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Binder Information
Table of Contents
Chapter 1
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
Chapter 4
Chapter 5
Chapter 6
Chapter 7
Chapter 8
Chapter 9

Chapter 9


9.1 Acronyms
9.2 Neuropsychological Tests
9.3 Brain Injury Quiz
9.4 Curriculum Expectations
9.5 Glossary
9.6 Resource/Reference List
9.7 Index

9.1 - Acronyms

ABI Acquired Brain Injury
ACL Association for Community Living
ADD Attention Deficit Disorder
ADHD Attention Deficit Hyperactive/ity Disorder
AEP Annual Education Plan
ANS Automatic Nervous System (one of the 2 branches of the PNS)
BEH Behaviour
CAP Central Auditory Processing
CBA Curriculum Based Assessment
CCAT Canadian Cognitive Achievement Test
CNIB Canadian National Institute for the Blind
CNS Central Nervous System (brain and spinal cord)
CPRI Child Parent Research Institute (London)
CT/CAT Computerized (Axial) Tomography “CAT Scan
DD Developmental Disability
EA Educational Assistant
EQAO Educational Quality Accountability Office
ESL English as a Second Language
FACS Family and Children’s Services
FAE Fetal Alcohol Effect
FAS Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
GLD General Learning Disabilities
IEP Individual Education Plan
IPRC Identification Placement Review Committee
ISA Intensive Support Amount
IST In-School Team
LD Learning Disability
LDA Learning Disabilities Association
LRT Learning Resource Teacher
MET Ministry of Education and Training
MID Mild Intellectual Disability
MRI Magnetic Resonance Imaging
NEPSY Neuropsychological Development in Children
OAC Ontario Academic Credit
OCD Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
ODD Oppositional Defiance Disorder
OSR Ontario School Record
OSS Ontario Secondary School
OSSD Ontario Secondary School Diploma
OST Ontario Student Transcript
OT Occupational Therapist
PDD Pervasive Developmental Disorder
PNS Peripheral Nervous System
PPVT Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test
PT Physiotherapist
PTA Post Traumatic Amnesia
RT Resource Teacher
SALEP Supervised Alternative Learning for Excused Pupils
SEAC Special Education Advisory Council
SEPPA Special Education Per Pupil Amount
SERT Secondary Resource Teacher
SLP Speech and Language Pathologist
TBI Traumatic Brain Injury
TP Transition Plan
WAIS–III Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, 3rd Edition
WIAT–II Wechsler Individual Achievement Test, 2nd Edition
WISC–III Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 3rd Edition
WPPSI–II Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, 2nd Edition
WRAT–III Wide Range Achievement Test, 3rd Edition

9.2 - Neuropsychological Tests


Neuropsychological Development in Children

Description: Measures basic and complex aspects of cognitive capacities that are critical to a child's learning in the areas of attention, language, sensorimotor skills, visuospatial processing, memory, and learning.

Age Range: 3 - 12 years


Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System

Description: Assesses higher level cognitive functions (reasoning, problem-solving, planning, etc.)

Age Range: 8 - 89 years


Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale, 3rd Edition

Description: Measurers general cognitive and intellectual ability, provides sub-measures in verbal and nonverbal reasoning skills.

Age Range: 16 - 84 years


Weschler Intelligence Scale for Children, 3rd Edition

Description: Measurers general cognitive and intellectual ability, provides sub-measures in verbal and nonverbal reasoning skills.

Age Range: 6 - 17 years


Weschler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, 3rd Edition

Description: Measurers general cognitive and intellectual ability, provides sub-measures in verbal and nonverbal reasoning skills.

Age Range: 3 - 7 years


Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale, 4th Edition

Description: Measurers cognitive abilities that provide an analysis of the pattern as well as the overall level of cognitive development, provides sub-measures in verbal reasoning, abstract/visual reasoning, quantitative reasoning, and short-term memory.


Wechsler Individual Achievement Test, 3rd Edition

Description: Measures basic reading, reading comprehension, total reading, mathematical reasoning, numerical operations, total mathematics, listening comprehension, oral expression, total language, spelling, written expression, total writing.

Age Range: 5 - 20 years, Grades K - 12


Wide Range Achievement Test, 3rd Edition

Description: Measures basic reading, spelling, and mathematics skills with two alternative test forms.

Age Range: 5 - 75 years


Children’s Memory Scale

Description: Comprehensive assessment of verbal and nonverbal memory and learning skills.

Age Range: 5 - 16 years


Bracken Basic Concept Scale

Description: An assessment of a child's conceptual knowledge.

Age Range: 2.5 - 8 years


Quick Neurological Screening Test

Description: Assesses areas of neurological integration as they relates to learning.

Age Range: 6 - 17 years +


Raven's Progessive Matrices

Description: A nonverbal assessment of perception and thinking skills.

Age Range: 6 - 65 (coloured form for 5 - 11 years; advanced form for 11 years +)


Behaviour Assessment System for Children

Description: A multi-dimensional approach to evaluating the behaviours, emotions, and selfperceptions of children.

Age Range: 2.5 - 18 years


Children's Depression Inventory

Description: A symptom-oriented scale to assess depression in children over time.

Age Range: 7 - 17 years


Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory for Adolescents

Description: Assesses various clinically important aspects of personality.

Age Range: 14 - 18 years


9.3 - Brain Injury Quiz

Please answer the following True and False questions

*1. Even after several weeks in a coma, when people wake up, most recognize and speak to others right away.
*2. After a head injury, people can forget who they are and not recognize others but be perfectly normal in every other way.
*3. Sometimes, a second blow to the head can help a person remember things that were forgotten.
*4. A little brain damage doesn't matter since people only use a part of their brains anyway.
*5. How quickly a person recovers from a head injury depends mainly on how hard they work at recovering.
*6. A person who has recovered from a head injury is less able to withstand a second blow to the head.
*7. Complete recovery from a head injury is not possible, no matter how badly the person wants to recover.
*8. People who have had one head injury are more likely to have a second one.
*9. After a head injury, it is usually harder to learn new things than it is to remember things from before the injury.
*10. Unwanted behaviours which are reinforced every time they occur are easier to extinguish than behaviours which are reinforced on a periodic but consistent basis.
*11. Skills are more likely to be retained by individuals with a brain injury if they are taught in the place in which the skill will be used.
12. A person who has a handicap also must have an impairment.
13. An individual with a brain injury requires substantially more alcohol to achieve an impaired state than he/she would have required prior to the injury.
14. People who are impaired by alcohol at the time of trauma are less likely to experience brain swelling, lesions, and bleeding.
.15. A brain injury heals with time and physical recovery is a sign that the brain has healed.
16. A mild brain injury can affect a child's ability to concentrate, learn, and function in the classroom.
17. Normal IQ scores after a head injury indicates that a child will have no trouble in the classroom.
18. All learning disabilities can be addressed by similar strategies.
19. Head injuries affect a student's self-awareness and ability to regulate his/her own behaviour.
20. Emotional and behavioural problems take up most of my time in the classroom.


*A Note Concerning Misconceptions of the General Public About Brain Injury (Willer et al, 1993)


9.4 - Curriculum Expectations

Grade 2 Mathematics Curriculum

Possible Deficits a Student with ABI may Experience
Possible Strategies to Overcome Deficits
Compare and explain ratios using concrete materials (e.g. 3:6 triangles is the same as 1:2 carrots).

Difficulty categorizing information (e.g., triangles and carrots are two different categories).

Problems with conceptualizing abstract concepts (e.g., understanding that when working with ratios 3:6 is the same as 1:2).

Help the student identify differences in the items to be categorized such as colour, size, shape ,etc. Teach this in terms of a step-by-step process that the student can generalize to any categorization problem.

Use concrete visual examples when breaking ratios down.

Student must be able to discuss the use of numbers in the community (e.g. estimating the cost of items such as candy). Disrupted ability to make realistic cost estimates of unfamiliar items based on existing knowledge of familiar items (e.g., even though the student may know that a bag of gummy bears costs $1.49, they may not be able to generalize that knowledge to estimate the cost of a bag of jelly beans).

Use as many real world examples as possible when explaining the cost of items.

Devise a step-by-step process where the student can make generalizations about similar items to assist with cost estimations (e.g., both gummy bears and jelly beans are small candies sold in the same size bags, etc.).

Set up a mock store within the classroom where students act as buyers and sellers of merchandise.

Solving mathematical word problems (e.g. If there are 24 students in a class and 8 wore boots, how many students did not wear boots).

Difficulty with organizing, sequencing and planning a mode of action to answer the word problem.

Difficulty extrapolating the relevant information needed to solve the word problem.

Create a step-by-step process for the student on how to solve word problems that can be generalized to all word problems.

Create a list of words that help identify what mathematical operations will need to be performed (e.g., less means subtract, more means addition, etc.)

Grade 4 Mathematics Curriculum

Possible Deficits a Student with ABI may Experience
Possible Strategies to Overcome Deficits
Explain thinking when solving problems by justifying methods, using oral and written forms (e.g., estimation, mental computation, etc.). Problem-solving abilities may be driven more by automatic, unconscious responses to an already well-learned task. Have written rules, general procedures, and memory cues the student can refer to in order to help him/her pinpoint the strategy he/she used to solve the problem.
Use concrete drawings to represent fractions and compare fractions with experience. Difficulty applying abstract concepts to preexisting concrete knowledge of the world.

Introduce the concept of fractions using real world relevant drawings.

Use visual aids to help increase understanding of relationships.

Solve problems with more than one operation (e.g., 2+3-4/1).

Difficulty identifying the meaning of a mathematical symbol.

Difficulty understanding and applying the "order of operations" rules.

Provide the student with a symbol guide (e.g., + means addition, - means subtraction, etc.).

Have the student double check his/her work or use a buddy system so that the students can doublecheck each other's work.

Have the student break down complex problems into individual components.

Grade 7 Mathematics Curriculum

Possible Deficits a Student with ABI may Experience
Possible Strategies to Overcome Deficits
Solving and explaining multi-step problems. Problems with planning, organizing, and sequencing steps needed to solve problem (e.g., student does not know where to begin, student loses direction when planning the steps needed to solve the problem, when reading the problem the student gets caught up in irrelevant information, etc.).

Make sure the goals of the problem are identified and that the task is clear.

Teach the student to break problems down into smaller steps.

Help the student identify key words that direct the steps needed to solve the problem.

Asking "what if" questions when posing problems. Cognitive inflexibility prevents student from making inferences and viewing problem from different perspectives.

When discussing an issue with the student, ask leading questions that will direct the student to talk about a different point of view.

Connect similarities between student's point of view and a varying point of view.

Estimate to justify reasonableness of calculations. Impaired ability to make reasonable judgments due to an inability to explicitly recall and use previously-learned information.

Give the student reference points of comparison that s/he can refer to when estimations are needed.

Provide student with examples of needed previously-learned information.

Make the problems relevant to the student.

Create steps that the student can use to answer the questions and use repetition so that needed skills can become well-learned.

Grade 2 Social Studies, History, and Geography Curriculum

Possible Deficits a Student with ABI may Experience
Possible Strategies to Overcome Deficits
Construct and read a variety of graphs, charts, diagrams, and models for specific purposes. Visio-spatial impairments make designing, drawing, and interpreting charts and diagrams, etc. difficult. Allow the student to describe information in a written format and then pair the student with a buddy when constructing graph, chart, etc.
Sort and classify information (e.g., concerning traditional costumes), using more than one attribute.

Problems identifying and recognizing differences between two or more objects.

Lack of organizational skills.

Difficulty with problemsolving skills needed to sort out different meanings of words used to describe an object.

Provide the student with a template to create a description of each object to be sorted or classified. Have student then sort, based on descriptions in template.

Grade 4 Social Studies, History, and Geography Curriculum

Possible Deficits a Student with ABI may Experience
Possible Strategies to Overcome Deficits
Use appropriate vocabulary (e.g., medieval, Magna Carta, etc.) Memory impairment can make remembering new words difficult.

Use repetition so that new words become well-learned.

Use different modalities to teach new words (e.g., crosswords, word finds, pictures, simple songs that encorporate the words, etc.)

Analyze, clarify, and interpret information about the social, political, and economic structure of medieval society.

Poor concentration and attentional ability needed to analyze information.

The ability to think abstractly may not be developing properly making it difficult to interpret or think about new concepts.

Highlight key words in reading material to draw in student's attention.

If the student is having difficulty working in the classroom, allow him/her to go to a quieter, lessdistracting environment.

Work with the student to break information down paragraph-by-paragraph, sentence-by-sentence.

Grade 7 Conflict and Change Curriculum

Possible Deficits a Student with ABI may Experience
Possible Strategies to Overcome Deficits
Demonstrate an understanding of the nature of change and conflict. Identify types of conflict (e.g., war, rebellion, strike, protest) and present strategies for conflict resolution.

Poor problem-solving ability, making it difficult to think of different strategies for conflict resolution.

Inability to understand a situation from more than one point of view.

Develop a template for each type of conflict (e.g., war, rebellion, strike, protest, etc.) listing possible causes, strategies and outcomes.

Grade 2 Writing Curriculum

Possible Deficits a Student with ABI may Experience
Possible Strategies to Overcome Deficits
Using phonics to spell difficult words (e.g., words of more than one syllable, words ending in "ing" or "ed").

Difficulty understanding speech sounds.

Difficulty distinguishing similar sounds.

Give the student a work book containing different combinations of sounds in words and practice the sounds with the him/her to increase familiarity of both the sound and spelling of the words. Make a habit of the student using this book as a guide.

Teach the student to use information in the sentence structure and context of the words to help guide spelling (e.g., She was starting to eat when she heard the dog bark [act in motion), vs. She started to eat [terminated action]).

Using synonyms and antonyms. Student may have a deficit in their ability to group words into categories, and identify similarities and differences. Have the student create a work book of synonyms and antonyms that s/he can memorize and refer to.

Grade 2 Growth and Changes in Animals Curriculum

Possible Deficits a Student with ABI may Experience
Possible Strategies to Overcome Deficits
Compare ways in which animals eat their food (e.g., tear flesh, crack shells). Difficulties with making the categories, placing animals in the categories, and then comparing between categories; more so than other children. Work on strengthening categorization skills first with lots of practice, visual aids, immediate feedback.
Plan investigations to answer questions like the one above or describe the steps involved in a process (e.g., life cycle). Initiation difficulties can prevent the child from getting started on his/her own without consistent cues; poor planning skills and sequencing skills make the investigation step-by-set process very challenging.

Have student practice sequencing skills; never allow any steps in a process to be "skipped," no matter how simplistic.

Encourage student to clearly identify the problem or question and help student generate alternative solutions and ways to investigate the problem.

Grade 4 Habitats and Communities Curriculum

Possible Deficits a Student with ABI may Experience
Possible Strategies to Overcome Deficits
Identify, through observation, various factors that affect plants and animals in a specific habitat (e.g., availability of water, food sources, light). Difficulties in considering multiple variables at the same time; may be problems with recalling and generalizing previously learned information to apply to new situation; possible lack of understanding of cause and effect.

Use semantic maps showing relations among key points.

Test hypotheses through hands-on experimentation, roleplaying, group discussions and visual aids.

Communicate the procedures and results of an investigation.

Poor planning and sequencing skills can make the step-by-step analysis difficult.

An inability to consider the perspective of the audience when communicating may cause the elimination of important details.

Tendency to perform steps out of order or to skip steps.

Ensure student has written out the procedure with labelled steps (1,2,3, etc.) and not in paragraph form.

Encourage the use of visual aids to help stay "on track" and to improve clarity.

Direct the content of the student's responses through leading questions.

Grade 7 Interactions Within Ecosystems Curriculum

Possible Deficits a Student with ABI may Experience
Possible Strategies to Overcome Deficits
Interpret food webs that show the transfer of energy among several food chains and evaluate the effects of the elimination or weakening of any part of the food web.

Lack of understanding of cause and effect could really hinder success with this task; transfer of learning difficulties with recalling and integrating past knowledge with new information.

Poor judgments and decision-making skills could lead to impulsive answers, rather than those resulting from good problem-solving.

Be explcit about the possibilities for modification in the food web and diagram hypothetical problems and potential effects and outcomes.

Test hypothesis through experimentation, roleplaying, group discussions, etc.

Compile qualitative and quantitative data gathered through investigation in order to record and present results, using diagrams, flow charts, frequency tables, bar graphs, line graphs, and stem and leaf plots produced by hand or with a computer. Attentional difficulties and distractibility could play a part since the investigation and analysis is a very long process; initiation problems and poor organizational skills could lead the student to miss important steps and expectations in the analysis.

Break task into component parts and only present the next part after the prior step has been accomplished.

Prepare a work sample to be used as a guide for multi-step tasks.

Allow student to use assistive devices like a calculator or a computer.

Allow extra time, as needed.

Grade 2 Science and Technology Curriculum, Matter and Materials: Properties of Liquids and Solids

Possible Deficits a Student with ABI may Experience
Possible Strategies to Overcome Deficits
Evaluate the appropriateness of the materials chosen in the design and used in the construction of a structure that is intended to float.

A lack of cause and effect understanding as well as an inability to consider multiple variables simultaneously may increase the difficulty associated with this task.

Memory problems could result in impulsive judgments because the student cannot recall the important criteria used in evaluating the materials.

Use a written checklist of the criteria (developed with the student) to assist the mental process of "evaluation."
Ask questions about and identify needs and problems related to the use of liquids and solids, and explore possible answers and solutions (e.g., predict changes that will occur if ice or water is heated or cooled). Difficulties with initiation may prohibit the formation of questions; lack of good planning and organization skills may not lead to a thorough scientific exploration and an inability to predict possible outcomes can come about because of problems considering alternate perspectives and variables.

Question student to ascertain understanding and mastery; use WH questions (who, what, where, why, and/or when).

Evaluate hypothetical solutions through experimentation, role-play and group discussion.

Be explicit about the "problem" at the centre of the investigation.

Use diagrams or visual aids to outline and aid in prediction.

Grade 4 Science and Technology Curriculum
Matter and Materials: Materials that Transmit, Reflect, or Absorb Light and Sound

Possible Deficits a Student with ABI may Experience
Possible Strategies to Overcome Deficits
Classify materials as transparent, translucent, or opaque. Difficulties creating and placing items in categories can frequently arise from discrimination problems and inconsistent rule application.

Use visuals to help with categorization. Hands-on learning.

Maintenance cues to keep focus on the feature of interest and not all the features of the materials.

Plan investigations, identifying variables that need to be held constant to ensure a fair test. Poor sequencing skills can lead to difficulties with systematic scientific investigation; inability to consider multiple variables simultaneously can lead to impulsive judgments and a failure to consider all possibilities first before making a decision.

Encourage student to list all possible variables (may need assistance with this).

Use written step-by-step guide as a pattern to follow for procedure.

Grade 7 Science and Technology Curriculum Matter and Materials: Pure Substances and Mixtures

Possible Deficits a Student with ABI may Experience
Possible Strategies to Overcome Deficits
Use appropriate vocabulary, including correct science and technology terms to communicate ideas, procedures, and results (e.g., mixture, mechanical mixture, solution, solute, solvent, etc.). Difficulties in retraining or learning new information like vocabulary and recalling previously learned information and applying in new settings can cause some problems to accelerate with this type of task. Devise memory strategies and compensatory aids for new vocabulary (rehearsal, association, chunking, visualization, etc.).
Describe practices that ensure the student's safety and that of others (e.g., read labels on containers to determine whether they are poisonous, flammable, explosive, or corrosive).

Trouble with initiating a procedure for problemsolving could lead to stagnation at this task without consistent cues.

A limited understanding of cause and effect; difficulties associated with an ability to consider their behaviour having an impact on others.

Poor memory and generalizability skills may lead to inconsistent behaviour depending on the context.

Be overt in describing the problem and potential consequences to establish cause and effect understanding.

Role-play scenerios and give lots of practice in various situations to maximize generalization.

Develop a safety checklist or visual cue for the student to use in remembering steps needed in ensuring safe practices.

Grade 9 Language

Possible Deficits a Student with ABI may Experience
Possible Strategies to Overcome Deficits
Recognize, describe, and use correctly in oral and written language, the conventions for spelling, capitalization, and punctuation. Difficulties with maintaining rule consistency across various situations for language conventions and transfer of learning problems in recalling and applying new information.

Allow multiple opportunities for practice.

Provide consistent feedback and guidance to increase understanding of successful and unsuccessful attempts.

Plan and make oral presentations to a small group or the class, selecting and using vocabularly and methods of delivery to suit audience and purpose.

Expect difficulties in initiation, attention, planning, and organization of the presentation.

An inability to take the audience's perspective into account may affect the method of delivery.

Child may be withdrawn and refuse to recite in class.

Encourage working in partners or small groups using cooperative learning strategies.

Begin with presenting in front of a very small group (or just in front of friends) rather than the whole class until student is comfortable.

Allow additional cues (e.g., written on cards, visuals, etc.) to overcome memory difficulties.

Grade 9 Media

Possible Deficits a Student with ABI may Experience
Possible Strategies to Overcome Deficits
Demonstrate critical
thinking skills by
identifying the differences
between explicit and
implicit messages in
media works.

These "critical thinking skills" may be compromised due to poor categorization skills (implicit vs. explicit) and a weak ability to discriminate and make comparisons between items.

Simply the idea of an "implicit" message may be extremely hard for the child to understand, they see things at face value.

Implicit messages are not "obvious" enough and you'll need to emphasize these and give lots of examples and opportunities for practice.
Adapt a work of literature to another media form and determine what apects have been strengthened and/or weakened by the adaptation. Poor decision-making skills and problem-solving cause difficulties assessing the relative strengths and weaknesses of these multiple variables and the effect of manipulating them.

Prepare a guideline sheet describing the aspects that could have been strengthened or weakened.

Provide a scale for determining the degree of change.

Grade 9 Academic and Applied Curriculum: Literature Studies and Reading

Possible Deficits a Student with ABI may Experience
Possible Strategies to Overcome Deficits
Explain how readers' different backgrounds might influence the way they understand and interpret a text. Difficulties with taking on another person's perspective and considering and integrating multiple variables simultaneously (different facets of their background). Role-play scenerios, group discussion, use case studies to help student "take on" another point of view, (e.g., have students role-play the responses of 2 children to a small dog, where one of the children has been previously bitten).
Explain how authors use stylistic devices such as simile, metaphor, personification, imagery, foreshadowing, onomatopoeia, oxymoron, alliteration, and symbol, to achieve particular effects in their writing. Transfer of learning difficulties may cause problems generalizing to new examples of each technique and they may focus solely on one example; categorization problems could lead to confusion about the terms if student applies the rules inconsistently; problems learning, retaining, and recalling new information (vocabulary).

Give a wide variety of examples of each stylistic device and many opportunities for practice.

Develop memory aids (association, visualization, chunking, rehearsal, etc.)

Grade 9 Academic and Applied Curriculum: Writing

Possible Deficits a Student with ABI may Experience
Possible Strategies to Overcome Deficits
Investigate potential topics by formulating questions, identifying information needs, and developing research plans to gather data. Initiation problems may prevent the student from getting on task and then sustained concentration may prove difficult, especially with the demanding need for planning, sequencing, and organizational skills in which the student may also be weak.

Remove distractions.

Cue student to "begin" the task.

Use nonverbal cues to regain and redirect student's attention.

Offer direct commands (e.g., "look at your book" rather than vague "pay attention" statements).

Use key words from questions or prompts to organize ideas, information, and evidence in homework answers. Descriminating important details (key words) from non-important ones; poor organizational skills may be evidenced in a lack of fluidity and step-by-step evidence in their answers.

Encourage the student to reread instructions and either underline or highlight important elements.

Teach students how to create an outline skeleton for their answers.

Grade 9 - 10: Introduction to Information Technology in Business

Possible Deficits a Student with ABI may Experience
Possible Strategies to Overcome Deficits

Information Management
Demonstrate appropriate interpersonal skills when interacting with colleagues and peers in an information technology work environment.

An inability to read social cues can cause difficulty relating to peers; unawareness of own behaviour and the impact of it on others.

Sudden anger and low frustration tolerance.

Establish a system of verbal or nonverbal signals to cue the student to alter behaviour.

Learn to detect behaviours leading up to an outburst (body language) and intervene.

Videotape problematic and prosocial behaviours and analyze the tape with the student.

Software Applications
Follow written and oral instruction regarding the use of software applications (e.g., help menus, wizards, manuals).

Attentional difficulties staying on task and avoiding distractions means that often the child will miss some important details.

Low frustration tolerance when difficulties arise as will happen when not all the instructions are understood.

Tendency to skip easy steps, do them out of order or perform the most apparent one first.

Encourage student to reread instructions and highlight or underline important words.

Monitor student and teach self-monitoring to keep on-task.

Encourage student to ask questions when necessary, before frustration sets in.

Allow extra time as needed.

Give information in chunks, gradually, so as not to overwhelm the student.

Ensure student performs steps sequentially.

Electronic Communication
Communicate with people in other cultures and demonstrate an understanding of their communication customs (e.g., social interactions, political sensitivities, jargon).

S/he is often only aware of his/her own needs and can't take on another person's perspective.

An inability to read social cues and a general disinhibition can cuase great difficulties and may be offensive to other people.

Present student with "what if ..." situations and choices for his/her behaviour to ensure lots of practice .

Encourage student to "proofread" all communications using an appropriateness checklist for any areas of particular difficulty (e.g., inappropriate language, statements that are not policially correct).

Electronic Research and Ethical Issues
Demonstrate an understanding of the criteria required to evaluate electronic media for usefulness, validity, bias, and confidentiality.

Poor judgment and analytic skills; difficulty generalizing information and applying it within a new context, may lead to seemingly "uninformed" decisions.

Difficulty with hypothetical and abstract ideas.

Lead student with questions to assess mastery of criteria or have student "assess" something hands-on and write down the steps as student proceeds to avoid trying to analyze the hypothetical.

Develop memory aids to help retain new information (e.g., chunking, rehearsal, association, visualization, etc.).

Career Opportunities
Develop a personal plan to help student achieve information technology skills and competencies
Poor planning and initiation skills cause problems right from the start and difficulties following through with a sequenced plan later on, without consistent cues.

Prepare a written guide to show sequence of steps or visual aids.

One-on-one attention during the planning process.

Provide an extensive list of the possibilities for the student to choose.

Use cueing techniques to remind student of his/her goals, (e.g., a daily journal entry to keep track of goals and achievements).

Provide reinforcement and feedback.

Grade 9 Math (Academic and Applied)

Possible Deficits a Student with ABI may Experience
Possible Strategies to Overcome Deficits
Number Sense and Algebra
Determine, from the examination of patterns, the exponent rules for multiplying and dividing monomials and the exponent rules for the power of a power, and apply these rules in expressions involving 1 or 2 variables.

Student might have great difficulty seeing and analyzing these patterns.

Transfer of learning difficulties may interfere with student's generalization and consistent application of the rules.

Memory difficulties for new information.

Explicitly describe the pattern and the ensuing rules.

Use memory aids and visual aids to help retain and recall new information.

Give lots of practice and experience with novel examples.

Use cueing techniques to aid in the consistent application of the rules.

Judge the reasonableness of answers produced by a calculator, a computer, or pencil and paper, using mental mathematics and estimation.

Impulsiveness and poor decision-making skills may hinder the effectiveness of this technique.

Mental mathematics and estimation itself may be very difficult for the student.

The student may not understand how the "tool" (e.g., calculator, computer) could be wrong.

Encourage the student to use estimation skills and give lots of opportunities to practice this with immediate feedback on successful or unsuccessful attempts.

Require student to "recheck" his/her work every time and prepare a cue sheet or checklist they can use as a reminder of the procedure (things to look for).

Describe trends and relationships observed in data, make inferences from data, compare the inferences with hypotheses about the data, and explain the differences between the inferences and the hypotheses (e.g., Describe any trend observed in the data. Does a relationship seem to exist? Of what sort? Is the outcome consistent with your orignial hypothesis? Discuss any outlying pieces of data and provide explanations for them. Suggest a formula relating the 2 variables.)

Descrimination skills may be quite poor and making inferences from the data could be quite bewildering to the student.

Comparing data with a hypothetical solution may be quite difficult as well, since the student may lack an understanding of the hypothetical, abstract ideas, and may be hung up on the results.

An inability to propose possible reasons for outlying data could result from a lack of cause and effect understanding.

Drawing conclusions based on the available data may be very difficult because of the necessity to incorporate many different pieces of information.

Provide many examples and a guideline description of what to look for, so the student has a list of steps to follow.

Make sure the original hypothesis was written down clearly as the student will tend to forget how they thought about the problem in the beginning.

Provide student with leading questions that will help him/her explore possible explanations for outlying data.

Assist student in summarizing his/her conclusions by providing external structure for his/her thoughts (e.g., guided questions, a chart to complete, or visual aids).

This is a long, multi-step process; break it into smaller chunks so that the student isn't overwhelmed.

Describe in written form, a situation that would explain the events illustrated by a given graph of a relationship between 2 variables (e.g., write a story that matches the events shown in the graph).

A lack of proper cause and effect understanding could prevent the student from completing this task accurately.

May encounter initiation problems and/or high distractibility.

Ask questions to assess student's mastery of the relationship between the 2 variables.

Provide an example of the type of story you desire.

Eliminate distractions (e.g., extra materials on the student's desk, extra noise, etc.).

Cue the student to "begin" the task and maintain verbal or nonverbal cues to keep him/her on task.

Analytic Geometry
Select the equations of straight lines from a given set of equations of linear and non-linear relations.

Poor discrimination skills may result in impulsive judgments.

Poor memory retention for new information (e.g., characteristics of a straight line equation).

Provide memory aids and visual cues to enhance memory retention and recall.

Develop a guided checklist that the student can use to make sure s/he thinks through the decision.

Communicate solutions in established mathematical form, with clear reasons given for the steps taken.

Difficulties in sequencing and following through on multi-step tasks.

Reasoning skills may be impaired.

Poor transfer of learning skills may result in the inconsistent use of mathematical form.

Provide a written example to use as a guide sheet and a cue to use proper mathematical form.

Insist on explicitly stating the reasoning for each step.

Do not allow steps to be skipped (even though the student knows how to do it).

Measurement and Geometry
Solve simple (and multiple step) problems using the formulas for the surface areas of prisms and cylinders and for the volume of prisms, cylinders, cones, and spheres.

Forgetting which formula to use for which problem will be the most common difficulty.

Multi-step processes are much more difficult as the tendency to skip steps is great.

Initiation problems and high distractibility.

Provide extra time as needed to complete assigned questions.

Minimize distractions in the environment.

Use memory strategies and visual aids to enhance memory retention of formulas (rehearsal, association, etc.).

Provide a handy reference chart with formulas listed.

Illustrate and explain the properties of the interior and exterior angles of triangles and quadrilaterals, and of angles related to parallel lines.

Difficulties in transferring knowledge from one example to another.

Verbal or written explanations may be hindered.

Provide lots of opportunities for practice with novel examples to aid in generalization.

Use visual aids and cues to trigger memory.

Use leading questions to guide the content of the student's explanations.

9.5 - Glossary

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | L | M | N | O | P | R | S | T | U | V | W

- A -

Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) - Any type of sudden injury that causes temporary or permanent damage to the brain. It is divided into two categories: traumatic and non-traumatic.

Active Ignoring - This is the continued monitoring of an individual's behaviour while deliberately not responding or reacting to the behaviour. This approach is designed to decrease the frequency of an unwanted behaviour by not reinforcing it.

Agraphia – The inability to produce written language. There are two routes to the production of the written word. The first route involves a direct transfer of thoughts to written words and the second is mediated by phoneme (sound) to grapheme (written symbol) correspondence rules. Individuals may experience difficulty with either route or both routes depending upon the location and amount of damage to the parietal lobe. Individuals who experience agraphia cannot write sentences or experience great difficulty doing so.

Alexia - The inability to read. This involves an inability to perceive written words. There are two routes to reading. In the phonological route, the sound of the letters acts as a mediator between the written word and the meaning. In the direct route, the printed word is directly associated with the meaning (occurs in cases where the words do not follow grapheme (written symbol) to phoneme (sound) rules). Individuals may experience difficulty with either route or both routes depending upon the location and amount of damage to the parietal lobe. Individuals who experience alexia cannot read sentences or experience great difficulty doing so.

Amygdala – It is part of the limbic system. It is strongly connected with emotional functioning. Research has shown that mammals with damage to the amygdala experience difficulty making sense of and/or responding appropriately to the affective elements of sensory stimuli. Individuals who experience damage in this area may show an inability to respond appropriately to emotional input (i.e. other’s feelings) and/or to access and use affective information.

Aneurysm – A broken blood vessel in the brain. It disrupts the blood supply to the brain. Considered to be a vascular injury.

Anomia – The inability to name objects.

Anoxia – Lack of oxygen. Causes include but are not limited to near drowning, suffocation and choking.

Antecedent-Based Approach – An approach in which the focus is on what is driving the unwanted behaviour. Identifying the antecedent (what happens to elicit the behaviour) and then modifying the environment/situation accordingly is seen to be the key in decreasing the unwanted behaviour.

Aphasia – Difficulty understanding/ processing spoken language.

Ataxia – Failure in muscle control (e.g., limb may appear to shake making it difficult to use the limb).

Axonal Fibres – The fragile fibres that extend from one neuron towards another neuron. These fibres facilitate the transfer of electrical and chemical signals/information from one neuron to another thus allowing the neurons to communicate.

Axons – One of the main parts of a neuron. It is the long shaft of the cell that facilitates the transfer of electrical information. Most axons are covered in a myelin sheath which speeds the conductance of the electrical signal.


Top of Glossary

- B -

Back Door Approach – This is an intervention approach in which the interventions are utilized without the person being aware or confronted and/ or the interventions used are compatible but not identical with what the person is doing. It is very useful in cases where the individual is not aware of difficulties and truly believes that he/she does not have a problem. In this case it is not productive to confront the individual with the difficulty but rather to find a way to address the issue indirectly.

Basal Ganglia – This term refers to a small group of neurons located deep in the cerebral hemispheres on either side of the thalamus. These structures are responsible for the control of voluntary and involuntary movement.

Bilateral Audition – Each ear passes messages about what has been heard to the primary auditory cortex of each hemisphere. Therefore, information about what is heard from the environment is processed by both hemispheres or bilaterally. Damage to the primary auditory cortex in one hemisphere means that the primary auditory cortex in the other hemisphere can still function. There will be some impairment, particularly with identifying the location of a sound as location is established by comparing the messages coming from each ear.

Brain Drain – This refers to cognitive fatigue. Individuals who have experienced an ABI often experience cognitive fatigue as the brain tries to cope with the in-coming knowledge. This will be particularly pronounced early in recovery and in new or challenging situations. However, it often persists and is part of the longterm affects of the injury. It is also experienced by individuals who have not experienced an injury although it occurs less often. The experience of cognitive fatigue is associated with a sense that no more information can be processed, feeling cognitively overwhelmed, and may also involved a cloudy feeling in the head. The individual experiencing the fatigue may appear to be day-dreaming or seem dazed, the eyes may be unfocused, the face may be pale, and the individual may attempt to leave the situation. The individual may experience better success with hard topics and assignments in the morning before the fatigue has a chance to occur.

Brain Stem – It is located at the base of the brain and extends down to become the spinal cord. It includes three main parts, the medulla, the pons, and the midbrain. It controls basic involuntary life functions, sleep onset, and level of alertness.


- C -

CAT Scan – Computerized axial tomography otherwise know as a CT or CAT scan. This is an imaging technique that is used to examine the brain with x-rays. It provides information about the density of brain structures. It is commonly used to check for damage to the brain. However, diffuse and/or minor damage is not always identified by these scans.

Cerebellum – This region of the brain is located to the posterior of the medulla. It controls balance, timing, and equilibrium. It also controls the coordination of fine and gross motor movements such as walking, sitting down, and the manipulation of objects

Cerebral Hemisphere (Left) – The left half of the cortex. It is responsible for the processing and analysis of information. This hemisphere is specifically involved in logical, sequential, and analytical aspects as well as details and deductive reasoning. It is associated with a number of specialized skills including: verbal abilities; lexical aspects of relative special abilities; relationships between self and the environment; analytical space-time concepts (e.g., numerical operations); language (speaking, listening, reading, writing). The left hemisphere is also responsible for the right side of the body’s skeletal muscles and somatosensation. It interprets the left visual field and is home to bilateral audition.

Cerebral Hemisphere (Right) - The right half of the cortex. It is responsible for the processing and analysis of information. This hemisphere is specifically involved in holistic, global, parallel processing, comprehension, and inductive reasoning. It is associated with a number of specialized skills including: spatial abilities (knowing directions especially in three dimensional space without reference); solving puzzles; drawing pictures; recognizing objects and people; nonverbal language (timing, intention, pragmatics); spacetime complex concepts (e.g., physics). The right hemisphere is also responsible for the left side of the body’s skeletal muscles and somatosensation. It interprets the right visual field and is involved in audition.

Cerebral Vascular Accident (CVA) – Occurs when there is sudden loss or diminishment of consciousness, sensation and/or voluntary movement due to the obstruction or rupture of a blood vessel in the brain.

Cerebrospinal Fluid – It is a substance that provides cushioning for the brain and spinal column. It acts as a buffer between these structures and the bones that encase them. It is similar in consistency to blood plasma and transports nutrients to the neurons.

Cerebrum – It is considered to be the location of higher mental processes. It consists of the cerebral hemispheres and associated connecting structures.

Chronological Age – An individual’s age as measured from his/her date of birth to a specific time.

Cingulate Gyrus – It is the medial gyrus of each of the cerebral hemispheres. It partially surrounds the corpus callosum.

Clonic Movement – It involves a pattern that alternates between the contraction and partial relaxation of complex groups of skeletal muscles. It often occurs in relation to some diseases of the nervous system and is associated with seizure activity. Research has suggested that it is associated with a variation in the normal pattern of motor neuron discharge.

Closed-Head Brain Injury – In this type of injury the skull is not penetrated but remains intact. The brain is jolted around inside the skull resulting in bruising and injury. The brain often swells and experiences blood vessel rupture resulting in hematomas. Both of these conditions result in further damage. Although, the may be only one point of initial impact, the resulting damage is diffuse in nature, affecting many different brain regions.

Colour Agnosia – This is a difficulty in identifying colours associated with damage to the brain.

Concrete Thinking – This is a form of thought in which an individual interprets information literally and cannot interpret metaphors, similes, symbolism or other forms of abstract thought.

Confabulation – The filling in of gaps in memory and associated details through fabrication. It is a verbalization about people and events that the individual believes to be true but is only partially based on facts. It often occurs due to fragmented memories. The individual with fragmented memories fills in the gaps with details that are not true but allow the memories to make sense and seem complete.

Contra-coup Injury – This occurs when the brain receives a blow that is strong enough to bang against the inner wall of the skull and is followed by a rebounding of the brain off the opposite side of the skull. This “rebounding” results in contusion or bruise opposite to the initial point of impact.

Coup Injury - This occurs when the brain receives a blow that is strong enough to bang against the inner wall of the skull. This “banging” results in contusion or bruise at the initial point of impact.

Cueing – The use of a cue or type of signal to prompt another person to either engage or disengage in a specific behaviour.


- D -

Dendrites – These structures resembles branches emanating from the cell body. They are protoplasmic processes that receive most of the contact from other neurons and conduct those impulses/signals to the body of the cell.

Differential Reinforcement – This involves using positive reinforcement when a “wanted” behaviour is observed and alternately not responding to any “unwanted” behaviours. This often involves switching rapidly between the two modes.

Diffuse Injury – This refers to an injury in which many different areas are damaged or affected. It may also be referred to as global damage.

Dyscalculia – The inability to do mathematical calculations and/or impairment of mathematical ability as the result of damage to the brain.

Dyscontrol – The inability to control behaviours due to damage to the brain.


- E -

Edema – The swelling of tissue after damage/injury.

Encephalitis – An inflammation of the brain usually caused by a virus. The are several different types of encephalitis. The prognosis for individuals who have the condition varies as the case can be relatively mild or very serious and potentially fatal. Neurological symptoms may persist for months before full recovery. May result in permanent impairment.

- F -

Focal Injury – An injury that involves a localized point of damage. This often occurs in open-head injuries or other injuries that involve a limited and specific area of damage.

Frontal Lobe – It is located at the front of the brain just behind the forehead. It provides executive control over the higher mental processes (consciousness, self-awareness, judgment, initiation/motivation, planning/sequencing, word formation, prospective memory). It is also involved in controlling emotional responses.

- G -

Grand Mal Seizure – A common type of seizure that is often associated with epilepsy but may also result from a medical illness or an unknown reason. It is usually preceded by an “aura” (abnormal sensation that may be associated with flashing lights, a particular smell, or noise) that signals the onset of a seizure. The seizure involves convulsions throughout the body usually ending with a temporary coma (minutes) followed by a residual headache and confusion.

Gyrus - It is a convoluted groove in between the anatomical folds/ridges of the brain. There are many different gyri in the brain each with its own associated functions.

- H -

Hematoma – It is a build-up of blood within the brain that results from ruptured blood vessels in the brain.

Hippocampus - It is one of the structures within the limbic system and is located deep within the forebrain. It helps regulate emotion and memory.

Hypothalamus – It is located directly below the thalamus at the base of the brain. It controls/regulates behaviours such as feeding, drinking, sleeping, temperature control, and emotional expression that are essential to survive in the environment.

- I -

Identification Placement Review Committee (IPRC) – A committee that obtains and considers educational assessment information regarding students who have been formally referred by the school principal for consideration as “exceptional.” The committee must have a minimum of three members, one of whom must be a principal or supervisory officer. The committee also reviews all information related to proposed special education programs and services. Parents are involved in the process. After reviewing all of the relevant information the committee must decide whether or not the student can be identified as “exceptional.” If the student is identified as “exceptional” the committee decides on a placement (regular class unless committee can justify a special class) and may make recommendations regarding special services and programs. The student is then placed and the development of an individual education plan is initiated. The committee must review the plan at least once every school year. Parents may request more frequent reviews and may also appeal the decision of the committee.

Individual Education Plan (IEP) – A written plan of action prepared for a student who requires modifications of the regular school program or associated accommodations. It is a vehicle for programming and monitoring school progress. It summarizes a student’s strengths, interests, and needs. It establishes expectations for the student’s learning during the school year and acts as an accountability tool for the student, parents, and everyone else who has responsibilities under the plan to assist the student in meeting his/her goals. It is flexible and can be adjusted as necessary while providing an ongoing record that ensures the continuity of programming.

Inhibition Impairment - A difficulty in controlling impulses that may result in an individual acting before thinking about possible negative and/or positive consequences.

Insomnia – This is a disruption in the regulation of sleep. Individuals may complain of poor quality sleep, inadequate sleep, and/or disrupted sleep. A person make wake throughout the night and have difficulty returning to sleep, wake early in the morning and be unable to return to sleep, and/or experience unrefreshing sleep. This leads to problems with fatigue, irritability, lack of energy, and difficulty concentrating during the day.


- L -

Labile Mood – This term refers to the tendency for a person’s mood or emotional expression and associated behaviours to fluctuate in a free or uncontrolled manner.

Limbic System – It is a ring-like collection of structures deep within the cerebral hemispheres adjacent to the basal ganglia. It is thought to be prominently involved in the regulation of emotional functions. The system is also associated with attention, memory, and motor control.

- M -

Meninges – These are the three membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord. The outer membrane is the dura mater and is the most resilient. The middle membrane is the pia mater and the inner membrane is the arachnoid and is the thinnest of the membranes.

Meningitis – An inflammation of the meninges that is caused by various viruses and bacteria and many also be due to diseases that involve inflammation of tissue without infection. Cases vary from mild to fatal and early diagnosis and treatment is key to recovery. May result in permanent impairment.

MRI – A brain imaging techniques used to examine the brain and other parts of the body. It operates by providing precise images of the target area through the use of electromagnetic radiation. The images can be focused on different substrates or regions of tissue. While this is a more sensitive imaging technique, it does not always identify diffuse damage.

Myelin – A fatty substance that helps conduct impulses. It is formed in sheath around the axons of neurons.

Myelination – The process of forming the fatty sheath that protects axons by specialized glial cells.


- N -

Neural Pathways – An interconnected network of neurons that communicate with each other. The neurons pass information to each other both electrically and chemically along fragile axonal fibres which are referred to as neural pathways.

Neurological Assessment – The assessment of an individuals current cognitive functioning. Through the use of standardized tests a trained professional examines an individual’s performance on a wide variety of cognitive tasks that measure many difference domains and abilities such as memory, attention, perception. The individual’s current performance is compared to age-appropriate norms and to previous levels of performance as indicated through academic record and other sources.

Neurological Development – The maturation of psychological and neurological systems within the brain.

Neurological Exam – A series of basic tests that involve asking an individual questions and asking him/her to perform certain actions such as touching a finger to the nose repeatedly. It also involves looking into the eyes with a light and checking sensation and reflexes. The exam can vary in the number of actions and types of procedures depending upon the situation. A scheduled neurological exam in a neurologist’s office is usually more extensive than one that is administered in an emergency room. The purpose of the exam is to assess whether or not there is any disruption in neurological functioning that would be indicative an injury or disorder or disease. Any questionable results require further assessment.

Neurons – This term is used to refer to a nerve cell. There are many different types of nerves cells or neurons. It sends and receives signals throughout the body.

Non-Traumatic Brain Injury – A form of injury/damage to the brain that results from an internal source. The internal source may be anoxia (near drowning), toxicity, infection, or cerebral vascular accident.


- O -

Occipital Lobe – It is located in the extreme rear of the cerebral hemisphere at the back of the brain. The occipital lobe is dedicated to vision, specifically to the detection, identification, and interpretation of objects.

Olfactory Bulb – This is the region of the brain that processes sensory information that relates to odours. There are two bulbs, one in each hemisphere. Each bulb is a thin neural tissue located below the frontal lobe.

Open-Head Brain Injury – In this type of injury the skull is penetrated. The brain tissue is exposed to the outside environment resulting in an initial risk of infection and severe blood loss. The associated damage to the brain is usually focal in nature and therefore it is easier to predict and identify the resulting deficits.

- P -

Parietal Lobe (Left) – It is located on the left hemisphere towards the top and to the back. The parietal lobe is responsible for perceiving, analyzing, and assembling touch information from the body. It also integrates visual, auditory, and touch information in order to formulate complete impressions of the world. The left lobe is the area where letters come together to form words and where words are put together in thoughts.

Parietal Lobe (Right) - It is located on the right hemisphere towards the top and to the back. The parietal lobe is responsible for perceiving, analyzing, and assembling touch information from the body. It also integrates visual, auditory, and touch information in order to formulate complete impressions of the world. The right lobe is responsible for understanding the spatial aspects of the world including recognizing shapes, being aware of one’s body in space and deficits.

Parsing – The resorting and elimination of neurons that occurs as a normal part of development.

Perseveration – A tendency to engage in repetitive verbal or physical behaviours.

Petit Mal Seizure – These seizures occur most often in young children (4-14 years) and do not involve convulsions. The seizure is characterized by a brief loss of consciousness that can be measured in seconds.

Plasticity – The brain’s ability to change in response to the environment. This includes the ability for other neurons to take on new function in response to an injury (e.g. take over the function of an injured area).

Positive Reinforcement – Rewarding wanted behaviour thereby increasing the occurrence of the wanted behaviour.

Post Traumatic Amnesia (PTA) – Loss of memory for events following a brain injury.

Prospective Memory – Remembering to do something.

Prosopagnosia – An inability to recognize faces or differentiate faces.


- R -

Radial Cells – A type of cell that guides the formation of neural connections.

Redirection – A method of disengaging a person from a particular mode of behaviour and shifting the person to another behaviour. The purpose is to assist in shifting the person’s mindset when he/she is unable to do so independently. Instead of paying attention to the unwanted behaviour the individual’s attention is shifted to an alternate behaviour.

Restructuring – This technique is used to guide an individual to construct another understanding, perspective, and/or interpretation of an event/ thought/belief that will have positively and/or correctly reflected the events of the situation.

Reticular Activating System – Located in the medulla and other regions of the brain this system of cells is responsible for attention (alertness and arousal) as well as the regulation of sleep. Damage to this system results in coma.

Rigid Thinking – A type of thinking in which a person cannot consider multiple influences/variable simultaneously. The person cannot consider alternate perspectives.


- S -

Shaken Baby Syndrome – A syndrome that is recognized by a serious of symptoms that are associated with the damage caused when an infant is severely shaken, tossed, or handled in a similar manner causing internal damage to the brain. Symptoms include but are not limited to loss of consciousness/coma, limb paralysis, loss of vision, cognitive impairment, hematoma, hemorrhage, and contusions). These injuries range in severity and may result in death.

Sleep Apnea – Brief periods during sleep when respiration is ceased. These periods when the individual stops breathing are associated with a disturbance in the brain’s respiratory center or a blockage in the airway. It is also characterized by daytime sleepiness.

Somatosensation – The sensory input from the body. Input from the skin in terms of touch and temperature as well as input from the internal organs, joints, muscles, tendons.


- T -

Temporal Lobe (Left) – A large thumbshaped extension of the cerebral hemispheres located near the temples on either side of the head. A small section at the top of each lobe is known as the auditory cortex and is responsible for hearing. The lobes are also involved in memory, acquisition, perception, and the categorization of information. The left temporal lobe is specialized for the comprehension of language such as listening and reading.

Temporal Lobe (Right) - A large thumbshaped extension of the cerebral hemispheres located near the temples on either side of the head. A small section at the top of each lobe is known as the auditory cortex and is responsible for hearing. The lobes are also involved in memory, acquisition, perception, and the categorization of information. The right temporal lobe is specialized for the comprehension of music.

Thalamus – It sits at the top of either side of the brain stem in the centre of the brain. It acts as the central relay station for incoming information. It decides where incoming information must go within the cortex and sends it there to be perceived and analyzed.

Tinnitus – A ringing, buzzing or swishing in the ear.

Tonic Movement – The contraction of the skeletal muscles. This muscular contraction can be prolonged as in the case of seizures.

Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) – An injury to the brain resulting from an external force applied to the head/ brain. It is damage that is associated with some kind of trauma to the head such as a concussion, a fall, or a motor vehicle collision.


- U -

Unilateral Neglect – An inability to attend to either the left or right half of a person’s visual field.


- V -

Ventral Medial Prefrontal Cortex – An area of the brain that is central in connecting feelings associated with rewards and punishments to stored memories of learning events.

Vertigo – A disordered state during which an individual’s surroundings seem to whirl dizzily.

Visual Agnosia – A failure to consciously know that one has seen an object. Although information about the object is provided through the vision the individual is not able to recognize the object although he/she may do so through another modality such as touch.

- W -

Wernicke’s Aphasia – In this syndrome, the comprehension of speech is disrupted and the production of speech is also affected. The individual’s speech will be fluent but nonsensical.

Word Blindness- A difficulty in recognizing words.

Working Memory – This refers to shortterm memory. This type of memory is used to hold information for brief periods of time and/or while a task is being performed.

9.6 - Resource/Reference List

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Ladowsky-Brooks, R. (1996). Restoration Techniques in Cognitive Rehabilitation: Program Design and Clinical Benefits. Quality, 6(2), 1-4.

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9.7 - Index

A | B | C | D | E | F | H | I | J | L | M | N | O | P | R | S | T | U | V | W


academic history 121
acquired brain injury (ABI) 11, 27
acquisition of new knowledge 65
active ignoring 102
adjustment 122
aggression 77
agitation 106
agnosia 98
anoxia 11, 27
antecedent 109
antecedent-based approach 108
assessment 121, 123
attention 68, 105, 153


back door approach 98
behaviour 109
behavioural/emotional impairments 74
behavioural/emotional skills and strategies 75
  development 3
structure 3
    basal ganglia 6, 16
brainstem 5, 14
central nervous system (CNS) 3
cerebellum 5, 15
cerebral hemispheres 7, 19
cerebrospinal fluid 4
cerebrum 5
frontal lobes 9, 10, 20
gyri 7
hypothalamus 7
limbic system 6, 17
meninges 4
neural pathways 12
neurons 3, 11, 30
occipital lobes 9, 10, 23
parietal lobes 9, 10, 21
peripheral nervous system (PNS) 4
spinal cord 3
subcortical structures 5
temporal lobes 9, 10, 22
thalamus 6, 18
ventral medial prefrontal cortex 110
brain injury
  diagnosis 39
mild 12, 31
moderate 12, 31
recovery 39, 40
severe 12, 31
symptoms 32


case manager 146, 151
cerebral vascular accident (CVA) 11, 27
  behavioural/emotional 44, 49, 50, 51
  aggression 51
depression 51
disinhibition 51
frustration 49
initiation 51
self-image 51
social behaviour 51
  cognitive 44–45, 45, 46, 47, 49
  acquisition of new knowledge 45
attention 47
initiation 49
memory 46
organization 46
perception 47
problem-solving 48
reasoning 48
  physical 45, 52, 53, 54
  fatigue, cognitive 52
fatigue, physical 54
fine motor 54
headaches 52
mobility 54
seizures 53
self-care 54
tinnitus 52
visual field neglect 53
closed-head injury 28
cognitive concerns 121
cognitive factors 111
cognitive strategies 64
community agencies 122, 126
community brain injury association 145
concrete thinking 96
concussion 11, 27
confabulation 96
consequence 109
contracoup 29
cortex 8
counsellor 144
coup 28
cueing 104
  as a reminder 105
as redirection 105
direct nonvebal 104
direct verbal 104
indirect nonverbal 104
indirect verbal 104
curriculum expectations Appendix - xi


depression 78
developmental considerations 33, 35, 36, 37, 38, 55
differential reinforcement 100
disinhibition 76


edema 30
Education Act 132
educational assistant 144
emotional changes 94
environmental factors 111
exceptional student identification 132
executive function 154
expectations 125
expectations in the classroom 43


failure to initiate 105
fatigue, cognitive 83
fatigue, physical 84
fine motor 86
frustration 75


headaches 82
hematomas 30


  form Appendix - viii
review 128
revisions 127
impulsivity 103
in-school team 124
individual educational plan (IEP) 118
infection 11, 27
inflexible thinking 94
inhibition 110
initiation 79, 110
insurance 146, 151
internal factors 111
IPRC 119
  appeals 137
how it works 134


judgment 94, 103


lack of awareness 94, 98
language 8
lawyer 151
LD vs. ABI 59–60, 133
learning disabilities (LD) 61, 132
learning expectations 125
learning resource teacher 144


medical concerns 55, 121
medical doctor 151
memory 105, 153
memory deficits 66
Ministry of Education 118, 119, 122, 124, 132, 141
mobility 85
monitoring cycle 127
myelination 3


neurological assessment 149
neurologist 146
neuropsychological assessment Appendix - iv
neuropsychologist 146
non-traumatic brain injury 27


occupational therapist 145
Ontario Student Record 122, 130
open-head injury 28
organization 67, 105
outreach teacher 145
over-stimulation 106


parent-teacher communication 162
parents 157
parsing 3
pediatrician 146
perception 69
perseveration 94, 96, 106
physical concerns 121
physical strategies 82
physiotherapist 145
positive reinforcement 100
post traumatic amnesia (PTA) 31
problem-solving 72, 105
processing speed 153
psychiatrist 146
psychologist 144, 152
public health nurse 146


reasoning 71
recovery 121
redirection 92
reintegration 116, 129
restructuring 95. See techniques: restructuring
rigid thinking 96, 106


seizures 84
self-care 85
self-image 80
social behaviour 81, 94, 103
special education teacher 151
Special Education Tribunal 137
speech and language pathologist 144
Statutory Powers Procedure Act of Ontario 138
strategies 62
  behavioural/emotional 75
  aggression 77, 79
disinhibition 76, 78
frustration 75
self-image 80
social behaviour 81
  cognitive 65
  acquisition of new knowledge 65
attention 68
initiation 73
memory 66
organization 67
perception (auditory system) 70
perception (vision) 69
problem-solving 72
reasoning 71
  general 86
  getting around the school 89
playground 88
school/classroom setting 86
specific subject areas 87
  physical 82
  fatigue, cognitive 83
fatigue, physical 84
fine motor 86
headaches 82
mobility 85
seizures 84
self-care 85
tinnitus 82
visual field neglect 83


teacher observation 148
team 142, 147
team approach 141
  active ignoring 102
back door approach 98
changing the antecedent 108
cueing 104
positive reinforcement 100
redirection 92
restructuring 95
testing tools 152
tinnitus 82
toxicity 11, 27
transition 116, 129–130
transition plan 126
traumatic brain injury (TBI) 11, 27, 28


unilateral neglect 98


visual field neglect 83


working memory 110

Additional References

For additional information on the Creation of I.E.P.’s for ABI, please visit our
website at www.abieducation.com.

For additional information on Curriculum Modification, please visit our
website at www.abieducation.com.

Chapter 8


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