We are just beginning, so there is lots missing. Send your suggestions to me, Peter Rand by e-mail to


Douzou, P. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 91, 1657 (1994).

Leikin, S., V.A.Parsegian, D.C. Rau and R.P.Rand, "Hydration Forces", Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 44: 369-395, (1993). and references therein.

Parsegian,V. Adrian , R. Peter Rand, and Donald C. Rau. (in press) "Macromolecules and Water: Probing with Osmotic Stress." (Methods in Enzymology coming)

Parsegian, V. A., Rand, R. P. and D. C. Rau (1992) Swelling form the Perspective of Molecular Assemblies and Single Functioning Molecules in 'Mechanics of Swelling: From Clays to Cells and Tissues' T. K. Karalis ed. NATO ASI Series H: Cell Biology 64. Springer Verlag.

Parsegian, V.A., Rand, R.P., Fuller, N.L. and Rau, D.C. (1986) Osmotic Stress for the Direct Measurement of Intermolecular Forces. in Methods in Enzymology. Vol. 127. (Packer, L., ed.), pp. 400-416, Academic Press, New York

Parsegian, V.A., Rand, R.P., and Rau, D.C.: Lessons from the direct measurement of forces between biomolecules. in Physics of Complex and Supermolecular Fluids (S.A. Safran and N.A. Clark, eds.), John Wiley & Sons, New York, p. 115-135, 1987.

Parsegian, V.A., and Rau, D.C.: Water near intracellular surfaces. J. Cell Biol. 99: 196s-200s, 1984.

Rand, R.P. and V.A. Parsegian (1989). Hydration Forces Between Phospholipid Bilayers. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 988:351-376.

Rand. R. P. (1992) Raising Water to New Heights. Science 256:618.

Rand. R. P. and V. A. Parsegian (1992). The Forces Between Interacting Bilayer Membranes and the Hydration of Phospholipid Assemblies. in The Structure of Biological Membranes (ed. P Yeagle) CRC Press, Boca Raton pp 251-306.

Robinson, C. and S. Sligar, (Methods in Enzymology comng)


Y.Fang, R.P.Rand, S.Leikin, M.M.Kozlov (1993) A chain-melting re-entrant transition in bimolecular layers at large separations. Phys. Rev. Lett. 23: 3623-3626.

Gawrisch, K., Parsegian, V. A., Hajduk, D. A., Tate, M. W., Gruner, S. M. Fuller, N. L. and R. P. Rand. (1992) Energetics of a Hexagonal-Lamellar -Hexagonal Transition Sequence in Dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine Membranes. Biochemistry 31, 2856-2864.

Kozlov M. M., Leikin, S. and R.P. Rand (1994) Bending, Hydration and Institial Energies Quantitatively Account for the Hexagonal-Lamellar-Hexagonal Reentrant Phase Transition in Dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine. Biophys. J. 67: 1603-1611, (1994)

Kozlov M., M. Winterhalter (1991a) Elastic Moduli for Strongly Curved Monolayers. Position of the Neutral Surface. J. Phys. France II 1, 1077-1084.

Kozlov M., M. Winterhalter and D. Lerche (1991b) Elastic Properties of Strongly Curved Monolayers. Analysis of Experimental Results. J. Phys. II France 1, 1085-1100.

Kozlov M., M. Winterhalter and D. Lerche (1992) Elastic Properties of Strongly Curved Monolayers. Effect of Electric Surface Charges. J. Phys. II 2, 175-185.

McIntosh, T. J. and S.A.Simon, "Hydration and Steric Pressures between Phospholipid Bilayers", Annu. Rev. Biophys. Biomol.Struct. 23: 27-51, (1994) and references therein.

Rand, R.P., Fuller, N.L., Gruner,S.M. and V. A. Parsegian (1990) Membrane Curvature, Lipid Segregation, and Structural Transitions for Phospholipids Under Dual Solvent Stress.Biochemistry 29, 76-87

Rand, R.P., Fuller, N., Parsegian, V.A., and Rau, D.C.: Variation in hydration forces between neutral phospholipid bilayers: Evidence for hydration attraction. Biochemistry 27: 7711-7722, 1988.


Leikin, S., Rau, D.C., and Parsegian, V.A.: Measured entropy and enthalpy of hydration as a function of distance between DNA double helices. Physical Review A 44: 5272-5278, 1991.

Mariani, Paolo and Letizia Saturni. (1996) Measurement of Intercolumnar Forces Between Parallel Guanosine Four-Stranded Helices. Biophysical J. 70:2867-2874.

Podgornik, R., D.C. Rau and V.A.Parsegian, "The action of interhelical forces on the organization of DNA double helices: fluctuation-enhanced decay of electrostatic double-layer and hydration forces", Macromolecules 22:1780-1786 (1989)

Podgornik, R., Strey, H. H., Rupprecht, A., Rau, D. C., & Parsegian, V. A. (1995) Biophys. Soc. Book of Abstracts (to appear in BJ)

R. Podgornik and V. A. Parsegian: Molecular Fluctuations in the Packing of Polymeric Liquid Crystals, Macromolecules 23, 2265-2269 (1990).

R. Podgornik, D.C. Rau and V.A. Parsegian: Parametrization of direct and soft-undulatory forces between DNA double helical polyelectrolytes in solutions of several different anions and cations, Biophys.J. 66, 962 - 971 (1994).

R. Podgornik, H.H. Strey, D.C. Rau and V.A. Parsegian: Watching molecules crowd: DNA double helices under osmotic stress, Biophys.Chem. in print (1995).

Rau, D.C., Lee, B.K., and Parsegian, V.A. (1984) Measurements of the repulsive force between polyelectrolyte molecules in ionic solutions: Hydration forces between parallel DNA double helices. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., USA 81: 2621-2625,.

Rau, D. C. and V. A. Parsegian, (1992) Direct Measurement of the Intermolecular Forces Between Counterion-condensed DNA Double Helices. Evidence for Long Range Attractive Hydration Forces. Biophys. J. 61:246


Leikin, S.L., Rau. D.C., and Parsegian, V.A.: Direct measurement of forces between self-assembled proteins: Temperature-dependent exponential forces between collagen triple helices. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., USA, 91: 276-280, 1994.

S.Leikin and V.A.Parsegian (1994) Temperature-induced complementarity as a mechanism for biomolecular assembly. Proteins 19: 73-76.

S.Leikin, D.C.Rau and V.A.Parsegian (1995) Temperature-favored assembly of collagen is driven by hydrophilic rather than hydrophobic interactions. Nature Structural Biology (in press).


Rau, D.C., and Parsegian, V.A.: Direct measurement of forces between linear polysaccharides xanthan and schizophyllan. Science 249: 1278- 1281, 1990.


Bezrukov, S.M., I. Vodyanoy, and V. A. Parsegian, Nature 370: 279-281 (1994)

Estacion, M., Rayner, M.D., Starkus, J.G. Effect of hyperosmotic treatment upon single sodium channels. Biophys. J., 61:A107, 1992.

Parsegian, V.A., Zimmerberg, J., "Channels under osmotic stress", Chapter 11 in "Thermodynamics of Membrane Receptors and Channels" edited by Meyer B. Jackson, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, (1993)

Parsegian, V.A., Rau, D.C., and Zimmerberg, J.: Structural transitions induced by osmotic stress. In Membranes. Metabolism, and Dry Organisms (A.C. Leopold, ed.), Cornell University Press, Ithaca, p. 306-317, 1986.

Rayner, M.D., Starkus, J.G., Ruben, P.C., Alicata, D.A.: Voltage-sensitive and solvent-sensitive processes in ion channel gating: Kinetic effects of hyperosmolar media on activation and deactivation of sodium channels. Biophys. J., 61:96-108, 1992.

Vodyanoy, I., S.M.Bezrukov, and V.A.Parsegian, Biophys. J. 63: 2097-2105, 1993

Zimmerberg, J., Bezanilla, F., Parsegian, V.A.: Solute inaccessible aqueous volume changes during opening of the potassium channel of the squid giant axon. Biophys. J., 57: 1049-1064, 1990.

Zimmerberg, J., Parsegian, V.A.: Polymer inaccessible volume changes during opening and closing of a voltage- dependent ionic channel. Nature, 323:36-39, 1986.

Zimmerberg, J., Parsegian, V.A.: Water movement during channel opening and closing. J. Bioenergetics Biomembranes, 19:351-358, 1987.


Cao, Y., Varo, G., Chang, M., Ni, B., Needleman, R., Lanyi, J.K.: Water is required for proton transfer from aspartate 96 to the bacteriorhodopsin schiff base. Biochemistry, 30: 10972-10979, 1991.

Colombo, M.F., Rau, D.C., V. A. Parsegian,., PNAS, 91: 10517-10520 (1994)

Colombo, M.F., Rau, D.C., V. A. Parsegian,.: Protein solvation in allosteric regulation: A water effect on hemoglobin. Science, 256:655-659, 1992.

Dzingeleski G. D. and R. Wolfenden, Biochemistry 32, 9143 (1993).

Kornblatt, J. A. & Hui Bon Hoa, G. (1990) Biochemistry 29:9370.

Rand, R. P., Fuller, N. L., Butko, P., Francis, G. and P. Nicholls (1993) Measured Changes in Protein Solvation with Substrate Binding and Turnover. Biochemistry 32:5925-5929.


A.A.Kornyshev, S.Leikin (1989) Fluctuation theory of hydration forces: The dramatic effects of inhomogeneous boundary conditions. Phys. Rev. A 40: 6431-6437.

A.A.Kornyshev, S.Leikin (1992) Theory of Hydration Forces. In: The Structure and Conformation of Amphiphilic Membranes, ed. R.Lipowsky, D.Richter, K.Kremer, Springer Proceedings in Physics, Vol. 66, pp. 83-86. Springer-Verlag: Berlin.

A.A.Kornyshev, D.A.Kossakowski,S.Leikin (1992) Surface phase transitions and hydration forces. J. Chem. Phys. 97: 6809-6820.

S.Leikin (1991) On the theory of electrostatic interaction of neutral lipid bilayers separated by thin water film. J. Chem. Phys. 95: 5224-5229.

S.Leikin, A.A.Kornyshev (1991) Mean-field theory of dehydration transitions. Phys. Rev. A 44: 1156-1168.

S.Leikin, A.A.Kornyshev (1990) Theory of hydration forces. Nonlocal electrostatic interaction of neutral surfaces. J. Chem. Phys. 92: 6890-6898.