Advancing Environmental Stewardship: Management, Governance, and Social-Ecological Resilience

Bridge in New Brunswick

Advancing environmental stewardship is about recognizing the critical and inextricable linkages between humans and the environment and pursuing research that sets us, as individuals, communities, nations and as a global community, on a trajectory towards sustainability.

Our research group tends to use social-ecological resilience as a lens by which we view environmental issues. It is consistent with our recognition of the interconnectedness of humans and the environment – that there are many, complex relationships – and emphasizes principles and attributes of social-ecological (or human-environment) systems that support sustainability.

We tend to be particularly interested in the management (i.e., day-to-day operations and decision-making) and governance (i.e., broader, strategic direction setting and decision-making) of our environment. Within these areas of interest, our research:

  • Spans multiple contexts: from water to biodiversity conservation to climate change adaptation
  • Includes a variety of facets of management and governance: from adaptive capacity to learning and collaboration to social networks
  • Draws on diverse methods to answer research questions: from quantitative survey and modeling approaches to qualitative inquiries to implementing a range of mixed methods.

Our research has been situated in many parts of Canada, the US, several countries in Europe, and in Australia.

Current Research Group Members

Ryan Plummer


Director, ESRC, Brock University
Senior Research Fellow, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University
Adjunct Professor, Sustainability Research Centre, University of the Sunshine Coast
Adjunct Faculty, Department of Environment and Resource Studies, University of Waterloo

Ryan’s multi-faceted program of research broadly concerns the governance of social-ecological systems. In striving to advance knowledge of collaboration and adaptation within complex systems, he has focused on the exploring their theoretical underpinnings and ethical implications, modeling their processes, examining the roles of social capital, and investigating the influences of social learning. Water resources are the context in which his research mainly occurs and he is a Faculty Investigator in the Water Policy and Governance Group.

Findings from his research have been published in leading international journals such as Ecological Economics, Ecology and Society, Environmental Management, Frontiers in Ecology and Society, Global Environmental Change, Journal of Environmental Management, Society and Natural Resources and the UN journal, Natural Resources Forum. In addition, he is the author of Outdoor Recreation (Routledge, 2010), and co-editor of Adaptive Capacity and the Making of Environmental Governance (with D. Armitage, Springer, 2010) and Resilience in Social-Ecological Systems: the Role of Learning and Education (with M.E. Krasny and C. Lundholm, Routledge, 2011). He serves as a Subject Editor for Ecology and Society. The scholarly quality of his research program was formally recognized in 2008 with the awarding of a Chancellor’s Chair for Research Excellence. In 2004 he received the Faculty of Applied Health Sciences Award for Teaching Excellence and in 2008 he was selected as one of the Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation (CMHC) Excellence in Education Award winners for Promotion of Sustainable Practices.

PhD, University of Guelph (Rural Studies)
MA, University of New Brunswick (Sport and Recreation Administration)
BOR (Hons), Lakehead University (Outdoor Recreation)
BA, Lakehead University (History)

Julia Baird


Assistant Professor, Environmental Sustainability Research Centre 

Julia Baird is an Assistant Professor at Brock University. Julia Baird is an Assistant Professor at Brock University. Julia’s research focuses on the human dimensions of water resources. She is particularly interested in water resilience, improving outcomes of water governance by improving processes, and agricultural impacts on water.

Ph.D. University of Saskatchewan (Environment and Sustainability)
M.Sc. University of Saskatchewan (Soil Science)
B.Sc. (Distinction) University of Alberta (Crop Science)

Gillian Dale


Postdoctoral Research Fellow, Environmental Sustainability Research Centre

Gillian is a Postdoctoral Research Fellow at the ESRC. She holds a Ph.D. in Behavioural Neuroscience (Cognitive Psychology) from Brock University, and previously held a Postdoctoral Fellowship at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Her previous research explored individual difference factors (i.e., personality, affect, motivational intensity, etc.) that explain variations in cognitive performance and behaviour. She has extensive experience with research design, questionnaire development and validation, and advanced data analysis. Currently, she is interested in extending her line of research by applying her expertise in both human behaviour and advanced data analysis to real-world problems (e.g., water resilience; environmental stewardship).


Ph.D. in Behavioural Neuroscience (Cognitive Psychology), Brock University

Leaya Amey

Leaya Amey


Current Master of Sustainability Candidate under the supervision of Ryan Plummer

Leaya holds a BA in Communication Studies from Wilfrid Laurier University. Leaya is interested in corporate sustainability initiatives, alternative energy, and environmental communication. Her MRP research will examine effective framing strategies to communicate environmental messages in order to inform, educate, and encourage pro-environmental behaviour.

Alison Feist


Twitter: @alison_feist

Current Master of Sustainability Candidate under the supervision of Ryan Plummer

Alison is a graduate from the University of Guelph with a BA in Geography, and is currently working towards her Master of Sustainability at Brock University. Her interests surround environmental management and conservation strategies, and how we can improve these processes through investigating collaboration. In her thesis research, she is currently investigating collaborative environmental processes in a management and governance context. Some of her past course related research projects involved perceptions of prescribed burns, and water vulnerability assessment frameworks.


Current Master of Sustainability Candidate under the supervision of Ryan Plummer

Alicia is a graduate of Colorado State University with an MS in Rangeland Ecosystem Science, and of Baldwin Wallace University with an interdisciplinary BA degree in Biology, Sociology, and Political Science. She is currently working towards her Master’s of Sustainability at Brock University. Her interests encircle citizen science as a vehicle to build resilience thinking while reducing vulnerabilities. In her thesis research, she is currently investigating citizen science as an instrument to increase eco-literacy learning outcomes and systems thinking as well as the effects of participatory science on the sponsoring organization. Her past research focused on demographic and land use changes within the United States.

Brooke Kapeller


Twitter: @BrookeKapeller

Current Master of Sustainability Candidate under the supervision of Dr. Ryan Plummer.

Brooke holds a BSc in Geography (concentration in GIS) from the University of Lethbridge, AB, and a diploma in Renewable Resource Management from Lethbridge College, AB. Her interests include environmental stewardship, parks and protected areas, conservation, and geospatial technology. Her thesis research will focus on understanding environmental stewardship in the Niagara Region; specifically, how configurations of different stewardship elements may relate to desired outcomes and successful initiatives. This research will involve an inventory and mapping of all stewardship initiatives occurring in the region from 2012-2017.

Angela Mallette

Angela Mallette


Current Master of Sustainability Candidate under the supervision of Ryan Plummer

Angela holds a BSc in Biology as well as a BEd in Secondary Education from Bishop’s University, QC. Her interests include biodiversity conservation, stewardship, and environmental education. Her thesis research focuses on perceptions of the state of the environment, ecological integrity in parks and protected areas, and the influence of environmental education on perceptions. Angela’s research will take place in the Niagara Glen Nature Reserve of the Niagara Parks Commission in Summer 2018.

President, Green Health Global


Twitter: @PickeringKerrie

PHD in Sustainability Candidate, Brock University and University of Sunshine Coast 

Kerrie Pickering explores the intersection between health and the environment. Her interest comes from an international career as an RN and having completed a BSc Environmental Studies followed by a MA Geography. As a PhD candidate at the University of the Sunshine Coast, Australia Kerrie’s research will examine the relationship among country foods and the health and wellbeing of indigenous people in times of environmental change. Kerrie is also conducting research exploring if engagement in citizen science impacts the well-being of nursing home residents. Past research includes assessing the adaptive capacity of the Ontario wine industry for climate change adaptation; project manager for a Niagara climate change collaborative management project; research assistant investigating adaptive collaborative management in biosphere reserves in Canada and Sweden. Kerrie is also President of the Ontario Nurses for the Environment Interest Group of the Registered Nurses Association of Ontario.

Whiteboard Seminar with Kerrie Pickering: Pharmaceuticals in our Tap Water

Samantha Witkowski


Twitter: @_SamanthaWit

Current Master of Sustainability Candidate under the supervision of Dr. Ryan Plummer.

Samantha holds a BA in Environmental Studies from Laurentian University, and is currently working towards her Master of Sustainability at Brock University. Her interests surround participatory monitoring and evaluation (PM&E) strategies in environmental planning and management. In her thesis research, she is currently investigating how the critical PM&E phase influences the broader collaborative process. This research will involve a systematic review of literature encompassing monitoring and evaluation associated with collaborative and adaptive environmental management. The insights gained from this scholarship will be applied and assessed within a local environmental stewardship initiative in Summer 2019. 

Past Research Group Members

Katrina Krevins

Master of Sustainability, Brock University

Thesis: Pushing the Boundaries of Freshwater Ecosystem Restoration: Evaluating a Conservation Initiative in terms of social-ecological resilience (under the supervision of Dr. Ryan Plummer)

Katrina has a BA (honours) in Tourism and Environment (Brock University), Ecosystem Restoration Graduate Certificate (Niagara College), and completed her Master of Sustainability at Brock in 2016. Her interests are in stream restoration, and her acceptance into the Watershed and Aquatics Training in Environmental Research (WATER) Program during her masters supported her pursuit of her thesis research experience. After successfully defending her thesis in the master of sustainability program, Katrina is now working as a conservation program assistant with the Georgian Bay Biosphere Reserve and Eastern Georgian Bay Stewardship Council.

Angela Dzyundzyak

Angela completed her PhD in Psychology (Behavioural Neuroscience) at Brock University in the fall of 2014 and a year later, became involved with the Environmental Sustainability Research Centre through a post-doctorial position. Her knowledge of statistical methods as applied to self-report measures was a good fit for data collection strategies utilized in the BiosACM and CADWAGO projects. Angela’s responsibilities at the ESRC were focused on data analysis and modelling to support the reports, presentations and publications from those projects. Although she is still involved in research through the Psychology Department at Brock University, Angela is currently pursuing a career in the field of Clinical Psychology.

Current Research Projects

BiosACM: Sustaining Biosphere Reserves through Adaptive Co-management, a project led by Dr. Ryan Plummer (Brock University) and Dr. Lisen Schultz (Stockholm Resilience Centre) examining collaboration, learning, and outcomes in two UNESCO Biosphere Reserves in Sweden, and two in Canada

Collaboration in Natural Disaster Response: Evidence from the 2016 Canadian (Fort McMurray) Wildfire: A team of researchers from The University of Alberta (Dr. Bob Summers), Stockholm University (Dr. Ӧrjan Bodin), Uppsala University (Dr. Daniel Nohrstedt) and Brock University (Dr. Ryan Plummer; Dr. Julia Baird) have partnered to examine the role of networks, collaboration, and improvisation in a comparative study of responses from the 2016 Fort McMurray fire and the 2014 wildfire in Sweden.

Stockholm Resilience Centre

Past Projects

Climate Change Adaptation and Water Governance (CADWAGO)

Water security is a global challenge. This research project, involving an international consortium of researchers, aimed to address this challenge through identifying appropriate responses to the impacts of climate change on water resources. Ryan Plummer led Work Package 1 of this project, exploring the relationship between how water systems are perceived (using a resilience lens), how they are governed and perspectives on how they should be governed. Cases from around the globe were used to identify potential patterns within and among these variables and to draw lessons for enabling water security.

The main findings from the project were:

  • The relationship between how ecosystems (focused on water) are perceived and the governance approaches that are in use or should be in use is not straightforward.
  • Favoured governance approaches to water resources tend to include state actors.
  • A pragmatic approach to governance was identified where multiple conceptions of ecosystems, varied preferences for governance approaches and there was a need to respond to multiple, complex crises as they occurred.

This research was funded by Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, the Volkswagen Stiftung and Compagnia di San Paolo through the Europe and Global Challenges programme.

To read more about this project, see the CADWAGO website: and see publications from Work Package 1 in publications list.

Applying Resilience Analysis to a Transboundary River System: Developing Surrogates for Governance

Social-ecological resilience, i.e., the amount of change a system can withstand, the degree of self-organization possible, and the ability to learn and adapt, is critical for ensuring the long-term sustainability of social-ecological systems. Application of resilience and its analytical processes have primarily been developed for ecosystems. Application of resilience to the social world is unique and requires additional considerations. An opportunity thus existed to focus on aspects of governance and to build upon initial works addressing resilience of river systems.

The aim of the research was to explore resilience in relation to social aspects surrounding governance of a river system, conduct a resilience analysis on a transboundary river system with a focus on governance, and identify resilience surrogates from the analysis with potential transferability to other transboundary river systems. It engaged several research partners, including WWF Canada, Trout Unlimited Canada, Meduxnekeag River Association, Canadian Rivers Institute, Stockholm Environment Institute, WIGG Lab (University of Victoria), and POLIS Project on Ecological Governance. It included a Dephi study of experts, case studies of watershed organizations and a social-ecological inventory of the St. John River Basin.

The main outcomes of this research project were:

  • Conceptual advancement of governance attributes that confer and restrain resilience in relation to river systems
  • Insights into transboundary water governance.
  • Insight and experience for applying resilience analysis in aquatic systems.
  • Methodological/analytical advancement within water resources management and resilience analyses/measurement.

This research was funded by SSHRC through the Water Economics, Policy and Governance Network as well as an Insight Grant and by the Canadian Water Network.

Adaptive Collaborative Risk Management and Climate Change in the Niagara Region: A Participatory Integrated Assessment Approach for Sustainable Solutions and Transformative Change

Can adaptive co-management approaches be designed for adaptation to climate change? This research project sought to answer this question through an action research approach in the Niagara Region of Ontario, Canada.

The main outcomes from this project were:

  • Development of an approach to quantitatively measure learning (cognitive, normative, relational)
  • Evidence that the development and operation of an adaptive co-management approach to climate change adaptation can be designed and facilitated
  • Application of a social network approach to understanding the development of adaptive co-management
  • Identification of actor networks as a necessary but insufficient condition for sustaining adaptive co-management over time

This research was funded by Environment Canada.

Publications (selected list)

Plummer, R., Dzyundzyak, A., Baird, J. Schultz, L., Armitage, D., and Bodin, Ö. (2017). How do environmental governance processes shape evaluation of outcomes by stakeholders? A causal pathways approach. PLoS One. [online] URL:

Plummer, R., Baird, J., Armitage, D., Bodin, Ö. and Schultz, L. (2017). A methodological approach for diagnosing adaptive co-management. Ecology and Society. 22 (3):19. [online] URL:

Plummer, R., Baird, J. Dzyundzyak, A., Schultz, L., Armitage, D., and Bodin, Ö. (2017). Is adaptive co-management delivering? Examining relationships between collaboration, learning and outcomes in UNESCO Biosphere Reserves. Ecological Economics. 140: 79-88.

André, K., Baird, J., Gerger Swartling, Å., Vulturius, G., and Plummer, R. (2017). The role of social networks in sharing knowledge on climate change adaptation: a case study of private forest owners in Sweden. Environmental Management. 59(6): 885-897.

Baird, J., Plummer, R., Moore, M-L., & Brandes, O.M. (2016). Introducing Resilience Practice to Watershed Groups: What are the Learning Effects? Society & Natural Resources, 1–16, available online January 26, 2016

Plummer, R., Baird, J., Bullock, R., Dupont, D., and Renzetti, S. (2016). Probing the relationship between ecosystem perceptions and approaches to environmental governance: an exploratory content analysis of seven water dilemmas. Resilience: International Policies, Practices and Discourses. Online:

Baird, J., Plummer, R., Bullock, R., Dupont, D., Heinmiller, T., Jollineau, M., Kubik, W., Renzetti, S., and Vasseur, L. (2016). Contemporary water governance: navigating crisis response and institutional constraints through pragmatism. Water Special Issue. Water Governance in Times of Change: Perceptions, Institutions, Praxis and Learning, 8(6):224. DOI: 10.3390/w8060224.

Baird, J., Dzyundzyak, A., Plummer, R., Bullock, R., Dupont, D., Jollineau, M., Kubik, W., Pickering, G., and Vasseur, L. (2016). Ecosystem perceptions in flood prone areas: a typology and its relationship to preferences for governance. Water Special Issue: Water Governance in Times of Change: Perceptions, Institutions, Praxis and Learning, 8(5):191. DOI: 10.3390/w8050191.

Baird, J., Jollineau, M., Plummer, R., and Valenti, J. (2016). Exploring agricultural advice networks, beneficial management practices and water quality on the landscape: a geospatial social-ecological systems analysis. Land Use Policy. 51: 236-243.

Baird, J., Plummer, R., Moore, M.-L., and Brandes, O. (2016). Introducing resilience practice to watershed groups: What are the learning effects? Society and Natural Resources. Online:

Plummer, R., Baird, J. Krievins, K., and Mitchell, S.J. (2016). Improving river health: Initiating collaboration in a transboundary river basin. International Journal of River Basin Management. 14:1: 119-132. DOI: 10.1080/15715124.2015.1080717.

Baird, J., Plummer, R. and Bodin, Ö. (2016). Collaborative governance for climate change adaptation: Experimenting with adaptive co-management from a social network perspective. Regional Environmental Change. 16(3): 747-758. DOI: 10.1007/s10113-015-0790-5.

Plummer, R., Baird, J., Moore, M-L., Brandes, O., Imhof, J., and Krievins, K. (2015). Governance of aquatic systems: What attributes and practices promote resilience? International Journal of Water Governance, 4:1-18.

Armitage, D., de Loë, R.C., Morris, M., Edwards, T.W.D., Gerlak, A.K., Hall, R.I., Huitema, D., Ison, R., Livingstone, D., MacDonald, G., Mirumachi, N., Plummer, R., and Wolfe, B.B. (2015). Science-policy processes for transboundary water governance. AMBIO, online.

Pickering, K., Plummer, R., Shaw, T., and Pickering, G. (2015). Assessing the adaptive capacity of the Ontario wine industry for cliamte change adaptation. International Journal of Wine Research, 6: 13-27.

Baird, J., Plummer, R., Haug, C., and Huitema, D. (2014). Learning effects of interactive decisions making processes for climate change adaptation. Global Environmental Change. 27: 51-63. DOI: 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2014.04.019

Plummer, R., Baird, J., Moore, M-L., Brandes, O., Imhof, J. and Krievins, K. (2014). Governance of aquatic systems: what attributes and practices promote resilience? International Journal of Water Governance. 4:1-18. DOI: 10.7564/14-IJWG51.

Keskitalo, C., Baird, J., Ambjörnsson, E.L. and Plummer, R. (2014). Social network analysis of multi-level linkages: a Swedish case study on northern forest-based sectors. AMBIO. DOI 10.1007/s13280-014-0492-0.

Baird, J.M., Plummer, R. and Pickering, K. (2014). Priming the governance system for climate change adaptation: the application of a Social Ecological Inventory to engage actors in Niagara, Canada. Ecology & Society. 19(1):3

Baird, J., Velaniškis, J., Plummer, R. and FitzGibbon, J. (2014). Political legitimacy and collaborative water governance: An exploratory case study. International Journal of Water Governance. 2:61-84. DOI: 10.7564/13-IJWG3.

Moore, M.L., von der Porten, S., Plummer, R., Baird, J., and Brandes, O. (2014). Water policy reform and innovation: A systematic review. Environmental Science and Policy. Online. DOI:10.1016/j.envsci.2014.01.007

Baird, J., Plummer, R., Purdy, S., Mitchell, S. and Rathwell, K. (2014). Enhancing Source Water Protection and Watershed Management: Lessons from the Case of the New Brunswick Water Classification Initiative. Canadian Water Resources Journal. 39(1): 49-62. DOI: 10.1080/07011784.2013.872872

Dupont, D., Waldner, C., Bharadwaj, L., Plummer, R., Carter, B., Cave, K. & Zagozewski, R. (2014). Drinking water management: Health risk perceptions and choices in First Nations and non-first nations communities in Canada. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 11(6) 5889-5903. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph110605889

Keskitalo, E.C.H., Baird, J., Ambjörnsson, E.L. & Plummer, R. (2014). Social network analysis of multi-level linkages: a Swedish case study on northern forests-based sectors. AMBIO. [published online] DOI: 10.1007/s13280-014-0492-0

Baird, J., Velaniškis, J., Plummer, R. and FitzGibbon, J. (2014). Political legitimacy and collaborative water governance: An exploratory case study. International Journal of Water Governance, 2(1), 61-84.

Van Tol, E., de Loë, R.C., and Plummer, R. (2014). Knowledge engagement in collaborative environmental governance. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management. [published online] DOI: 10.1080/09640568.2013.860017

Plummer, R., Schultz, L., Armitage, D., Bodin, Ö., Crona, B., Baird, J. (2014). Developing a Diagnostic Approach for Adaptive Co-management and Considering its Implementation in Biosphere Reserves. Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics Working Paper Series No. 245.

Krievins, K., Plummer, R. & Baird, J. (2014). Resilience: An annotated bibliography. In Environmental Sustainability Research Centre Working Paper Series 2014-001.

Plummer, R. and Baird, J. (2013). Adaptive co-management for climate change adaptation: Considerations for the Barents Region. Sustainability. 5(2):629-642.

Baird, J.M., Carter, B., Cave, K., Dupont, D., General, P., King, C., Plummer, R. and Varewyck, A. (2013). Gaining insights about water: The value of surveys in First Nations communities to inform water governance. Indigenous Policy Journal. 23(4).

Baird, J.M., and Plummer, R. (2013). Exploring the governance landscape of Indigenous Peoples and water in Canada: An introduction to the special issue. Indigenous Policy Journal. 23(4).

Baird, J., Plummer, R. and Summers, R. (2013). Cisterns and safe drinking water in Canada. Canadian Water Resources Journal. 38(2):121-134.

Plummer, R. (2013). Can adaptive co-management help to address the challenges of climate change adaptation? Ecology and Society, 18(4) [online].

Plummer, R., deGrosbois, D., Armitage, D. & de Loë, R. (2013). An Integrative Assessment of Water Vulnerability in First Nation Communities in Southern Ontario, Canada. Global Environmental Change, 23(4), 749-763.

Plummer, R., Armitage, D. & de Loë, R. (2013). Adaptive co-management and its relationship to environmental governance. Ecology and Society, 18(1):21[online].

Baird, J., Plummer, R. & Summers, R. (2013). Cisterns and safe drinking water in Canada. Canadian Water Resources Journal, 38(2), 121-134.

Cave, K., Plummer, R. & de Loë, R. (2013). Exploring water governance and management in Oneida Nation of the Thames: An application of the institutional analysis development framework. Indigenous Policy Journal (Special Issue: Exploring the Governance Landscape of Indigenous People and Water in Canada), 23(4), [online].

Baird, J. Carter, B., Cave, K., Dupont, D., General, P., King, C. & Plummer, R. (2013). Local perspectives on water quality and governance: The value of surveys to First Nation communities. Indigenous Policy Journal (Special Issue: Exploring the Governance Landscape of Indigenous People and Water in Canada), 23(4), [online].

Plummer, R., Baird, J., Moore, M-L., Brandes, O.M., & Krievins, K. (2013). Resilience: a brief introduction from a watershed perspective. Environmental Sustainability Research Centre, Brock University. In Watersheds 2014 Readings and Research Package.

Baird, J. & Plummer, R. (2013). Exploring the governance landscape of Indigenous peoples and water in Canada – an introduction to the special issue. Indigenous Policy Journal (Special Issue: Exploring the Governance Landscape of Indigenous People and Water in Canada), 23(4), [online].

Plummer, R., Dupont, D., Renzetti, S., Baird, J., Bullock, R., Krievins, K., & Purdy, S. (2013). Ecological Components of Ecosystems. CADWAGO (Climate Change Adaptation and Water Governance). Available at:

Plummer, R., Moore, M-L., Baird, J., Brandes, O.M., & Krievins, K. (2013).Resiliance Analysis Workshop Summary. POLIS Water Sustainability Project.

Dupont, D., Renzetti, S., Plummer, R., Heinmiller, T., & Baird, J. (2013). Liquid Assets: Assessing Water’s Contribution to Niagara. Niagara Region, Thorold, Ontario.

Plummer, R., de Loë, R. & Armitage, D. (2012). A systematic review of water vulnerability assessment tools. Water Resources Management, 26(15), 4327-4346. DOI: 10.1007/s11269-012-0147-5.

Plummer, R., Crona, B., Armitage, D., Olsson, P., Tengö, M., & Yudina, O. (2012). Adaptive co-management: A systematic review and analysis. Ecology and Society, 17(3), 11 [online].

Plummer, R., Stone-Jovicich, & Bohensky, E. (2012). Adaptive co-management: A new frontier for nature-based tourism. In A. Holden & D. A. Fennell (Eds.). The Routledge Handbook of Tourism and the Environment (pp.541-555). Abingdon, UK:  Routledge.

Armitage, D., de Loë, R. & Plummer, R. (2012). Environmental governance and its implications for conservation practice. Conservation Letters, 5(4), 245-255.

Larsen, R. K., Swartling, Å. G., Powell, N., May, B., Plummer, R., Simonsson, L., & Osbeck, M. (2012). A framework for facilitating dialogue between policy planners and local climate change adaptation professionals: Cases from Sweden, Canada and Indonesia. Environmental Science & Policy, 23, 12-23.

Krasny, M., Lundholm, C. & Plummer, R. (Eds.). (2011). Resilience in social-ecological systems: The role of learning and education.  Abingdon, UK:  Routledge. 


Plummer, R. & Hashimoto, A. (2011). Adaptive co-management and the need for situated thinking in collaborative conservation.  Human Dimensions of Wildlife Management (Special Issue, Developing Adaptability: The Promise and Pitfalls of Collaborative Conservation), 16(4): 222-235. 

Cave, K., General, P., Johnston, J., May, B., McGregor, D., Plummer, R., Wilson, P. (2011). The power of participatory dialogue: Why talking about climate change matters. Indigenous Policy Journal, 22(13).


Plummer, R., de Grosbois, D., Velaniskis, J., & de Loë, R. (2011).  Probing the integration of land use and watershed planning in a shifting governance regime. Water Resources Research, 47, W09502, doi:10.1029/2010WR010213. 


 May, B. & Plummer, R. (2011). Accommodating the challenges of climate change adaptation and governance in conventional risk management: Adaptive collaborative risk management (ACRM). Ecology and Society, 16(1), 47 [online]. 


Kreutzwiser, R., de Loë, R., Imgrund, K., Conboy, M.J., Simpson, H. & Plummer, R. (2011). Understanding stewardship behavior: Factors facilitating and constraining private water well stewardship. Journal of Environmental Management, 92(4), 1104-1114. 


Schultz, L., Plummer, R. & Purdy, S. (2011). Applying a Social-Ecological Inventory: A Workbook for Finding the Key Actors and Engaging Them. Available online from the Resilience Alliance.

Å. Swartling, C. Lundholm, R. Plummer & D. Armitage. (2011). Social Learning and Sustainability: Exploring Critical Issues in Relation to Environmental Change and Governance. Workshop proceedings, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm, Sweden, June 1-2. Stockholm Environmental Institute. 

Plummer, R., Kulczycki, C., FitzGibbon, J., Velaniskis, J. & Luck M. (2010). Exploring the implications of successful fisheries management in southern Ontario, Canada: A decade of experience with the upper Grand River tail-water fishery.  Journal of Rural and Community Development (Special Issue on Rural Recreation and Tourism in Canada), 5(1/2), 128-149.


Lundholm, C. & Plummer, R.  (2010). Resilience and learning: A conspectus for environmental education.  Environmental Education Research, 16(5-6), 475-492. 


Plummer, R. & Armitage, D. (2010). Integrating perspectives on adaptive capacity and environmental governance. In D. Armitage and R. Plummer (Eds.). Adaptive Capacity and Environmental Governance (pp. 1-19). Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag. 


de Loë, R. & Plummer, R. (2010).  Climate change, adaptive capacity and drinking water governance in Canada.  In D. Armitage and R. Plummer (Eds.).Adaptive Capacity and Environmental Governance (pp. 157-178). Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag.


Fennell, D. & Plummer R. (2010). Sociobiology and adaptive capacity: Evolving adaptive strategies to build environmental governance. In D. Armitage and R. Plummer (Eds.). Adaptive Capacity and Environmental Governance (pp. 243-261). Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag.


Armitage, D. & Plummer, R. (2010).  Adapting and transforming: Governance for navigating change.  In D. Armitage and R. Plummer (Eds.). Adaptive Capacity and Environmental Governance, (pp.287-302). Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag.


Plummer, R. (2010). Social-ecological resilience and environmental education: Synopsis, application, implications. Environmental Education Research, 16(5-6), 493-510. 


Armitage, D. & Plummer, R. (Eds.). (2010).  Adaptive Capacity and Environmental Governance. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag.


Krasny, M., Lundholm, C. & Plummer, R. (2010). Environmental education, resilience, and learning: Reflection and moving forward.  Environmental Education Research, 16(5-6) 665-672.


Plummer, R., Velaniskis, J., de Grosbois, D. Kreutzwiser, R. & de Loë, R. (2010). The development of new environmental policies and processes in response to a crisis: The case of the multiple barrier approach for safe drinking water.  Environmental Science and Policy, 13, 535-548.


Gafarova, S., May, B., & Plummer, R. (2010). Adaptive Collaborative Risk Management and Climate Change in the Niagara Region: A Participatory Integrated Assessment Approach for Sustainable Solutions and Transformative Change.  Adaptation and Impacts Research Section, Environment Canada.  Toronto, ON.


Armitage, D. & R. Plummer. (2010). Adaptation, Learning and Transformation in Theory and Practice: A State-of-the-Art Literature Review and Strategy for Application in the Niagara Region. Final Report. Prepared for Adaptation and Impacts Research Section – Environment Canada. Toronto, ON.

Krasny, M. Lundholm, C. & Plummer, R. (2010). Resilience in social-ecological systems: The roles of learning and education. Why should environmental education care about resilience in social-ecological systems?  Environmental Education Research, 16(5-6), 463-474.