesis supervisor)
  • Jackie Gervais. “Understanding Post-secondary Mobility and its Impact on Well-being,” MA in Geography, Brock University. (Thesis committee member)
  • Jennica Giesbrecht. “Rethinking Intimate Geographies of Deathscapes,” MA in Geography, Brock University. (Thesis committee member)

Former graduate students:

  • Katrina Baxter-Moore. 2017. “For the Benefit of Whom? A Critical Analysis of the Claims of Volunteer Tourism,” MA in Popular Culture, Brock University. (MRP)
  • Benjamin Kwao. 2017. “Sustainable Food Systems in Northern Ghana: Assessing the Influence of International Development,” MA in Geography, Brock University. (Thesis)
  • Michael Ayerh. 2016. “Social and Environmental Impact of Large-Scale mining in Ghana: A Case Study of Tarkwa Nsuaem Municipal Assembly,” MA in Geography, Brock University. (MRP)
  • Edna Abanga. 2015. “Access to Health Care Services in Ghana,” MA in Geography, Brock University. (MRP)
  • Warren Jenkinson. 2015. “Geographical Applications for Sound Walks,” MA in Geography, Brock University. (Thesis)
  • Pushpa Hamal. 2014. “Rural Road Construction in the Global South: How Process Shapes Outcome,” MA in Geography, Brock University. (MRP)
  • Oscar Kuffour. 2014. “Disaster Risk Reduction in the Human Security Perspective: The Case of Urban Ghana,” MA in Geography, Brock University. (MRP)
  • Raphael Atanga. 2011. “Tourism and Sustainable Development in Ghana: A case study of the Paga Crocodile Ponds,” MA in Geography, Brock University(MRP)
  • Katie Hemsworth. 2010. “The use of personal listening devices on public transit to transform soundscape and place,” MA in Geography, Brock University. (Thesis)
  • Aaron Franks. 2008. “A minor theory: Transmigration of ecological practice into transformative political discourse, via Campesina,” MA in social Justice and Equity studies, Brock University(Thesis)
  • Anna Lise Domanski. 2007. “Righteous sounds and reproductive justice: The influence of Ani DiFranco’s music for reproductive rights activists,” MA in Social Justice and Equity Studies, Brock University. (Thesis)
  • Julie Gregory. 2007. “Dancing Politics: Connecting Women’s Experiences of Rave in Toronto to Ageism and Patriarchy,” MA in Social Justice and Equity Studies, Brock University. (Thesis)
  • Lorraine Pannett. 2006. “Found in Translation: Life History and Migration,” MA in Social Justice and Equity Studies, Brock University. (MRP)
  • Samah Sabra. 2005. From 1940s Fez to 1990s Paris: Conceptualising Contact Zones and Understanding Autoethnography in a Global Arena of Representation,” MA in Social Justice and Equity Studies, Brock University(Thesis)
  • Kathryn Zavitz. 2004. “International Volunteers at a Costa Rican Organic Farm: Sheepish Volunteers, Proud Tourists and Unwitting Developers,” MA in Social Justice and Equity Studies, Brock University. (Thesis)
  • Kathryn Besio. 2001. “Spatial Stories of Researchers, Travelers and Tourists in a Balti Village: Jangli Geographies of Transculturation,” PhD in Geography, University of Hawaii. (Dissertation co-supervisor)
  • Tania Dolphin. 2000. “The Discursive Construction of Hunza, Pakistan, in Travel Writing: 1889-1999,” MA in Geography, Carleton University. (Thesis co-supervisor)

Committee Member:

  • Connor Dingle. 2017. “Mobile Technology and Place at the Matheson Learning Commons,” MA in Geography, Brock University. (MRP)
  • Emmanuel Akowuah. 2018. “Farmers’ Access to Agricultural Information and its Impact on Smallholder Agriculture: A Case Study of the Asante Akim North Municipality, Ghana,” MA in Geography, Brock University. (MRP)
  • Diana Owusuaa. 2016 “The Role of TRansnational Funeral Celebrations in Connecting Ghanian (Akan) Women in Toronto to Ghana,” MA in Geography, Brock University(MRP)
  • Maame Achiaa Agyemang. 2016 “Climate Change, Food Security and Vulnerability in Ghana’s Upper West REgion: Challenges and Adaptation Strategies,” MA in Geography, Brock University(MRP)
  • Emmanuel Kyeremeh. 2015 “Exploring the Discourse of Skill/s Mismatch in Ghana,” MA in Geography, Brock University(MRP)
  • Richard Lagani. 2012 “Domestic Door Locks and Space: Unlocking Key Knowledge of the Home,” MA in Geography, Brock University(MRP)
  • Ola Mohammed. 2012 “My Poetry Hails within the Streets, My Poetry Fails to be Discrete: Examining Belonging and Identity in Southern Ontario Diasporic Hip-Hop Music,” MA in Popular Culture, Brock University(MRP)
  • Ian Wood. 2011 “The Neoliberalisation of Street Vending Policy in Lima, Peru: The Contested Politics of Citizenship, Property and Public Space in the Production of a New Urban Marginality,” MA in Geography, Brock University(Thesis)
  • Jumoke Isekeije. 2010. “Peeking Through the Opomulero Lens: Tunde Kelani’s Women on Centre Stage,” MA in Popular Culture, Brock University(MRP) 
  • Joshua Holt. 2008. “Steeltown Scene: Genre, Performance and Identity in the Alternative Independent Music Scene in Hamilton, Ontario,” MA in Popular Culture, Brock University. (Thesis)
  • Maureen Kihika. 2008. “The United Nations Millenium Development Goal to ‘Combat HIV/AIDS in Kenya by 2014’,” MA in Social Justice and Equity Studies, Brock University. (MRP)
  • Heather Maguire. 2007. ““Citizen Jane: Exploring the Relationship Between Gender and Cellular Phones in Societies of Control,” MA in Social Justice and Equity Studies, Brock University. (Thesis)
  • Tomee Sojourner. 2006. “From Periphery to Centre: An Exploratory Study of One Black Lesbian’s Intersections of Identity and Experiences of Discrimination in the Workplace,” MA in Social Justice and Equity Studies, Brock University. (Thesis)
  • Shauna Flanagan. 2003. “Differential Vulnerability to Debris Flow Hazard in High Mountain Communities of the Karakoram Himalaya, Northern Pakistan,” MA in Geography, WLU. (Thesis)
  • Nick Craddock-Henry. 2002. “Risk, Vulnerability and Environmental Hazards in the Village of Darkot, Northern Pakistan,” MA in Geography, WLU. (Thesis)

External Examiner:

  • Heidi Karst. 2016. “Protected Areas and Ecotourism: Charting a Path Toward Social-Ecological Wellbeing,” PhD in Geography, University of Waterloo. (Dissertation)
  • Naila Zafar. 2018. “Monitoring Desertification in Kirthar National Park, Sindh: A Geographical Evaluation,” PhD in Geography, University of Karachi. (Dissertation)
  • Abdul Rauf2014. “Immigrants in Bahawalpur City, Their Livelihood and Integration,” PhD in Geography, Islamia University of Bahawalpur. (Dissertation)
  • Ghulam Murtaza Safi2014. “Spatial Dimensions of Agriculture in Sibi District, Balochistan,” PhD in Geography, University of Karachi. (Dissertation)
  • Jeremy Thompson2010. “Climbers’ Perceptions of Sustainable Bouldering Practices in the Niagara Glen,” MA in Applied Health Sciences, Brock University. (Thesis)
  • Jaspreet Bal. 2010. “Children’s Rights in Rural Punjab: The Story of a Border Dweller,” MA in Child and Youth Studies, Brock University. (Thesis)
  • David Tavares. 2010. “Informal Urban Citizenship in the Multicultural City: Literary Representations of Second-Generation Youth in Toronto and London” PhD in Geography, University of Ottawa. (Dissertation)
  • Syed Shahid Ali. 2009.“Structure and Spatial Patterns of Agriculture in Pakistan: A Study in Regionalization” PhD in Geography, University of Karachi. (Dissertation)
  • Shakila A. Rahman. 2009.“Poverty in Karachi: Geographical Perspective and Socio-Economic Profile” PhD in Geography, University of Karachi. (Dissertation)
  • Khalida Zainab. 2003.“Changes in the Spatial Structure of Administrative Areas in Pakistan: A Geographical Evaluation” PhD in Geography, University of Karachi, Pakistan. (Dissertation)
  • Yiping Lee. 2000.“A Phenomenological Study of Tourists’ Travel Experiences,” PhD in Geography, University of Western Ontario. (Dissertation)

I am seeking serious students who are interested in completing an MA degree in social or cultural geography to work with me in the following areas.

Mobilities, road construction and social change in rural areas of the global South

Mobilities, road construction and social change in rural areas of the global South

In my own current work this interest involves investigating the implications of a newly constructed road for the daily lives, identities, and spatialities of residents in a small agricultural village in northern Pakistan. Opportunities exist for qualified and interested students to work with interviews, testimonial information, archives and photographic evidence relevant to this particular road-building project. I would also be interested in supervising students who would like to work on this general topic in relation to other geographical contexts.

Qualitative research methods, especially ethnography and autoethnography in their various forms

Qualitative research methods, especially ethnography and autoethnography in their various forms

I am eager to work with students who wish either to use or interrogate the use of these approaches in geographical research. Students entering graduate school seldom realize that methodology itself is a dynamic area of research. Ethnography, and especially the place of the self-reflexive researcher-self in ethnographic research, is an especially dynamic area of research on methodology, that I would be interested to help interested students explore.

Geographies of Music

Geographies of Music

My interests are in (a) sound as a resource for understanding and representing spatiality, (b) music’s role in constituting specific spaces, (c) the concept of acoustic space, and (d) relationships among music, identity and place. I have thought about these issues most carefully in relation to reggae music, but my supervisory interests are not constrained by genre preferences. I recently supervised a student who studied how the use of i-pods is shaping the constitution and experience of public transit environments.

Atta abad research

Living with Unexpected Inaccessibility in Gojal, Northern Pakistan: A Case Study of the Effects of the Atta Abad Landslide

On January 4th, 2010 a massive slope failure blocked more than two kilometres of the main Hunza River in the Gojal region of northern Pakistan to a depth of about 120m. The slide also destroyed three kilometres of the Karakoram Highway (KKH), the main transportation route connecting this region to the rest of Pakistan. Nineteen people were killed in the landslide, and most of Atta Abad and Sarat villages were annihilated. About 20,000 people in 25 villages were cut off from vehicular access to the rest of Gilgit-Baltistan province and Pakistan. A lake formed behind the landslide dam; by May 29th 2010, when the lake finally overtopped the dam, it had submerged 27 kilometres of the Karakoram Highway, destroyed at least six bridges, and flooded the homes and fields of about 240 households in five villages. In addition, over 130 shops have been submerged, as well as several schools, hotels, community centres, grinding mills and places of worship. The landslide and lake have together displaced about 380 families, most of whom are staying with relatives or are living in hastily-constructed camps.

Since the KKH opened in 1986, people in the region have come to rely on vehicular transportation, access to services, and the cheap and easy movement of people and goods between their villages and down-country cities. The accessibility provided by the KKH has become woven into the everyday economies and time-space fabric of almost all Gojali households. They are now struggling with the sudden unexpected reassertion of the friction of distance.

Nancy Cook and I are collaborating with Zulfiqar Ali Khan and Noor Mohammad – residents of one of the partially submerged villages and editors of a local news blog called The Pamir Times – to study the effects of landslide-induced disruptions to mobility on households in four Gojali villages. We are using in-depth interviews to develop four small case studies that will be presented individually, and then used to develop a comparative study of the effects of sudden and prolonged inaccessibility on household livelihood strategies, education, mobility patterns, social services, diets, well-being and the like in these four communities.

The project is an extension of our larger research project, A Material Ethnography of the Shimshal Road. Shimshal is a Gojali community some 70 kilometres upstream from the Atta Abad slide.

Reggae music

The Constitution of Spatiality in Reggae Music

From September to May I host a weekly one-hour radio show called Riddim Come Fawaad: Solid Reggae Vibrations on CFBU 103.7FM. The show live-streams Wednesday nights at 9:00 and Saturday afternoons at 4:00.

Several of my research interests coalesce in a project that investigates how spatiality is theorised, communicated, and used as a tool of expression, in Jamaican reggae music. The term “spatiality” here refers to the socially-produced character of space, and the spatially-constituted nature of society and subjectivity. My intent is to examine reggae music as a way to learn about how poor Black Jamaicans conceptualise and articulate their socio-spatial circumstances, and indeed how they construct particular spatialities through music.

The research focuses on this group of people because of the global significance of their general spatial circumstances, especially their history of forced migration and diaspora, and their current subordinate position in a range of national and transnational economic, social and cultural flows. The group of whom, and to whom, reggae music speaks are exemplary of more general – if less extreme – conditions of diaspora, cultural hybridity, displacement, and “double consciousness,” which according to many scholars characterise the current period of globalisation. A detailed study of how this group understands, expresses and actively creates spatiality will contribute significantly to the geographical understanding of globalisation’s effects on how people understand the world, themselves, and their place in the world. This has the potential to inform policy debates regarding globalisation’s cultural implications.

Reggae is an especially appropriate resource for studying these issues, for four main reasons:

  • first, there is much evidence that music in general has been an especially potent site of cultural expression among diasporic Black cultures;
  • second, reggae music has consistently and explicitly articulated themes of  subordination, suffering, diaspora, migration, displacement and double consciousness. Thus, it offers a rich storehouse of material on the experience of globalisation under conditions of subordination;
  • third, reggae has developed sophisticated techniques for using sound to evoke spatial associations and disjunctures;
  • fourth, due to its status as a local music with a global audience, reggae has had to develop ways of speaking simultaneously (but not identically) to cultural insiders and outsiders. This is a characteristic feature of transcultural representation, which prompts me to conceptualise reggae music as “autoethnographic” representation: i.e., as a way members of subordinate groups represent themselves to their own group, while simultaneously representing themselves to members of dominant groups.

As the first detailed geographical examination of reggae music, this study contributes to music scholarship, and to the branch of geography concerned with the spatial attributes of music. It also contributes to current efforts within geography to develop a less visual – and more aural – means of conceiving spatiality. More generally, in tracing the contours of a specific mode of autoethnographic expression, this study will also contribute to the conceptualisation of identity under conditions of transcultural subordination.

Shimshal Nature Trust-1
Shimshal Nature Trust-2
Shimshal Nature Trust-3

I have been involved with research in the community of Shimshal off and on since 1988. When I visited the community for a fourth field season during the summer of 1997, several community elders approached me to solicit my help in drafting a document outlining their endeavour to develop a comprehensive nature trust. The result of our collaborative efforts was the Shimshal Nature Trust Fifteen Year Vision and Management Plan.

My role has been a modest one: merely to take what Shimshalis told me of their plans for a nature trust, and to convey this information in well-constructed English. Thus, none of the ideas are mine, but much phrasing (and, therefore, some of the emphasis) is. In order to convey their primary authorship of the document, Shimshalis encouraged me to write as if they were writing, and to avoid the academic, “bird’s eye view”, third person. The result is occasionally awkward, but I hope accurately conveys the nature of my collaboration with the community. Everything included in the document has been checked, double-checked, and approved by several Shimshalis who are fluent in English. Nevertheless, I am happy to accept responsibility for any errors or misleading emphases that remain.

A Critical Ethnography of the Shimshal Road

Shimshal is a farming and herding community of about 110 households, located at 3,000m in the Karakoram Mountain Range, in Pakistan’s Northern Areas (Butz 1996). For most of the community’s 400 year history, travel between the village and its nearest neighbour required a walk of at least a week along a difficult footpath that was impassable even for donkeys and yaks. It was several more days’ travel by pony track to Baltit, the capital of the fiefdom of Hunza, and an additional week or so beyond Baltit to Gilgit, the largest centre in what is now northern Pakistan and historically a staging point along the fabled Silk Route (Butz 1998). While these difficulties of travel did not wholly prevent interaction between Shimshal and the rest of the region, they did have a strong limiting and mediating effect. Throughout the 20th century Shimshal’s relative inaccessibility increased, as jeep tracks and metalled roads were constructed throughout the region, but not to Shimshal. By the late 1970s Shimshal was one of the least accessible permanent settlement in Pakistan’s Northern Areas; it was still a week’s walk from the nearest road (the Karakoram Highway, which establishes a road link, through northern Pakistan, from the Punjab to Western China). In 1983 the community began to construct a road from Passu (their nearest neighbour, on the Karakoram Highway) to the village of Shimshal, initially with the assistance of the Aga Khan Rural Support Program, an NGO operating out of Gilgit, and later with funding and engineering support from the Government of Pakistan (Ali & Butz 2005). As road construction proceeded, the time required to travel between Shimshal and Passu decreased, with a commensurate increase in traffic. When I first visited and conducted research in Shimshal in 1987, it was a long four-day walk, which included fording several streams and crossing a glacier. By 1995 the trek was down to three days, and then two days in 2000. When I visited the community most recently in 2007, I travelled the whole way by jeep in three hours; the 40 kilometre road was completed in November 2003, twenty years after construction began. The trip from Shimshal to the regional centre of Gilgit, which would have taken at least two weeks as recently as the mid 1960s, now takes less than ten hours.

The potential implications of this increase in accessibility for Shimshal are great, in terms of the movement of people and goods, the introduction of ideas and technology, the infiltration of government bureaucracy and commerce, the incorporation of the community into a regional economy and political structure, and so on (Butz 1993). One of the advantages Shimshalis identify in ‘getting’ a road so late, and taking so long to construct it, is that it has given them time to think about how to manage these potential effects with reference to the community’s observations about what happened in other communities that went through a similar period of drastically increased accessibility a decade or two earlier. Indeed, the community set up its Shimshal Nature Trustin 1987 largely in anticipation of stresses associated with the completion of the road, and I have been involved in many discussions in the community, at various levels of formality, which focused on how to manage the effects of the road (Ali & Butz 2005, Butz 1995, 2006).

After two decades of informal observations and conversations with Shimshalis about the road, Nancy Cook (Brock, Sociology) and I have recently begun a more comprehensive, historically-grounded ethnography of social change in Shimshal in the context of increases in accessibility facilitated by the road’s construction. To the extent that our study will rely heavily on community-members’ own perspectives and experiences, it will also be an autoethnography of social change (Besio & Butz 2004, Butz & Besio 2004).

The results of this research – currently in its very early stages – will be important for several reasons. First, road building is a significant aspect of NGO development work and government infrastructure initiatives in northern Pakistan and throughout the developing world, but with little attention to micro-level implications for community members and with the assumption that effects will be generally positive. When implications are studied, they tend to focus strictly on economic benefits without considering social implications, and they seldom attempt to understand the perspectives of the people whose lives have been most directly affected by drastically increased accessibility. Second, while mountainous northern Pakistan is nearing the end of a period of rapid and intense road infrastructure development, little effort has been devoted to assessing whether the predictions of the meso-level models upon which this development was based are borne out on the ground. This study, while not aspiring to provide a regional-level evaluation of the social effects of infrastructural development, will develop a detailed case study that contributes to the early stages of that process of assessment. Third, because we have interview transcripts from a couple of years before the road was finished, which we will complement by conducting interviews a few years after the completion of the road, we will be able to describe shifts in villagers’ perspectives and concerns across a crucial transitional period. This is not a systematically longitudinal research project, but it does have a valuable longitudinal dimension that is rare in studies of this sort. Fourth, most studies of accessibility in rural parts of the developing world treat communities super-organically, and thus fail to tease out the variable implications of increasing accessibility for different group within a community. Our study will do that because we will have in-depth qualitative information, and because we already have a strong sense of social (economic, political, gender, household, etc.) organization in the community. Fifth, while Shimshalis have struggled long and hard to construct a road to their village, they are clearly also concerned about its implications for their lives. The results of this study will provide the community with an analysis that will allow community members to plan more carefully and knowledgeably for their future. Sixth, the study will provide a detailed analysis of an indigenous community in a rapid phase of transition. As such it will be a valuable contribution to ethnographic scholarship on the Karakoram region of Pakistan, and also to larger bodies of critical scholarship on development and modernization in rural parts of the developing world.

Portering Relations and Transcultural Interactions in Northern Pakistan

Pakistan’s Karakoram mountains are often described as among the world’s highest and least accessible. Yet most Karakoram societies are located close to ancient trade routes, including the famed Silk Road. And since the mid 19th century (between 1835 and 1876), Karakoram communities have had regular visits from European soldiers and adventurers, many of whom sought to explore those territories that were removed from well-travelled trade routes. To this day many foreign visitors to the Karakoram (from adventure tourists to rural development workers) seek experiences that cannot be found in the main towns. To a large extent, these visitors to and through the Karakoram relied (and often still do) on local porters (coolies, “sherpas”) to transport them and their possessions through rugged and roadless terrain, and to the tops of mountains. For much of the history of European and pre-European contact portering arrangements were mainly subsidiary to traditional corvée obligations to local chiefs. Throughout the 20th century a more autonomous economy of portering emerged, which nevertheless retains elements of its origins in corvée labour.

The research project is motivated by an awareness that, given the above, portering relations have significantly shaped – perhaps dominated – transcultural (insider/outsider) interaction in the Karakoram region. This is especially true of the British period, but also of times before and since. Our main goal, therefore, is to demonstrate how contact structured by portering relations has shaped transcultural interactions in the Karakoram region, historically and presently, and to describe the geographical constitution of those interactions. By transcultural interactions we mean the material relations of contact, and the ideological representations, or discursive formations, that each group takes away from an interaction and brings to subsequent interactions. Four explicit objectives inform the overall goal:

  • to describe the instrumental political economy of portering in two settings within the Karakoram region, from European contact to the present (e.g., porter regulation, recruitment, remuneration, working conditions, modes of resistance);
  • to delineate the historical development of specific discursive configurations, indigenous and external, as they provide instrumental portering relations with an ideological context (e.g., communalism, honour, hospitality, masculinity, femininity, clan solidarity, racial superiority, imperialism, civilisation, capitalism, science);
  • to explain how new discourses (e.g., adventure tourism, sustainable development, indigenous self-determination) recreate portering as a critical site for shaping relations of contact; and
  • to delineate, at a micro-scale, the spatial distribution and geographical constitution of transcultural relations – both material and ideological – in two Karakoram villages (e.g., spatial sites of interaction, contestation, domination and resistance).

The work my co-investigators (Ken MacDonald and Kathryn Besio) and I  have been undertaking since 1995 to achieve these objectives contributes a theoretically informed and empirically based geography of contemporary transcultural relations and transcultural discourses in the contact zone. While studies outside of the discipline are frequently implicitly geographical, our study makes explicit the geographical constitution of these relations and discourses. To the extent that an analysis of portering provides a microcosm from which to gain insight into other areas of North/South discursive interaction, it informs geographical understanding of North/South struggles more generally. In addition, the research comprises the only detailed comparative and regional-scale examination of transcultural relations in the Karakoram region, and one of the few studies of portering. Far from purely academic, the knowledge we create is useful for those Pakistani and international organizations, and indigenous communities, who seek to manage adventure tourism to the advantage of Karakoram societies.

Other publications

Other publications:

Pakistan publications

Publications relating to work in Pakistan:

Reggae research

Publications relating to reggae research:

I have not yet published any results from my reggae research. The following are book reviews, conference presentations and invited lectures related to this research.

  • (2010) “Response as autoethnography: 1970s outernational roots reggae” paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Association of American Geographers, Washington DC, 12-18 April 2010.
  • (2009) Review of Bob Marley: Herald of a Postcolonial World? By Jason Toynbee. Popular Music 28(2), 267-9.
  • (2007) “Burnin’ and Lootin’ across the Black Atlantic (Leeds, 1973): Trans-local associations of identity and experience” paper presented at theAnnual Meeting of the Canadian Association of Geographers, Saskatoon, 29 May – 2 June 2007.
  • (2007) Review of Caribbean Popular Music: An Encyclopedia of Reggae, Mento, Ska, Rock Steady and Dancehall by D. Moskowitz, in Popular Music and Society 30(2): 285-287.
  • (2005) (D. Butz & S. Sabra) “Musical and Diasporic Networks: Understanding Space in the Music of the Fugees” paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Canadian Association of Geographers Annual Meetings, London, June 2005.
  • (2005) (S. Sabra & D. Butz) “Epistemologies of Diaspora: Affiliations of Space and Identity in the Music of the Fugees” paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Association of American Geographers, Denver, CO, 5-9 April 2005.
  • (2004) “Trod On: Spatial Ontology, Diaspora and Reggae Music” Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Canadian Association of Geographers, Moncton, 25-29 May 2004.
  • (2004) “Starting from Scratch: The Evocation of Spatiality in Lee Perry’s Reggae Sounds” Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Cultural Studies Association, Boston, 5-9 May 2004.
  • (2004) “Sufferers’ Dub: The Articulation of Spatiality in Lee Perry’s Reggae Music” Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Association of American Geographers, Philadelphia, 15-19 March 2004.
  • (2003) “My Roots/Routes I’ll Never Forget: The Constitution of Spatiality in Reggae Music” Invited lecture for the Waikato University Cultural Studies Seminar Series, Hamilton, New Zealand, 4 June 2003.
  • (2003) Review of Sound Tracks: Popular Music, Identity and Place by J. Connell and C. Gibson, in The Canadian Geographer 47(4):  84-86.
  • (2002) “Every Word, Every Second and Every Third: Listening for Geography in the Sounds of Music” Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Association of American Geographers, Los Angeles, 19-23 March 2002.
  • (2001) “Preliminary Reflections in Favour of Musical Metaphors of Socio-Spatial Relations” Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Canadian Association of Geographers, Montreal, 29 May – 3 June 2001.