Curriculum Vitae


Department of Biological Sciences
Brock University
St. Catharines, Ontario, Canada L2S 3A1
Phone 905-688-5550, (Ext. 3390)
FAX 905-688-1855
E-mail -

Present Appointments:

Professor, Department of Biological Sciences, Brock University, St. Catharines
Associate Member, Biology Department, McMaster University, Hamilton
Associate Member, Physics Department, Guelph University, Guelph

Honours, Fellowships and Previous Appointments:

Professional and Related Experience:

Research Interests

My research interests are to understand the forces and energies that control the assembly and the conformation of biological molecules. This is motivated by the phenomena of membrane assembly, the fusion of membranes, molecular recognition and activity. The systems interogated, through the development of an osmotic stress method, are lipid bilayers and other selected molecular assemblies and single functioning molecules. The solvent, water, has been shown to contribute far more to the forces and energies of these molecular processes than heretofore recognized. The contribution of water binding reactions to the energetics of functioning enzyme activity through conformational change is being measured.

Externally Awarded Research Grants:


   109. R. P. Rand, V. A. Parsegian  and D. C. Rau  (2000) Intracellular Osmotic Action. Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 57:1018-1032

   108 V. A. Parsegian, R. P. Rand, and D. C. Rau  (2000) Osmotic Stress, Crowding, Preferential hydration, and Binding: A    Comparison of Perspectives Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 97:3987-3992.

   107. Fuller N. L. and R. P. Rand.(1999) Water In Actin Polymerization.  Biophys. J. 76:3261-3266.

106. Bezrukov, S.M., Parsegian, V. A. and R. P. Rand (1998) Lipid Packing   Stress and Polypeptide Aggregation: Alamethecin Channel Probed by Proton  Titration of Lipid Charge. Faraday Discussions 108:7855-7869.

105. Dubois, M., Zemb, Th., Fuller, N.L., Rand, R. P. and V. A. Parsegian (1998)  Equation of State of a Charged Bilayer System: Measure of the Entropy of the  Lamellar-Lamellar Transition of DDABr. J. Phys. Chem. 108:7855-7869.

104. Chen, Z. and R. P. Rand (1998) Comparative Study of the Effects of Several n- Alkanes on Phospholipid Hexagonal Phases. Biophys. J. 74:944-952

103. Reid, C. and R. P. Rand (1997)  Fits to Osmotic Pressure Data. Biophys. J.  73:1692-1694.

102. Chen, Z. and R. P. Rand (1997) The Influence of Cholesterol on  Phospholipid Membrane Curvature and Bending Elasticity.  Biophys. J. 73:267-276

101. Rand, R. P. and V. A. Parsegian. (1997) Hydration, Curvature, and Bending  Elasticity of Phospholipid Bilayers.  in "Lipid Polymorphism and Membrane  Properties" (R. Epand editor) Current topics in Membranes, Vol. 44. Academic  Press.

100.  Reid, C. and R. P. Rand (1997)  Probing Protein Hydration and  Conformational States in Solution. Biophys. J. 72:1022-1030.

99. Leikin, S., Kozlov, M. M. Fuller, N. L. and R. P. Rand (1996) Measured  Effects of Diacylglycerol on Structural and Elastic Properties of Phospholipid Membranes Biophys. J. 71:2623-2632.

98. Epand, R. M., N. Fuller and R. P. Rand (1996) Role of the Position of  Unsaturation on the Phase Behavior and Intrinsic Curvature of  Phosphatidylethanolamines. Biophys. J. 71:1806-1810.

97. Parsegian, V. A., R. P. Rand and D. C. Rau (1995) Macromolecules and  Water: Probing with Osmotic Stress. In Methods in Enzymology, 259:43-95.

96. Coorssen, J R. and R. P. Rand (1995) Structural Effects of Neutral Lipids on Divalent Cation-Induced Interactions of Phosphatidylserine-Containing Bilayers. Biophys. J. 68:1009-1018.

95. V. A. Parsegian, R. P. Rand. (1995) Interactions in Membrane Assemblies. in "Handbook of Biological Physics", Vol 1. "Structure and Dynamics of Membranes" pp643-690 ed. by R. Lipowsky and E. Sackmann, (Elsevier, Amsterdam.)

94  Tari, A.M., Fuller, N., Boni, L.T., Collins, D., Rand, P and L. Huang. (1994)
  Interactions of liposome bilayers composed of 1,2-diacyl-3- succinylglycerol with protons and divalent cations. Biochim Biophys Acta 1192, 253-263.

93. Parsegian, V. A., Rand, R. P., Columbo, M. and D. C. Rau. (1994) Water at the Macromolecular Surface: Solvation Energy and Functional Control. in: Biomembrane Electrochemistry. M Blank and I. Vodyanoy eds. Advances in Chemistry No. 235. American Chemical Society.

92. M.M.Kozlov., S.Leikin., R.P.Rand (1994) Bending, Hydration and Void Energies Quantitatively Account for the Hexagonal-Lamellar-Hexagonal Reentrant Phase Transition in Dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine. Biophys. J. 67:1603-1611.

91. R. P. Rand, N. L. Fuller. (1994) Structural dimensions and their
 changes in a reentrant hexagonal-lamellar transition of phospholipids. Biophys. J. 66:2127-2138

90. R. P. Rand. (1993) Don‰t Forget the Solvent-Measuring Water‰s Contribution to Molecular Assembly and Conformational Change. Cryobiology 30:216-217.

89. Leikin, S., Parsegian, V. A., Rau, D.C. and R. P. Rand. (1993) Hydration Forces. Ann. Rev. Phys. Chem. 44:369-95

88. Rand, R. P., Fuller, N. L., Butko, P., Francis, G. and P. Nicholls (1993) Measured Changes in Protein Solvation with Substrate Binding and Turnover. Biochemistry 32:5925-5929.

87. Fang Yuan, Rand, R. P., Leikin, S. and M. M. Kozlov (1993) A Chain-melting Re-entrant Transition in Bimolecular Layers at Large Separations. Phys. Rev. Lett. 70:3623-3626.

86.   Tsao, Y-H., Evans, D.F., Parsegian, V.A. and R. P. Rand. (1993) Osmotic Stress Measurements of Dihexadecyldimethylammonium Acetate Bilayers as a Function of Temperature and Added Salt. Langmuir 9: 233.

85. Rand, R. P. and Y. Fang (1993) Structure and Energetics of Phospholipid and Diacylglycerol Assemblies Relative to Membrane Fusion. Biochem. Soc. Trans. 21:266-270.

84. Parsegian, V. A., Rand, R. P. and D. C. Rau (1992) Swelling form the Perspective of Molecular Assemblies and Single Functioning Molecules in 'Mechanics of Swelling: From Clays to Cells and Tissues' T. K. Karalis ed. NATO ASI Series H: Cell Biology 64. Springer Verlag.

83. Lerche, D., Fuller, N. L. and R. P. Rand (1992) Membrane Curvature and Structural Transitions for Charged/Uncharged Phospholipid Mixtures. in 'The Structure and Conformation of Amphiphilic Membranes' Lipowsky Richter and Kremer eds. Springer Verlag. pp226.

82.  Nicholls, P., Rand, R. P., Fuller, N. L. and P. Butko. (1992) Water, Ions and Membrane Proteins: How would Darwin Look at Cytochromes and Channels? Biocem. Soc Trans 20:583.

81.  Streefland, L., Fang Yuan, Rand, R. P., Hoekstra, D. and Jan B. F. N. Engberts (1992) X-ray Structure od the Ca2+ and Na+ Salts of (Asymmetric) Di-n-acyl Phosphates Formed from the Corresponding Vesicles in Water. Langmuir 8: 1715.

80. Rand. R. P. (1992) Raising Water to New Heights. Science 256:618.

79. Parsegian, V. A. and R. P. Rand (1992). Comparisons of Solubilities Predicted by the Protrusion Model with Experimental Critical Micelle Concentration Estimates from Equations of Cevc and Marsh. Langmuir 8:1502.

78. Rand. R. P. and V. A. Parsegian (1992). The Forces Between Interacting Bilayer Membranes and the Hydration of Phospholipid Assemblies. in The Structure of Biological Membranes (ed. P Yeagle) CRC Press,  Boca Raton  pp 251-306.

77. Gawrisch, K., Rushton, D.,  Zimmerberg, J., Parsegian, V. A., Rand, R. P., and N. L. Fuller(1992).  Membrane Dipole Potentials, Hydration forces and the Ordering of Water at Membrane  Surfaces. Biophys. J. 61:1213-1223.

76. Gawrisch, K., Parsegian, V. A., Hajduk, D. A., Tate, M. W., Gruner, S. M., Fuller, N. L.  and R. P. Rand (1992). Energetics of a Hexagonal-Lamellar-Hexagonal-Phase Transition Sequence in Dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine Membranes. Biochemistry 31:2856-2864.

75.   Leventis, R.,  Fuller, N. L., Rand, R. P., Yeagle, P., Sen, A. S., Zuckerman, M. J. and J. R. Silvius (1991) Structural Properties and Stability of Hydrated Dispersions of Headgroup-modified Phosphatidylethanolamine Analogues. Biochemistry 30:7212-7219.

74.  Parsegian, V. A. and R. P. Rand. (1991) On Molecular Protrusion as the Source of Hydration Forces. Langmiur 7:1299-1301.

73. Parsegian, V. A., Rand, R. P. and N. L. Fuller (1991) Direct Osmotic Stress Measurements of Hydration and Electrostatic Double Layer Forces Between Bilayers of Double-chained Ammonium Acetate Surfactants. J. Phys. Chem. 95:4777-4782.

72.  Gawrisch, K., Parsegian, V. A. and R. P. Rand. (1990) Membrane Hydration. in Biophysics of the Cell Surface (eds. Glaser and D. Gingell) Springer Verlag, Berlin.

 71. Parsegian, V. A. and R. P. Rand.(1990)  Forces Governing Lipid Interaction and Rearrangement in Cellular Membrane Fusion (eds. J. Wilschut and D. Hoekstra) Marcel Dekker, N. Y.  pp 65.

70.  Coorssen, J. R. and R. P. Rand. (1990) Effects of Cholesterol on the Structural Transitions Induced by Diacylglycerol in Phosphatidyl-choline and -ethanolamine Bilayer Systems. Biochem.  Cell Biol. 68:65-69.

69.  Rand, R. P., Fuller, N. L., Gruner, S. M. and Parsegian, V. A. (1990) Membrane Curvature, Lipid Segregation, and Structural Transitions for Phospholipids Under Dual Solvent Stress. Biochemistry 29:76-87.

68.  Wistrom, C. A., Rand, R. P., Crowe, L. M., Spargo, B. J. and J. H. Crowe. (1989) Direct Transition of Dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine from Lamellar to Inverted Hexagonal Phase Caused by Trehalose. Biochim. Biophys Acta. 984:238-242.

67.  Fraser, P. E., Rand R. P. and C. M. Deber. (1989) Bilayer Stabilizing Properties of Myelin Basic Protein in Dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine  Systems. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 983:23-29.

 66. Rand, R.P. and V.A. Parsegian (1989).  Hydration Forces Between Phospholipid Bilayers. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 988:351-376.

65.  Horn, R. G., Israelachvili, J. I., Marra, J., Parsegian, V. A. and R. P. Rand (1988). Comparison of Forces Measured Between Phosphatidylcholine Bilayers. Biophys. J. 54:1185-1187.

 64. Coorssen, J. and R.P. Rand (1988).  Competitive Forces Between Lipid Membranes. Studia Biophysica. 127: 53-60.

 63. Rand, R. P., Fuller, N., Parsegian, V. A. and D. C. Rau (1988).  Variation in Hydration Forces Between Neutral Phospholipid Bilayers.  Evidence for Hydration Attraction. Biochemistry 27: 7711-7722.

 62. Rand, R. P. and V. A. Parsegian (l988).  The Influence of Polar Group Identity on the Interaction Between Phospholipid Bilayers in Molecular Mechanisms of Membrane Fusion (ed. S. Ohki, D. Doyle, T. D. Flanagan, S. Hui, E. Mayhew) Plenum Pub. Corp., N. Y.

 61. Parsegian, V. A., Rand R. P. and D.C. Rau (l987).  Lessons from the Direct Measurement of Forces between Biomolecules. in Physics of Complex and Supermolecular Fluids (eds. S. Safran and N. Clark) Wiley, N. Y. pp 115-135.

60.  Das, S., and R. P. Rand (1986). Modification by Diacylglycerol of the Structure and Interaction of Various Phospholipid Bilayer Membranes. Biochemistry 25: 2882-2889.

 59. Laventis, R., Gagne, J., Fuller, N., Rand, R. P. and J. Silvius (l986).  Divalent Cation Induced Fusion and Lipid Lateral Segregation in Phosphatidylcholine-Phosphatidic Acid Vesicles.  Biochemistry 25: 6978-6987.

 58. Fraser, P. E., Moscarello, M. A., Rand, R. P. and C. M. Deber (1986).  Spontaneous Vesicularization of Myelin Lipids is Counteracted by Myelin Basic Protein.  Biochim. Biophysica Acta 863: 282-288.

 57. Kachar, B., Fuller, N. and R. P. Rand (1986).  Morphological Responses to Calcium-induced Interaction of Phosphatidylserine-containing Vesicles.  Biophysical J. 50: 779-788.

 56. Parsegian, V. A., Rand, R. P. and D. C. Rau (1986).  Osmotic Stress for the Direct Measurement of Intermolecular Forces in Biomembranes.  Methods in Enzymology 125: 400-4l6.

 55. Gruner, S. M., Parsegian, V. A. and R. P. Rand (l986).  Directly Measured Deformation of Phospholipid H11 Hexagonal Phases.  Faraday Discuss. Chem. Soc. 81: 29-37.

 54. Rand, R. P. and V. A. Parsegian (l986).  Mimicry and Mechanism in Phospholipid Models of Membrane Fusion.  Ann. Rev. Physiology 48: 20l-2l2.

53.  Parsegian, V. A., Rau, D. C., Evans, E. A. and R. P. Rand (1985). Unexpected Features of Forces Measured Between Membranes or Macromolecules. Studia Biophysica 110:71-76.

 52. Parsegian, V. A., Rand, R. P. and D. C. Rau (l985).  Hydration Forces:  What Next.  In Hydration Forces and Molecular Aspects of Solvation.  B. Jonsson, H. Wennerstrom and S. Forsen eds.  Chemica Scripta 25: 32-36.

 51. Rand, R. P., Das, S. and V. A. Parsegian (l985).  The Hydration Force - its Character, Universality and Application:  Some Current Issues.  Chemica Scripta 25: l5-2l.

 50. Rand, R. P., Kachar, B. and T. S. Reese (l985).  Dynamic Morphology of Calcium-Induced Interactions between Phosphatidylserine Vesicles.  Biophysical J. 47: 483-489.

 49. Das, S. and R. P. Rand (l984).  Diacylglycerol Causes Major Structural Transitions in Phospholipid Bilayer Membranes.  Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 124: 49l-496.

 48. Rand, R. P. and V. A. Parsegian (l984).  Physical Force Considerations in Model and Biological Membranes.  Can. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. 62: 752-759.

 47. Parsegian, V. A., Rand, R. P. and D. Gingell (l984).  Lessons for the Study of Membrane Fusion from Membrane Interactions in Phospholipid Systems in Cell Fusion.  CIBA Foundation Symposium l03, pp. 9-27.  Pitman Pub. London.

 46. Parsegian, V. A. and R. P. Rand (l983).  Membrane Transport and the Activity of Water near the Membrane Surface in 'Membrane Biophysics II Physical Methods in the Study of Epithelia', ed. M. A. Dinno, A. B. Callahan, T. C. Rozzell.  Alan R. Liss, N. Y.

 45. Parsegian, V. A. and R. P. Rand (l983).  Membrane Interaction and Deformation.  Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 416: l-l2.

 44. Forda, S., Jessel, T. M., Kelly, J. S. and R. P. Rand (l982).  High Resolution Extra-cellular Recordings with Patch Electrodes from Neurites in Dissociated Cultures of the Rat Brain Stem.  J. Physiology 328: 8P.

 43. Rand, R. P. and V. A. Parsegian (l982).  Phospholipid Bilayer Hydration-Interbilayer Repulsion and Intrabilayer Structural Changes in Biophysics of Water.  F. Franks and S. Mathias eds. J. Wiley.

 42. Loosley-Millman, M. E., Rand, R. P. and V. A. Parsegian (l982).  Effects of Monovalent Ion Binding and Screening on Measured Electrostatic Forces between Charged Phospholipid Bilayers.  Biophys. J. 40: 22l-232.

 41. Forda, S., Jessell, T. M., Kelly, J. S. and R. P. Rand (l982).  Use of the Patch Electrode for sensitive High-Resolution Extracellular Recording.  Brain Research 249: 37l-378.

 40. Lis, L. J., McAlister, M., Fuller, N. L., Rand, R. P. and V. A. Parsegian (l982).  Measurement of the Lateral Compressibility of Several Phospholipid Bilayers.  Biophys. J. 37: 667-672.

 39. Lis, L. J., McAlister, M., Fuller, N. L., Rand, R. P. and V. A. Parsegian (l982).  Interactions between Neutral Phospholipid Bilayer Membranes.  Biophys. J. 37: 657-665.

 38. Gration, K.A.F., Lambert, J. J., Ramsay, R. L., Rand, R. P. and P.N.R. Usherwood (l982).  Closure of Membrane Channels Gated by Glutamate Receptors may be a two-step process.  Nature l8: 599-60l.

 37. Gration, K.A.F., Lambert, J. J., Ramsey, R. L., Rand, R. P. and P.N.R. Usherwood (l98l).  Agonist Potency Determination by Patch Clamp Analysis of Single Glutamate Receptors.  Brain Res. 230: 400-405.

 36. Rand, R. P., Reese, T. S. and R. G. Miller (l98l).  Phospholipid Bilayer Deformations associated with Interbilayer Contact and Fusion.  Nature 293: 237-238.

 35. Lis, L. J., Lis, W. T., Rand, R. P. and V. A. Parsegian (l98l).  Adsorption of Divalent Cations to a Variety of Phosphatidylcholine Bilayers.  Biochemistry 20: l7ll-l777.

 34. Lis, L. J., Rand, R. P. and V. A. Parsegian (l98l).  Detection of the Binding of Divalent Cations to Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine Bilayers by its Effect on Bilayer interaction.  Biochemistry 20: l76l-l770.

 33. Rand, R. P. (l98l).  Interacting Phospholipid Bilayers:  Measured Forces and Induced Structural Changes.  Ann. Rev. Biophys. Bioeng. 10: 277-3l4.

 32. Parsegian, V. A., Rand, R. P. and J. Stamatoff (l98l).  Perturbation of Membrane Structure by Uranyl Acetate Labeling.  Biophys. J. 33: 475-477.

 31. Rand, R. P., Parsegian, V. A., Henry, J.A.C., Lis, L. J. and M. McAlister (l980).  The Effect of Cholesterol on Measured Interaction and Compressibility of Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine Bilayers.  Can. J. Biochem. 58: 959-968.