The Study of Sociology in Institutions of Learning in the United States: A Report of an Investigation Undertaken by the Graduate Sociological League of the University of Chicago
Frank L. Tolman
THIS paper is an attempt to catalogue and to evaluate the present instruction in sociology throughout the United States, and to indicate in some degree the changes and relative strength of instruction in this field since its first introduction into American colleges. The first part of this paper will accordingly be given to a consideration of some of the more important historical aspects of the study of sociology in the colleges of the United States. The attempt will be made to indicate briefly some of the main causes and conditions which brought about the introduction of this study into the curriculum, and the progress of the propaganda by which the consciousness of the need of sociological knowledge was spread throughout the academic world will be noticed. The remainder of the paper will be devoted to a consideration of the present status of sociology, and a cataloguing of the courses offered by the various institutions of learning.
THE INTRODUCTION OF THE STUDY OF SOCIOLOGY INTO THE AMERICAN COLLEGE.
There are three well-defined influences that combined in effecting the introduction of sociology into American colleges. They were, first, the appearance of the scientific treatises of Ward and Spencer, especially Spencer's Study of Sociology and Principles of Sociology; second, the influence of German universities, where the theoretical instruction in the science and philosophy of society was well advanced ; third, the practical need for exact knowledge of actual social conditions and workable methods of perfecting the social organization and controlling ameliorative agencies, such as the charity organizations, schools,
(798) and government. The first period, from about 1 88o to 1 89o, is the era of so-called social science. The decade from 1890 to 1900 is marked by the ascendency of social philosophy. The twentieth century sees initiated a marked reaction toward the development of an analytic sociology, in which the statistical and psycho-sociologic method shall be largely used.
The early social-science period and the social-philosophy period are well characterized by Professor Giddings in the following extract of an address :
"For many years `social science' has appeared in the list of subjects taught by lecture, or, now and then, by instruction in systematic observation, in a few American universities. The courses offered under this title have resembled each other in nothing but name. Some of them have been statistical studies of population ; others have dealt with the so-called labor question ; others with defectives and delinquents, charity, punishment, and reformation; and others still with public health and sanitation. Indeed, they have, collectively, well represented the broad inclusiveness of the term `social science' as it is used in the title of this association. All that could be said with certainty of such university courses was that they were concerned with groups of social facts not otherwise covered by the courses on history, political economy, politics, and ethics.
" Meanwhile, in European universities have appeared courses on sociology. They have differed from the American courses as much in fact as in name. Essentially they are as much alike in subject-matter as the American courses in social science have been unlike. To the European sociologists such men as Schäffle, of Stuttgart; De Greef, of Brussels; Gumplowicz, of Gratz; Westermark, of Helsingfors; Letourneau, of Paris ; and Simmel, of Berlin, the word stands invariably for the original conceptions of Comte and Spencer—conceptions, namely, of society as a concrete whole and of its scientific explanation in terms of natural causes. For some time past it has been apparent to the discerning that this unified, coherent, philosophical sociology was destined to displace or to incorporate and co-ordinate the fragments of social science taught in American universities. The change has already begun. In fact, it has far advanced. The first true course in sociology in an American university was given by Professor Sumner, at Yale, who introduced Spencer's Study of Sociology as a text-book in his classes soon after its publication in 1873. For many years he stood alone. But in 1890, when President Small began a course of lectures on sociology to seniors at Colby University, and the present writer one to graduate students at Bryn Mawr, sociology has quietly taken its place in colleges and universities in every section of our country."
Turning now from this general characterization to the history of the early attempts to introduce sociology into the curriculum, I shall take up some of the more important universities in which sociology was early introduced, and shall indicate also
(799) some of the extra-academic forces brought to bear on the universities to influence their action in regard to sociological study.
Turning first to the American Social Science Association, I take up
PROFESSOR PEIRCE'S PLAN.
One of the earliest attempts to introduce the study of social science into the college curriculum was suggested by Professor Peirce, of Harvard, the eminent mathematician. The history of his suggestion is chronicled in the Journal of Social Science: "In the year 1878 we were discussing at council meetings of the American Social Science Association, as we often had occasion to do, how best to keep the lamp of social science alive in this generous, sprawling, forgetful continent, where the citizen will offer all his substance one day in some public cause, and the next week, perhaps, will forsake the memory and forget the name of his transient enthusiasm. Professor Peirce, presiding over our little council, brought forward his plan of making our light so shine before men that they would glorify our neglected science and take profit by its public lessons. He reminded us of the ancient universities of Europe, which were not then stagnant endowments for the perpetuation of ancient use and error, but were rather camps for intellectual combat and temporary storehouses of intellectual force. Thither, to Oxford, to Paris, to the early continental seats of learning, came young and old by thousands, not to make perfect a childish routine of knowledge, but to hear the stirring words of men on topics in which they felt the liveliest concern. 'The freedom of these conferences,' said Peirce, `made these Middle Age universities alarming to the governments under which they existed, and to the church which had first planted them and directed their instruction. At the same time the power which these universities gave, in the days of Abelard and Peter of Lombardy, to influence public opinion through the students who thronged to them in such numbers, made it important and desirable to control them. Kings and prelates, therefore, took possession of them gradually, and after some centuries of experiment organized them into their present form, which partakes somewhat of their ancient character, but lacks its essential features. Thus the old impromptu university died out, but our free republic is the place, and this the time, to revive it.'
" Professor Peirce then proposed that a beginning should be made by connecting with some existing university in the United States the educational work of the American S9cial Science Association, which he thought should meet once or twice a year for a session of three or four weeks. At this session, which should be an extension of such meetings as the present annual one, he wished to bring together the persons in the United States best qualified to read papers and join in debates on the multiform phases of social science, taking up these questions as occasion served, and as the condition of the country required. The experts thus brought together should form a senatus academicus, not for the purpose of conferring degrees and shaping systems of instruction, but to instruct one another as well as the less advanced students who should listen to them. During the rest of the year, at this one chosen university, a regular professor of social science, who might also be the secretary of the association, was to correspond with its members and carry on the work of his department among
(800) the regular resident students, much as the ordinary college professor now does. The chosen university should undertake to publish at its own expense the papers and discussions of the occasional conferences, and perhaps, also, meet the cost of the meetings.
"It was inquired, after discussion of the plan, whether any university now existing and having the requisite conditions of geographic situation, permanent endowment, broad views of education, etc., could be found to institute such an experiment. None such appearing, the project was laid aside for a while, and could never again be taken up during the life of its author."
The crusade of the American Social Science Association to secure the introduction of social science into the universities culminated later in the appointment, in December, 1885, of a committee consisting of Professors James and Wayland and Mr. Sanborn to prepare for the consideration of the association a list of topics for lectures and conferences on social science, which should be suitable for university use, and in the investigation by the department of education as to social-science instruction in colleges. This was intended to intimate to the academic world that social science deserved a place in the curriculum, and to indicate the character of instruction that should be given in this field. That this attempt brought forth good results there is every reason to believe.
The complete schedule of topics used in the investigation of the education department is of interest as indicating what was then marked off as the province of social science. They were : (1) theory of property; (2) production and distribution of wealth; (3) theory of government; (4) public and private corporations; (5) punishment and reform of criminals; (6) prevention of vice; (7) public and private charities; (8) sanitation; (q) theory of public elementary education; (10) higher education. Evidently the only topics that were at all sociological were (5) punishment and reform of criminals, (6) prevention of vice, and (7) public and private charities. Of these Mrs. Talbot said : "These three topics receive far less attention than the other topics in our schedule (economics, etc.). The fact is due doubtless to the unformulated character of this department of social science. It is still in a state of empiricism, and no fundamental principles have as yet been reached, or, at least, generally recognized and adopted as such."
SOCIAL SCIENCE IN CORNELL UNIVERSITY.
A notable recommendation was made by President White, in 1871, for the institution of a course of practical instruction calculated to fit young men to discuss intelligently such important social questions as the best methods of dealing practically with pauperism, intemperance, crime of various degrees and among persons of different ages, insanity, idiocy, and the like. His suggestion was as follows :
" It seems to me that the time must soon arrive for the establishment of a course in history, literature, and political and social science, requiring four years and leading to the degree of B.L. Such a course would do a double good : first, it would meet the wants of a large number of thoughtful young men, now imperfectly provided for; second, it would do great good to the scientific course by taking out of it those students who have little or no taste for scientific as compared with literary and historical studies, and thus leaving it to be developed into a more thorough scientific course. The course now recommended would embrace two modern languages, a minimum of mathematics and physical science, the elements of natural science, leaving the main
(801) strength to be laid upon general history, social and political science, and literature, especially the literature of our mother-tongue
"As regards lectures on social science, while in the present circumstances of the university I am not prepared to urge the immediate provision for them, I would say that we shall fall short of our duty if we do not provide for them as soon as our circumstances allow. No branch of knowledge, in my opinion, is worth more to society, or better worth the attention of thoughtful young men, than the study of social problems arising among us, of the various solutions that have been proposed and tried, and of the results of these attempted solutions. Among these are the questions of the prevention and remedy of vice and crime, and, connected with this, the efficiency of the various detention, reformatory, and penal institutions ; questions as to the management of pauperism, insanity, and inebriety; questions as to the means of infusing more comfort and more incentive to right thinking into the masses in cities ; questions as to the systems of communication in the rural districts ; questions as to the efficiency of various methods proposed for the ascertaining of the popular will ; questions as to the promotion of public cleanliness and health ; questions as to the control of corporations ; and scores of others immediately practical and which afford scope and discipline to the noblest powers of the noblest minds.
" It has long been suspected, and at last, by President Barnard's statistics, it has been fully proven, that the colleges of the United States have been steadily losing their hold upon the various professions, the various executive, legislative, and judicial positions, and upon the community at large. Why is this? There can be but one reason: the fact that the usual courses of study have come to be considered as of doubtful utility in strengthening men for positions of usefulness. There is enough truth in this idea, at any rate, to make a deep impression on society. The very fact that our attempt at something different in education brought to us over four hundred students on the day of our opening, in spite of the crudeness and difficulties of our undertaking, is proof of this.
" Go into our legislatures, county, state, or even national, and very often there you meet the most glaring ignorance, not merely of the first principles, but of the simple, ordinary practice regarding great social interests. How many of those men who will legislate at the coming session in regard to crime for the four millions of people in this state know what the famous Irish prison system was, or what the Detroit penitentiary practice is ? How many have even studied the best limit between a proper degree of freedom to corporations in the interest of public enterprise and the most efficient restraint upon them in the interest of justice to the public ? How many know those plain, simple classifications of the insane which are the result of years of experience and thought, and which are constantly broken through ? How many know what admirable things have been done in diminishing vice in manufacturing districts by appliances for simple instruction, and how the death-rate has been diminished in crowded cities by the establishment of public baths and work-houses and by a proper adaptation of architecture ?
"And these subjects could be made as attractive as they are useful. There are no themes on which young men are more easily stirred to think and talk and hold debate than on such subjects of political (not partisan) and social interest. I hope to see the day when lecturers of eminence shall present what has been proved and discuss what is in dispute before our students. By studies such as these, those who go forth from our colleges and universities will be able to assert their supremacy in every community,
(801) for the public will not be slow to find out that those men are really the most fit to legislate for the general good."
Again, as commissioner of the United States to the Paris Universal Exposition, 1878, to report upon higher education as represented at the exposition, President White made his report on the provision for higher education in subjects bearing directly upon public affairs an occasion to amplify and emphasize his plea for a more thorough and practical training in history, political and social science, and general jurisprudence.
He first outlines the instruction given in European universities on these subjects : "At various visits to European universities," he says, "during the past twenty-five years, especially during the two years, as also at the recent exposition, I have been especially interested in those studies by which men are fitted to take part in public affairs, and 1 propose giving a general account of their recent growth and present condition at some of the centers of European instruction, and then to bring the knowledge thus obtained to bear on what seems a great practical need in our own country."
This " European experience " is only the text to the sermon. The solid meat of the sermon is found in the " application of European experience to ourselves." He treats first of the demand for such study. "The demand of this nation for men trained in history, political and social science can scarcely be overestimated." In Congress, state legislatures, county and township boards, municipal councils, constitutional conventions, the judicial body, the press, the pulpit, all cry out for trained men to solve properly the problems of charity, crime, pauperism, insanity, inebriety, education, taxation, problems of industry and municipal policy. "More and more, as civilization advances, social and political questions become complex; more and more the men who are to take part in public affairs need to be trained in the best political thinking of the world hitherto, need to know the most important experiences of the world, need to be thus prepared by observation and thought to decide between old solutions of state problems or to work out new solutions. In the midst of this necessity for thought and care, how stands it with our own legislation? It was recently remarked by one of the most able men that it saddened him to see many of the same lines of policy adopted in the United States that had brought misery on Europe; to see the same errors in the foundation of these new states which have brought such waste and disaster and sorrow in those old states.
"To any proper discussion and adjustment of political and social questions by the people, there are two conditions : first, there must be education of the mass of the citizens; second, suitable instruction for the natural leaders rising from the mass. For the development of these with reference to this leadership, for the training of their powers of observation and reasoning, for the giving of that historical knowledge of past failures which is the best guarantee for future success, there is at present in our higher education in the United States no adequate provision. The educational exhibits at the recent expositions at Philadelphia and Paris show here and there in a few of our higher institutions beginnings have been made, but in most of them political economy is not taught save by a short course of recitations from a text-book; in few of them is there the slightest instruction worthy the name in history--the very department which in the European university is made to give a basis and a method for studies in political and social science.
"The training in political and social science should be: First, a close study of political and social history of those peoples who have had the most important experience, and especially of our own; next, the teaching of political economy in its largest
(803) sense, not the mere dogmas of this or that school, but rather the comparative study of the general principles of the science as laid down by leading thinkers of various schools; and to this end I would urge the historical study of the science in its development and in its progressive adaptation to the circumstances of various nations. Under this would come questions relating to the national and state policy, industrial, commercial, financial, educational, to the relations of capital and labor, and producers to distributors, to taxation, and a multitude of similar subjects.
"Next, I would name the study of what is generally classed as social science, including what pertains to the causes, prevention, alleviation, and cure of pauperism, insanity, crime, and various social difficulties. Nor would I neglect the study of the most noted theories and plans for the amelioration and improvement of society, the arguments in their support, the causes of their failure ; and I would also have careful investigation into the relations of various bodies and classes which now apparently threaten each other. I would, for example, have the student examine the reasons why the communistic solution of the labor question has failed, and why the co-operative solution has succeeded." President White also mentions the principles of jurisprudence and international law and statistics as necessary to complete political training, and suggests that this training be not only given in post-graduate work, where it is likely to remain the possession of but few, but recommends also the establishing of a full undergraduate course which, while including science and literature for general culture and discipline, shall have as its main study history, political and social science, and general jurisprudence.
In the system of education proposed, I would take effective means of preventing pedantry and doctrinairism by bringing in a constant circulation of healthful political thought from the outside. Much instruction should be given by lecturers holding their positions for short terms ; these lecturers should be chosen, so far as possible, from those who take part in public affairs practically, while not giving up the study of principles.
In 1884 the desired course in social science at Cornell was authorized by the trustees, and was conducted by Mr. Frank B. Sanborn, secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Charities and of the American Social Science Association. President White's report describing the course, and Mr. Sanborn's account of the first year's work, follow:
PRESIDENT WHITE'S REPORT, 1885.—COURSE ON SOCIAL SCIENCE.
This course continued the entire third term. It was established in accordance with my recommendation of last year, a recommendation which has been repeated in nearly every annual report of mine for ten years, and which at last has been most successfully carried out. The lecturer was Mr. Frank B. Sanborn, secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Charities and of the American Institute of Social Science. The subjects discussed were important social questions likely to confront our graduates who may take part in public service and in the leading professions. Among the subjects may be mentioned the best method of dealing practically, both as regards prevention and cure, with pauperism, intemperance, crime, insanity, illiteracy, and the like. The lecturer aimed to show the best modern practice in various countries.
Mr. Sanborn, at the close of each week, visited some one of the public institutions devoted to the subject. Among these were the local charitable and punitory institutions of this county—the reformatory institution at Elmira, the lunatic asylum at
(804) Ovid, and the state prison at Auburn. At each of these careful investigations were made and discussions held.
This is the first time in the history of education, I believe, when questions of this kind have been fully taken up, and the success of the course has been most encouraging. When we consider with what carelessness and extravagance these subjects have been handled hitherto in our town, county, and state legislation, it would seem that there could hardly be a means of more good to the commonwealth in which we live, and indeed to the whole country, than the keeping up of such instruction as this, which will fit university graduates for shaping public opinion, and discharging their practical duties regarding the most pressing social questions. I believe that this course—the first of the kind in our country—will serve as a pioneer, and will lead other universities to establish similar courses, which will prove a great benefit to the country.
FROM MR. SANBORN'S REPORT.
I commenced my lectures April 7 and my visits to institutions April ro, which have occupied every Saturday but one (May I). Whole number of students, forty-five; number of institutions inspected, eight. Two essays have been required of each member of the class ; one by the whole class on " Prison Labor," and another upon one of three special topics given to three sections of the class ; so that in all four subjects have been thus considered. My own lectures have covered the topics of social science in general, with its main characteristics (two preliminary lectures): pauperism, insanity, crime, and penality; the actual treatment and discipline of the poor, the insane, criminals of all grades, poor delinquents, neglected children, and other dependent classes; prison labor and the reformation of criminals; immigration.
My effort has been to give instruction in regard to practical application of social science, with so much of theory as would enable them to connect the subjects considered in a systematic manner, but without attempting to cover the whole field of social science.
The instruction was continued by Mr. C. A. Collins, who treated, in 1888-89, the following topics :
Fundamental theory of sociology as an organism of mutually interdependent members; the respective spheres of mutual interdependence and of individual independence. The physiology of the social body in a state of health ; the possible harmonious activity of all the members, with essential inequalities, however, of powers and possession; the law of noblesse oblige, the protecting service due from the strong to the weak, the loyal service due from the weak to the strong ; dependent and pauper members inevitable even in social health; their value in the social order; comparison of social theory with the social teachings of the New Testament. The pathology of the social body. Disturbances in the economic questions contributing to undue pauperism, and possibly to crime ; the disorderly members ; order the primary object of the law, justice secondary. Historic development of the modern pauper and criminal classes. Prison reform. Taxation for support of poor and shiftless. The wisdom of cultivating the survival of the unfit ; etc., etc.
Professor Burgess was largely instrumental in the discovery of the European world of history and politics which was to the scholastic mind of young Amherst a
(805) real renaissance. It was the opening of a new hemisphere of thought and culture. Students began to appreciate that the world ís truly round. An unusual number of graduates in 1874 (the first class taught by Professor Burgess) went to Europe for study and travel. Individual Amherst students had indeed gone to Germany before this time to study natural science ; and some, quickened by the same personal influence which doubtless first moved Professor Burgess, went to study history and political science. The students of Professor Burgess went to Berlin in shoals. They went in such numbers that they began to be called "The Burgess School." They all went to hear Droysen lecture, and came home with trunks full of Droysen's Preussische Politik and of the writings of Leopold von Ranke. Not all of these young men have since become historians ; but none of them are the worse for their travels. Some are extremely clever fellows, and have practiced law and politics with considerable success. A few developed qualities suited to academic fife ; and from this chosen few Professor Burgess has gathered recruits for the School of Political Science, which is now to be described.
SCHOOL OF POLITICAL SCIENCE.
From 1876 to 1880 the work of Professor Burgess in Columbia College was preparatory to an organized school of historical and political science. In 1877–78 the department was strengthened by the addition of an assistant —Richmond MayoSmith—one of the former pupils of Professor Burgess, from the class of 1875, Amherst College. The assistant began to teach Germanic, and more especially English, institutions to the junior class, two hours a week for the first half-year, using Stubbs's Constitutional History of England. The second half he taught Rogers's Manual of Political Economy. He also taught, for two hours a week, a section of the senior class in a more advanced course, using Mill's Political Economy, with frequent reference to other authorities, to documents and statistics.
On June 7, 1880, the trustees of Columbia College adopted the following important resolutions :
1. Resolved, That there be established, to go into operation at the opening of the academic year next ensuing, a school designed to prepare young men for the duties of public life, to be entitled a School of Political Science, having a definitely prescribed curriculum of study extending over a period of three years, and embracing the history of philosophy; the history of the literature of the political sciences ; the general constitutional history of Europe ; the special constitutional history of England and the United States ; the Roman law, and the jurisprudence of existing codes derived therefrom ; the comparative constitutional law of European states and of the United States ; the comparative constitutional law of the different states of the American union; the history of diplomacy; international law; systems of administration, state and national, of the United States ; comparison of American and European systems of administration ; political economy and statistics.
2. Resolved, That the qualification required of the candidate for admission to this school shall be that he shall have successfully pursued a course of undergraduate study in this college, or in some other maintaining an equivalent curriculum, to the close of the junior year.
3. Resolved, That students of the school who shall satisfactorily complete the studies of the first year shall be entitled, on examination and the recommendation of the faculty, to receive the degree of bachelor of philosophy; and those who complete the entire course of three years shall, on similar examination and recommendation, be entitled to receive the degree of doctor of philosophy.
This was the formal institution of the now flourishing School of Political Science in Columbia College.
(806) Professor Mayo-Smith received the position of adjunct professor of political economy and social science in the School of Political Science.
The main development up to 1894 was in the gradual strengthening of social statistics. In 1894 the chair of sociology was created, and Professor Giddings appointed to the professorship. At this time noteworthy changes were made in the policy of the department. They are outlined in the following announcement of the faculty of political science :
COURSES IN SOCIOLOGY.
It is becoming more and more apparent that industrial and social progress is bringing the modern community face to face with social questions of the greatest magnitude, the solution of which will demand the best scientific study and the most honest practical endeavor. The term " sociology, " however it may be defined, includes a large number of the subjects which are most seriously interesting men at the present time. The effective treatment of social problems demands that they be dealt with both theoretically and concretely. A college located in the country must needs study these subjects in the abstract. Columbia deems it her duty, and her wisdom alike, to avail herself of the singular opportunities for practical work in this direction afforded to her by her location in the city of New York. It has, therefore, been determined greatly to enlarge the facilities for university study in sociology, and to bring such study into connection with the practical sociological work of this city.
The university faculty of political science already offers a wide range of instruction in the cognate branches of social science, such as political economy, political science, statistics, finance, administrative and constitutional law, and history. The trustees have recently appointed a special professor of sociology, whose function it shall be to develop the theoretical teaching of sociology proper, and to direct the students in practical sociological work. This newly established chair will provide for a thorough study of philosophical or general sociology and of the practical or concrete social questions in their relation to sociological principles. By the term "general sociology" is meant the scientific study of society as a whole, a search for its causes, for the laws of its structure and growth, and for a rational view of its purpose, function, meaning, or destiny. This will lead up to the more particular study of the phenomena of modern populations and their concentration in great cities. Of such phenomena none are of greater concern, from either the theoretical or practical point of view, than the growth and characteristics of the dependent, defective, and delinquent classes. Special courses of instruction will therefore be offered on pauperism, poor laws, methods of charity, crime, penology, and social ethics.
It is in the city that the problems of poverty, of mendicancy, of intemperance, of unsanitary surroundings, and of debasing social influences are met in their most acute form. Hence the city is the natural laboratory of social science. Here also are to be found the most extensive and modern experiments and efforts toward controlling and remedying these evils. Here the student can observe how far vice, poverty, and crime are due to bad economic conditions, how far to neglected moral training, how much simply to the social struggle for life. He can also observe how far the remedial measures are efficient, and in what respects they seem to fail. Such study emphasizes all that is taught by theory, and, like " field work " in natural science, it trains the faculties of observation and makes the subject " real." While, therefore, the university is now prepared to offer extensive courses of instruction covering the whole field
(809) of social science, the student at the same time will be afforded valuable opportunities of practical work and observation under the auspices of science and the best practice. One side will be used to aid and supplement the other. All practical work should afford material for science ; all scientific work should enlighten practice.
OFFICERS OF INSTRUCTION.
The teaching of sociology is assigned to the university faculty of political science. All the subjects taught by this faculty have a direct interest for the student of sociology. The officers of instruction particularly concerned in the work of sociology are as follows : Richmond Mayo-Smith, professor of political economy and social science ; Edwin R. A. Seligman, professor of political economy and finance ; Franklin H. Giddings, professor of sociology ; Arthur M. Day, assistant in political economy and social science; William Z. Ripley, lecturer on physical geography and anthropology,
THE SCOPE OF THE WORK.
The work in sociology will fall under three heads, viz.: the university courses of instruction in the various departments of social science, the work in the statistical laboratory, and the "field work," or practical work in connection with the Charity Organization Society, the Brooklyn Bureau of Charities, the University Settlement Society of New York city, and the East Side House.
THE COURSES OF INSTRUCTION.
The courses of instruction are divided into three groups — principal, special, and related. They are as follows :
Principal. — (τ) The principles of sociology, Professor Giddings ; (2) the evolution of the family, Professor Giddings; (3) pauperism, poor laws, and methods of charity, Professor Giddings ; (4) the principles of criminology and penology, Professor Giddings; (5) the theory and practice of statistics, Professor Mayo-Smith; (6) historical and practical political economy, Professor Mayo-Smith ; (7) the social effects of taxation, Professor Seligman; (8) physical geography and anthropology, Drs. Ripley and Farrand ; (9) seminarium in sociology, Professor Giddings ; (10) work in the statistical laboratory, Professor Mayo-Smith; (11) seminarium in political economy and finance, Professor Seligman.
Special. — (12) History of social-economic theories, Professor Seligman ; (13) social and industrial history of the United States, Professor Seligman; (14) private ethics and relation to social reform, Dr. Hyslop ; (15) communistic and socialistic theories (1895-96), Professor Mayo-Smíth; (16) ethnology and population of the United States, Professor Mayo-Smith; (τ7) the principles of administrative law, Professor Goodnow; (18) corporation problems (1895-96), Professor Seligman; (19) practical statistics, Professor Mayo-Smith.
Related. — (20) Primitive institutions (evolution of law and custom), Professor Munroe Smith; (21 ) political and constitutional history of Europe and the United States, Professors Burgess and Osgood ; (22) political philosophy, Professor Dunning ; (23) history of philosophy, Professor Butler; (24) principles of education, Professor Butler ; (25) psychology, Professor Cattell and Dr. Farrand.
DESCRIPTION OF COURSES.
General sociology.—This course includes a systematic study of general sociology. The attempts that have been made since Comte to construct a science of society are
(810) explained in a review of the literature, which is brought down to the present time. A society is described in ethnographic terms, as a subdivision of the population of the earth, which has a territorial or ethnical ground of unity and develops its own distinctive culture and organization. The causes and laws of its natural evolution, so far as they are yet apparent, are presented. Particular attention is given to the economic causes of social development. The modern theories of utility, subjective value, and wealth-consumption are shown to have important sociological bearings. They enter into our interpretations of legal traditions and political forms, as well as into our explanations of industrial customs, the division of labor, and public policy. Economic and sociological theory are thus brought into close relations to each other. The latter part of the course deals largely with the causes and consequences of the rapid growth of modern populations and their concentration in cities. Professor Giddings.
The evolution of the family.—The family is the unitary group in human society. The study of its organization and history is of the same importance for the sociologist that the study of cell structure and differentiation is for the biologist. The investigations of Bachofen, Morgan, Maine, and MacLennan into the origins of marriage, kinship, household organization, and clan relationships stimulated sociological research as nothing else has ever done. The course on the evolution of the family presents the results of these researches, reviewing the literature and discussing some of the more important problems, such as those of the early forms of marriage, the relation of the family to the clan and the tribe, the status of women and children, and the like. These studies lead up to an examination of the family in modern society, in country and city, under various conditions of nationality, residence, occupation, density of population, sanitary surroundings, education, and religion. In conclusion, the increase of divorce is considered, in its causes and consequences, and in its relation to public opinion and legislation. Professor Giddings.
Pauperism, poor laws, and charities. — The foundation of this course is a careful study of the English poor law; its history, practical working, and consequences. On this foundation is built a study of pauperism in general, but especially as it may be now observed in great cities. The laws of the different commonwealths in regard to paupers, out-relief, almshouses, dependent children, are compared. Finally the special modern methods of public and private philanthropy are considered, with particular attention to charity organization, the restriction of outdoor alms, and the reclamation of children. Professor Giddings.
Crime and penology. — This course comprises a special study of the sociological problems of crime and penology. It takes up in order the nature and definitions of crime, the increase of crime in its modern forms, criminal anthropology—the physical and psychological characteristics of the criminal type —the social causes of crime, surroundings, parental neglect, education, the question of responsibility, historical methods of punishment, the history of efforts to reform prison methods, modern methods, the solitary system, the Elmira system, classification of criminals, classes of prisons, reformatories, and jails. Professor Giddings.
The theory and practice of statistics. —The science of statistics is looked upon as the instrument of investigation in sociology. It teaches us how to comprehend social phenomena and how to measure the action of social forces. This course deals with the general statistics of population under such topics as race, nationality, sex, age, conjugal condition, density, births, deaths, marriages, occupation, religion, education, migration, economic condition, suicide, vice, crime, and the like. Finally are
(811) considered the theory of statistics, methods of observation, the value of the results obtained, the doctrine of free-will, and the possibility of discovering social laws. Professor Mayo-Smith.
Historical and practical political economy. — The student of sociology must be thoroughly trained in political economy, for all social questions are more or less connected with economic conditions, and cannot be solved without reference to economic principles. Students are supposed to be familiar with the general principles of political economy and the outlines of economic history. This course describes present economic institutions and discusses present economic questions, with special reference to the condition of modern society. Professor Mayo-Smith.
The social effects of taxation. — This course has to deal with the function, the nature, and the limits of taxation ; with the laws of incidence and shifting ; with a comparison of existing methods; and especially with the reform of taxation se that its effects shall harmonize with the demands of social reform. Professor Seligman.
Physical geography and anthropology.—This course treats of the relation of man to the earth, and the influence of physical environment upon him. The subjects considered are physical geography, science of anthropology, prehistoric archology, ethnology, anthropometry, and comparative mythology. Drs. Ripley and Farrand.
The seminaria in sociology and political economy meet bí-weekly, and give the students opportunity for research under the direction of the professors.
The work in the Statistical Laboratory will consist of training in tabulation and compilation of current statistics and original investigation.
The special courses offer a more detailed treatment of economics and social questions of special interest to the student of sociology.
The related courses offer opportunity to the student to enrich his sociology courses in a great variety of directions, according to his inclination and the object he has in view.
THE STATISTICAL LABORATORY.
The statistical laboratory is a place equipped with the more important apparatus of a statistical bureau, drawing tables, instruments, calculating and tabulating machines and books, cards, charts, and a collection of statistical publications. The object of the laboratory is to train the student in the methods of statistical analysis and computation. Each student will pursue a course of laboratory practice dealing with the general statistics of population, the relation of classes, the distribution of wealth, and the statistics of crime, vice, and misfortune. He will be taught how to judge current statistics and to detect statistical fallacies ; in short, to become an expert in judging of the value of sociological evidence.
The object of the statistical laboratory is not merely to serve as a training place for students. It is intended to do practical work in the way of gathering and tabulating social statistics. An effort will be made, for instance, to collect the reports of the charity societies of New York, and tabulate the information which they contain. Eventually it is hoped to get into closer relations with these societies, to suggest a common schedule for their use, and thus to make their information of scientific value. Still further it is intended that the special investigations conducted by the professor and fellows in sociology into the social conditions of the population of New York shall be worked out in the statistical laboratory. It is well known that a great deal of similar material collected by various societies and churches of New York now goes to
(812) waste because of the expense and difficulty of handling it. The statistical laboratory of Columbia College will stand ready to receive such material and put it into scientific shape. The department has recently handled the police census of the unemployed in New York city, and similar material is now being collected by the University Settlement Society, which will be worked out during the coming year. Such work affords to the student the very best practical training in statistical and sociological method.
It is the intention that the student shall be brought into connection with actual social work. For this purpose arrangements have been made with the Charity Organization Society of New York, the Bureau of Charities of Brooklyn, the University Settlement Society, and the East Side House, by which students will have a special opportunity to study and take part in the active work of these societies.
The Charity Organization Society. —For the purpose of affording an opportunity to study the practical work of relieving the poor, arrangements have been made with the Charity Organization Society of New York, by which special facilities for work and training will be offered to the students of sociology. That society is the largest organization of the sort in this country, follows the most approved methods, and is constantly devising and perfecting its modes of operation. In the year '893 it numbered 2,335 members and contributors, had 488 co-operating societies or agencies, investigated 4,752 applications, and secured relief for 2,287 worthy applicants. Its registration bureau contains information about 170,000 families, or parts of families. It stands in close connection with the great charitable societies and institutions of New York, whose work it endeavors to co-ordinate and render more effective. Its officers have expressed the liveliest interest in this effort to unite theoretical and practical work in sociology, and have promised cordial co-operation and aid.
By the action of the 'council of the Charity Organization Society the president and faculty of political science of Columbia College have been given the privilege of nominating a member of the council, so that the university will be directly represented in the management of the society.
It is expected that advanced students in sociology will have the opportunity of joining some one or more district committees organized under the direction of some of the experienced members of the society, and be trained in the work of investigating and reporting upon applications for relief, in friendly visiting among the poor, etc. Such work will be continuous, and should demand at least six hours a week of the time of the student. Experience will thus be gained of the various problems of charitable work and of social conditions under the very best guidance.
Demonstrations will be made, at the central offices of the society, of the methods of recording the applications for relief, of co-ordinating the work of different societies, of the details of management, of the different forms of aids to thrift, such as the employment bureau, the wood-yard, the wayfarer's lodge, the penny provident fund, the pawn-shop. These demonstrations will be repeated sufficiently often thoroughly to familiarize the student with the methods of the society.
As the students gain experience they may be placed upon the special committees of the society having these matters in charge, and after they have completed a course in sociology, opportunity may be found for a selected number who wish to continue work in this direction, to have a desk in the central office and form part of the working force of the society under suitable arrangements.
The Brooklyn Bureau of Charities. — Similar opportunities for work will be offered to students in connection with the Brooklyn Bureau of Charities.
University Settlement Society. — This society leases a house at 26 Delancey street, in the most crowded tenement-house district of New York city. Its object is by means of clubs, kindergarten, library, lectures, classes, debates, exhibition, and the like, to improve the condition of the people of that district, and to assist in the work of social progress. Rooms are provided for three or four college graduates who live there and direct the work. Many others are desired to act as teachers and visitors. An unexampled opportunity is thus afforded for learning to understand the actual condition of a city population, and for doing good. The head-worker is a fellow of Columbia College, and students of this department, whether in residence there or not, will be cordially welcomed by him, and assigned such work as they may be willing or able to undertake.
East Side House.— This is a settlement of college men at the foot of East Seventy-sixth street. Three graduate students and fellows from Columbia College have been in residence there during the present year. Students will be offered the same privileges and opportunities as in the University Settlement Society.
PURPOSES OF THE COURSE.
It is believed that the combination of university instruction in sociology with the practical training in statistics and the field work in connection with the institutions of the city offers advantages to students of political economy and social science, such as can scarcely be found elsewhere. It is also believed that such study will be of the utmost value to future clergymen in training them for parish work in cities and factory towns ; to journalists as professional training ; to public men and ordinary citizens who may be called upon in the future to direct the philanthropic and reformatory work of society. Still further there is a growing demand for trained men as paid superintendents or secretaries of charity organization societies and similar institutions in this country. For men who desire to devote their lives to philanthropy no better preparation for such positions can be conceived of than that here described. The officers of the Charity Organization Society have constant applications for men to fill such places, but the supply of men with adequate training and knowledge is entirely inadequate.
It ís also believed that there will be a growing demand for scientific statisticians in this country. Not only is the statistical work at Washington developing in refinement and extent, but numerous states have established bureaus of labor statistics ; many cities have municipal bureaus of vital statistics; while boards of health and boards of trade and commerce are paying increasing attention to gathering statistical information. Sooner or later these places will be filled by men trained in political economy and sociology, and in the science and technique of statistics. Such trained men would be welcomed even now in the statistical bureaus at Washington. The instruction in the theory and methods of statistics, the work in the statistical laboratory and the field work in collecting social statistics offer opportunity for such training. This work can be supplemented then by the related courses in sociology, political economy, criminal law, mathematics, and medicine, offered by the university as the special position demands.
BRYN MAWR COLLEGE.
Before going to Columbia, Professor Giddings had already offered the following course at Bryn Mawr in 1890 :
Modern theories of sociology. The lectures on sociology are intended to accomplish three things: (I) to provoke thought on the question whether a philosophical science of society as an organic whole ís possible ; (2) to acquaint the student with what has already been done toward the construction of such a science ; (3) to apply sociological conceptions and methods to a few chosen sociological problems. Sociology was defined as the fundamental social science that explains the general characteristics and laws of social phenomena—in terms mainly of biological and psychological principles—and affords a common basis for the historical and political sciences. The development of sociological theories was reviewed historically and critically, and an outline of sociological principles was offered.
UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN.
FOUNDATION OF THE SCHOOLS OF POLITICAL SCIENCE.
In the University of Michigan the development process from the old order to the new was largely aided by the School of Political Science and the personal influence of Professor Charles Kendall Adams, the first dean of the new school. He appeared as the champion of the Michigan method of realizing the university idea, in a series of letters published in The Nation. A close study of the calendars of the university from 1881 to 1885, and of other official documents, will show that the historical department was foremost in the new movement; and yet the original impulses lay far back in the history of the university, as early as the régime of President Tappan and the opening of senior electives in the year 1856, when Watson took astronomy.
The study of political science was nothing new in Ann Arbor. The subject appears to have been taught by Professor Edward Thomson to the first class that ever graduated from the university. Political Grammar, Story on The Constitution, and Wayland's Political Economy are mentioned in the oldest catalogue (1843-44). The latter subject continued for thirty years in the department of intellectual and moral science. President Tappan (Є852-63) taught political economy, protesting that it should be joined with history rather than with philosophy. President Haven (Є863-69) taught it in the same old-time way, in connection with mental and moral science and the evidences of Christianity. This was still the situation when President Angell came into office in 1871 (after a presidential interregnum of two years, during which time Professor Frieze was ín charge of the university).
In his first annual report President Angell recommended " at an early day a professor to give instruction in political economy, political philosophy, and international law." He also said that "provision should be made by which every student should be able to take a generous course in the political sciences " (report for 1872, p. 16). So important did the president think these studies that he soon determined to take charge of them himself. His report for 1874 shows that he 'had conducted a senior elective in political economy for two hours a week, during the first semester, with forty-eight students; and during the second semester a similar elective in international law, with forty-six students. Both classes were taught by dictations and
(815) oral expositions, with questions at each meeting upon the topics presented at the previous lecture. In international law the aim was, "after tracing the growth of the laws which govern modern nations in their relations to each other, to expound and criticise the most important of those laws, and to illustrate them as far as practicable from the rich history of our own diplomatic intercourse with the world." The history of diplomacy and the law of nations have remained to this day the president's own specialty in the university course. His natural interest in the political sciences ; his engagement of Dr. Henry Carter Adams to teach political economy when he himself went abroad for two years upon a diplomatic mission to China, 1881-82; Michigan's zeal for political science, kindled by this very appointment; and the conspicuous example of Columbia College in opening a school of political science in 1880—all these tributary influences entered the historical drift toward a school of politics in 1881. In June of that year the board of regents voted to establish a school of political science within the faculty of literature, science, and the arts.
OPENING OF THE SCHOOL OF POLITICAL SCIENCE.
On October 3, 1881, the new School of Political Science was formally opened by an address on the " Relations of Political Science to National Prosperity," by the dean of the school, Professor Charles Kendall Adams. The address was published by the university, and is a vigorous plea for the encouragement of political science in the interest of good government and the general welfare of the people. The professor chose for his text a passage from Milton's tractate on Education, wherein the great publicist and poet calls "a complete and generous education that which fits a man to perform justly, skillfully, and magnanimously all the offices, both public and private, of peace and war." While urging, as educational groundwork, the ancient and modern languages, mathematics, and natural science, Milton adds : "The next removal must be to the study of politics ; to know the beginning, end, and reasons of political societies ; that they may not, in a dangerous fit of the commonwealth, be such poor, shaken, uncertain reeds, of such tottering conscience as many of our great counsellors have lately shown themselves, but steadfast pillars of the state." Professor Adams's address was a development of this pregnant thought. He showed the necessary dependence of popular government and institutions upon educated public opinion. He showed that the Puritan foundations of New England and the national endowment of the Northwestern Territory both established schools and supplied the means of education.
Reviewing the examples set by European states, he noted that the excellence of French and Italian administration, in recent years, was due to schools of political science. English politics have been shaped by the economists, by the student of Adam Smith, Ricardo, McCulloch, Caírnes, Thorold Rogers, and John Stuart Mill. The upbuilding of Prussia through the economic reforms of Baron von Stein was primarily due to the influence of the writings of Adam Smith, and to the economic teachings of Professor Kraus in the University of Königsberg. New Germany is the result of such beginnings. The present efficiency of German administration is acknowledged to be the product of university training and of special schools of political science. But are not American methods better than European ? Professor Adams then put a few searching questions : "Is it certain that our municipal governments are better than theirs ? Are our systems of taxation more equitably adjusted than theirs ? Do our public and private corporations have greater respect for the
(816) rights of the people than theirs ? Can we maintain that our legislatures are more free from corruption and bribery than theirs ? Was our financial management at the close of our war wiser than that of France at the close of hers ?"
Professor Adams then demonstrated the necessity of political education in our republic by reference to the three main branches of government, the judiciary, the legislature, and the executive. Admitting the excellence of our federal tribunal, and of the supreme courts of some of our states, our lower courts are, in many instances, a standing disgrace by reason of the ignorance and incompetence of judges, the frequent errors of judgment and delays of justice; "the cost of our judicial system is enhanced by the very means which have been taken to reduce it." In legislation our country has need of all the wisdom that we can command. "Questions in education, questions in finance, questions in sanitary science, questions as to the control of our penal and reformatory institutions, questions as to methods of administration, as to the government of cities, as to the proper restraints to be put upon our corporations ; in short, questions of every conceivable nature and of every conceivable difficulty demand consideration, and demand to be settled in the light of all the knowledge that can be gained from the experience of the world ; for we cannot shut our eyes to the fact that some of the very evils are beginning to appear that played such havoc with the republics of the Old World." Regarding the executive service of state and nation, the necessity of reform is acknowledged by both political parties. The question now is whether we shall grope our way blindly to good methods of civil service, or whether we shall study the experience of England and Germany, countries that long ago reformed their administration.
Besides the great branches of government, there are two other important fields of influential activity—the press and the platform. In molding public opinion newspapers are more powerful than all other agencies combined. How necessary it is that our journals should have, not merely reporters, but educated journalists, competent to grapple with economic questions and to interpret the politics of the world ! In this country there is more political speaking than in any other, on account of our frequent elections. What do our people want? "Not political cant, but political candor; not eloquent frivolity, but earnest discussion. If the history of the last twenty-five years in our country teaches anything, it is that there is much greater need of good leading than there is of good following."
Professor Adams then said it was for the purpose of aiding in these directions that a School of Political Science had been established in the University of Michigan. He proceeded to mark out the proposed course of instruction, and to define the relations of the new school to collegiate work, on the one hand, and to genuine university work, on the other. He said that no part of the course would range within " the disciplinary studies of the ordinary college curriculum." The university "has practically fixed the dividing line for its own students at the close of the second year." Here would begin the work of the School of Political Science, after the usually required work in the ancient and modern languages, in mathematics, and natural science. " We shall give to our students the largest liberties ; but we shall accompany those liberties with the responsibilities of a searching final examination. We shall endeavor to bring no reproach upon the school by giving its final degree to unworthy scholarship. In so far as we strive to imitate any we shall strive to follow in the methods and in the spirit of what we believe to be the best universities in the world."
COURSE OF INSTRUCTION AND PROGRESS OF THE SCHOOL.
The course of instruction provided for the School of Political Science was based, like the Columbia course, upon historical foundations. The courses already described in connection with the work of Professor Adams and Assistant Professor Hudson constituted not only the basis but a considerable portion of the superstructure of the political edifice. To these beginnings were added elementary and advanced courses in political economy, each a course of two hours a week, by Dr. Henry Carter Adams (Ph.D., Baltimore, 1878), who, in the autumn of 1880, began lecturing in the University of Michigan. President Angell contributed his lectures on international law, two hours a week for one semester, to the upbuilding process. A course of two hours for a half-year was given by Assistant Professor Vaughan on sanitary science. Judge Cooley introduced a law course on civil and political rights, three hours a week for parts of both semesters. Social science was represented, two hours a week for one semester, by Professor Dunster, and forestry, for one hour a week, second half-year, by Professor Spalding. This was the course of instruction offered in 1881-82. It is impossible to show a tabular view of the arrangement or succession of courses, for, within such limits as those stated in the historical department, the work was more like the elective system of a German university than like the prescribed system of the Columbia School of Political Science.
"Various courses in political and social sciences were at once offered, including political and constitutional history, international law, political economy, sanitary science, etc. The president reported for the year ending June 30, 1883, that fifteen undergraduates and three graduates were in attendance, and that the following courses of study were offered : political and constitutional history, twelve courses ; economic sciences, three courses ; social sanitary and educational sciences, three courses ; constitutional administration and international law, six courses. Excellent results were for some time obtained ; various interesting and valuable papers on historical and political subjects were written by the members of the school."
In the report of the dean of the Michigan school for 1882-83 may be found evidences of decided progress during the second year. Professor Adams says : "A grouping of the studies shows that there were twelve courses in history, eight courses in economic science, seven courses in social, sanitary, and educational science, and six courses in constitutional, administrative, and international law. Of these the following were given in 1882-83 for the first time : the course in the history of American finance, the course on public scientific surveys, the course on the economic development of mineral resources, the course on the historical development of educational systems and methods, the course on the government of cities, the course on the history of modern diplomacy, and the course on methods of local government ín Europe and America. The studies offered for the first time during the past year, as well as those previously provided for, were open not only to the registered members of the school, but also to all students of proper advancement in the academic department of the university. The classes were in all cases attended by encouraging numbers. Of the students of the school who were examined t the end of the year for degrees, six took the degree of master and one the degree of bachelor. Three of those who received the master's degree had not previously taken the degree of bachelor. Of these, two were examined at the end of the fourth year and one at the end
(818) of the fifth year in the university. A general survey of the work of the year would seem to encourage the belief that the school is doing a useful service. Of the twenty students who enrolled themselves in the school at the beginning of last year, nearly all carried forward their studies with an enthusiasm that is deserving of the highest praise."
The course on social science by Professor Dunster was as follows :
Social science. Lectures on the following topics: (τ) Introductory; the scope and purpose of social science, and its relations to socialism, so called, to sanitary science, and to political economy. (2) Historical, theoretical, and ideal systems ; Plato's Republic, Campanella's Civitas Solis, More's Utopia; practical efforts to establish social systems or communities: the Essenes, the Shakers, the Perfectionists of Oneida, the colonies of St. Simon, Robert Owen, Charles Fourier. (3) Poverty and prevention : causes of poverty; organized efforts for the relief of the worthy poor ; the problem of the tramp; almshouses and their superintendence. (4) The prevalence of crime and the means of diminishing and preventing ít: (a) the relation of crime to poverty, to vicious habits, and to hereditary influences ; (b) prostitution, its causes, prevalence, and dangers, and the means of preventing it; (c) care of children of the criminal and pauper classes : state schools for abandoned or neglected children ; the Michigan state school at Coldwater; (d) the punishment of crime : the object of punishment, prison labor, treatment of criminals after release. (5) Practical questions in social science : (a) the care of the insane and the management of asylums : the cottage system ; the associated or central system; qualifications of superintendents and assistants ; (6) the care and training of the feeble-minded ; (c) the care and training of the blind. (6) Economic problems : (a) conservation of life : the prevalence and increasing frequency of suicide ; means of preventing suicide ; (b) conservation of property ; (c) conservation of food : game laws, pisciculture. Thirty-six hours.
UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA.
THE WHARTON SCHOOL OF FINANCE AND ECONOMY.
In the inaugural address of Provost William Pepper, February 22, 1881, it was announced that a School of Finance and Economy in the University of Pennsylvania had been projected by Mr. Joseph Wharton, of Philadelphia. At the meeting of the board of trustees, March 1, 1881, Mr. Wharton's plan for such a school was formally accepted, subject to conditions named by the founder of the school. He is a native Philadelphian of large wealth and general culture, and an active, successful manufacturer, interested in public affairs. His views on subjects of importance in economic science are known by several monographs. Feeling dissatisfied with the results of the instruction in practical affairs given in American colleges, his first thought was to establish a chair of political economy. This idea was elaborated by him in the School of Finance and Economy. Mr. Wharton's project declares that the School of Finance and Economy should bear a family name honorable since the foundation of the city of Philadelphia, and the purpose of the school is " to provide for young men special means of training and of accurate instruction in the knowledge and in the arts of modern finance and economy, both public and private, in order that, being well-informed and free from delusions upon these important subjects, they may either serve
(819) the community skilfully as well as faithfully in offices of trust, or, remaining in private life, may prudently manage their own affairs, and aid in maintaining sound financial morality—in short, to establish means for imparting a liberal education in all matters concerning finance and economy."
In the organization of the school provision is made for instruction in accounting or bookkeeping in all its varied forms for private individuals and commercial and banking firms, manufacturing establishments and banks ; also in the modes of keeping accounts by executors, trustees, and assignees, by the officials of towns and cities, and by the several departments of the state or general government. The meaning, history, and functions of money and currency were to be taught, "showing particularly the necessity of permanent uniformity or integrity in the coin unit upon which the money system of the nation is based; how an essential attribute of money is that it should be hard to get; the nature of, and the reasons for, interest or hire of money and rents ; the advantages of an adequate precious-metal fund for settling international balances, as well as for regulating and checking by redemption the paper money and credits of a modern commercial nation ; how such metallic hoards are amassed and defended; the extent to which paper money may be advantageously employed ; the distinction between bank notes and government notes ; the uses and abuses of credit, both private and public ; the uses and abuses of bills of exchange, letters of credit, and promissory notes; the history of banking, and particularly of government banks; the advantages and dangers of banks of issue, banks of deposit, and savings banks ; how the functions of different sorts of banks may be combined in one, and how any of them may be banks of discount ; the functions of clearing-houses; the phenomena and causes of panics and money crises; the nature of pawn establishments and of lotteries, and the nature of stocks and bonds, with the ordinary modes of dealing therein."
The history and practice of modern taxation, as distinguished from the plunder, tribute, or personal service which it for the most part replaces, is a subject for study, including "the proper objects and rates of taxation for municipal, state, or national purposes ; the public ends for which money may be properly raised by taxation ; the nature of direct and indirect taxation, of excise, of customs or import duties, of export duties, of stamps, of income tax ; the modern methods by which taxes are usually levied ; the influence exercised upon the morality and prosperity of a community or nation by the various modes and extents of taxation ; the effects upon taxation of wars and of standing armies ; the extent to which corporations should be encouraged by the state, and to what extent they should be taxed, as compared with individuals engaged in similar pursuits."
It should be the duty of a professor to "teach how industries advance in excellence, or decline and shift from place to place ; how by intelligent industry nations or communities thrive; how by superior skill and diligence some nations grow rich and powerful, and how by idleness or ill-directed industry others become rude and poor ; how a great nation should be, as far as possible, self-sufficient, maintaining a proper balance between agriculture, mining, and manufactures, and supplying its own wants ; how mutual advantage results from the reciprocal exchange of commodities natural to one land for the diverse commodities natural to another; also the nature and origin of money wages ; the necessity for modern industry of organizing under single leaders and employers great amounts of capital and great numbers of laborers, and of maintaining discipline among the latter; the proper division of the fruits of organ-
(820) ized labor between capitalist, leader, and workman ; the nature and prevention of strikes;' the importance of educating men to combine their energies for the accomplishment of any desirable object, and the principles upon which such combinations should be effected."
A professor or instructor upon elementary and mercantile law should teach the constitutions of the United States and of Pennsylvania ; the principal features of United States law concerning mercantile affairs, partnerships, and corporations ; of so-called international laws; of the law of common carriers; the nature and operation of fire, marine, and life insurance ; the principal features of state law concerning inheritance, conveyance of land titles, mortgages, and liens—in brief, the history and present status of commercial legislation, and the directions in which improvements may be hoped and striven for, particularly as to harmonizing or unifying under United States laws the diverse legislation of the several states of this nation ; the manner of conducting stockholders' and directors' meetings, as well as public meetings ; the rules governing parliamentary assemblies, the routine and forms of legislative bodies.
" Elocution should be taught and practiced to the extent of habituating the students to clear, forcible, and unembarrassed utterance before an audience of whatever they may have to say, not in such a manner as to promote mere rhetoric or prettiness. Athletic exercises within moderate limits should be encouraged, as tending to vigor and self-reliance. Latin, German, and French, and sound general knowledge of mathematics, geography, history, and other branches of an ordinary good education, must be acquired by the students ; but these points are not here dwelt upon because it is desired to direct attention to the peculiar features of the school.
"This sketch of the instruction to be given in the school is not to be regarded as precisely defining, much less as limiting, that which shall be there undertaken and carried on, but rather as indicating its general scope and tendency, the true intent and meaning being that instruction shall be carefully provided for and regularly given in this school at least as full and thorough as is above set forth, and substantially as there stated. All the teaching must be clear, sharp, and didactic ; not uncertain nor languid. The students must be taught and drilled, not lectured to without care whether or not attention is paid; any lazy or incompetent student must be dismissed.
"Though the special curriculum should probably at first be arranged to occupy three years, as has been suggested above, this term might hereafter be extended, or post-graduate instruction introduced, if experience should so dictate. The dean and professors or instructors are to constitute the faculty of the school, and are to administer its discipline, as is done by the dean and faculty of the other departments of the university, subject to such general rules as shall from time to time be established for the university by the board of trustees.
"The general tendency of instruction should be such as to inculcate and impress upon the students : (a) The immorality and practical inexpediency of seeking to acquire wealth by winning it from another rather than by earning it through some sort of service to one's fellow-men. (b) The necessity of system and accuracy in accounts, of thoroughness in whatever is undertaken, and of strict fidelity in trusts. (c) Caution in contracting private debt directly or by indorsement, and in incurring obligation of any kind ; punctuality in payment of debt and in performance of engagements. Abhorrence of repudiation of debt or inconsiderate incurring of public debts. (d) The deep comfort and healthfulness of pecuniary independence, whether
(821) the scale of affairs be small or great. The consequent necessity of careful scrutiny of income and outgo, whether private or public, and of such management as will cause the first to exceed, even but slightly, the second. In national affairs this applies not only to the public treasury, but also to the mass of the nation, as shown by the balance of trade. (e) The necessity of rigorously punishing by legal penalties and by social exclusion those persons who commit frauds, betray trusts, or steal public funds, directly or indirectly. The fatal consequences to a community of any weak toleration of such offenses must be most distinctly pointed out and enforced. (f) The fundamental fact that the United States is a nation, composed of populations wedded together for life, with full power to enforce internal obedience, and not a loose bundle of incoherent communities living together temporarily without other bond than the humor of the moment.
"Each student intending to graduate should prepare an original thesis upon some topic germane to the instruction of the school, such as the great currents of the world's exchanges, past and present ; the existing revenue system of Great Britain, France, Mexico, Japan, or some other modern nation ; the revenue system, at some definite period, of Athens, Rome, Venice, or other ancient or mediaeval nation ; the relative advantages of monometallic and of bimetallic money; the Latin monetary union ; the land-credit banks of Germany; life insurance, tontines, annuities, and endowments ; reciprocity and commercial treaties; the nature of French sociétés générales, anonymes, and en commandité; the banking system, past and present, of some specified nation ; the advantages and disadvantages of attempts of employers to provide for the wants of their workmen beyond payment of stipulated wages.
"In style the thesis should be lucid, terse, and sincere, showing mastery of the subject, with appropriate and logical arrangement of parts, leading up to definite statement of conclusions reached. The chirography must be neat and legible. For the best thesis, and also for the best general proficiency in the studies taught in the school, should be given annually a gold medal weighing about one ounce, to be called, respectively, `Founder's Thesis Medal' and `Founder's Proficiency Medal,' the same to be awarded by the dean and professors or instructor in council.
" This school is intended to form an integral part of the University of Pennsylvania, its dean and professors or instructors to be appointed by the trustees of that university, its functions to be exercised under the general oversight of the provost and trustee, and its specific course of instruction to be determined by them ; its diplomas to be countersigned by him ; its funds, however, to be kept absolutely distinct from those of the university, and to be kept separately invested by the trustees of the university, in the name of this school, to be applied only to its own uses, and not encroached upon in any manner for any debt, engagement, need, or purpose of the university.
" Since this school will require no house accommodation except for class-rooms, the use of which it is expected the university will freely grant, none of its funds must be expended in building or for paying rent. An endowment capable of yielding $6,000 per annum would seem to be necessary and adequate. Forty students, if at $150 per annum each, would contribute a similar sum.
"From this revenue of $12,000 per annum, the dean might be paid $3,000, and each of the professors or instructors $1,500 per annum, thus consuming $10,500 and leaving $1,500 per annum from which to accumulate gradually a safety fund equal to at least one's year's expenses, also to buy books and to pay for premiums and for
(822) publication of treatises. The interest of this safety fund might properly be applied to pay to the treasury of the school for the tuition of those admitted to free scholarship, the number of which would thus be limited by the amount of such interest ; but, besides the other requisites for admission, sound physical health and high probability of life must be indispensable conditions for the enjoyment of a free scholarship.
"Before so many as forty students are in attendance the number of instructors maybe reduced by running the subjects together. When more than forty attend, the instruction may be expanded, the salaries advanced, or the safety fund increased as the trustees may think most expedient. During the first years, before all the classes are under tuition, the instruction will naturally be condensed, fewer professors or instructors, perhaps, be required, and the safety fund thus have opportunity for accumulation. It is not expected that the university shall consume its own means for the support of the school, further than to provide class-rooms.
"The school must exemplify its teachings by always keeping its expenses surely within its income, except that in emergencies it may consume any part of the principal of the safety fund, the same to be afterward replaced as soon as practicable."
In 1883 a faculty was gathered which began the administration of the school as closely as possible according to the plan of its founder. Albert S. Bolles, Ph.D., widely known in financial circles and as an author of numerous books on law, banking, and finance, was chosen professor of mercantile law on February 6, 1883. He was instrumental in the creation of two new professorships in the university: that of American history, soon after filled by the election of John Bach McMaster, and that of finance and administration, filled by the election of Dr. Edmund J. James; and it was in the Wharton School of Finance and Economy that for the first time in this country the subject of American history was made of sufficient importance to fully occupy the time of a professor. When the School of American History and Institutions was founded ten years later, Professor McMaster was transferred from the Wharton school to that department
The election of Professor James proved of the highest importance to the school and to the university. Professor James is identified with the best educational movements in the country, and has been able to concentrate at the University of Pennsylvania the co-operative labors of many men and of many minds in the interests of sound learning. Largely through his efforts the Wharton School was transformed from a project on paper to a living educational power. As an instance of this it should be recorded that Professor James as founder of the American Academy of Political and Social Science has created an academic body, with a membership throughout the United States and in Europe, interested in all subjects pertaining to finance and political economy; and, although this academy is wholly distinct from the Wharton School, yet the ideas which are sought to be examined in the Wharton School and by the academy are the same. It may be said, therefore, that the American Academy of Political and Social Science is a product of the Wharton School at the hands of one of the eminent members of its faculty.
It should also be said that the Wharton School faculty has been in sympathy and close touch with the American Society for the Extension of University Teaching, and that society has been able to reach the community in and about Philadelphia and at distant points by means of well-organized courses of lectures in social science, in American and European history, in literature, in the natural sciences, and in political economy. The lecturers in social and political science and in American and European history
(823) have been, with few exceptions, identified with the work of the Wharton School ; its faculty and fellows have provided instruction in these subjects for the university extension centers affiliated with the American Society for the Extension of University Training.
This is not the whole influence of the school; it has increased in membership and has attracted a class of students of a high order of intellect, in the university and from other colleges and institutions, and its graduates have met with uniform success upon their entrance into the world of business or upon professional life. Therefore the Wharton School means an education for such a country as ours. It conforms soundly with the best notions formulated by Franklin, and is in accord with the wants of our time. That the Wharton School was a creation in due time is suggested by the founding of two schools of political and social science contemporaneously with it. The Columbia School of Political and Social Science was opened October 4, 1880, and the School of Political and Social Science of the University of Michigan was opened a year later.
Sociology in the Wharton School was represented by Professor Thompson, who treated various phases of social economics. His work antedates the Wharton School, as his first instruction was given in 1874, but the attention given to sociology largely increased with the development of the school. In 1888 Professor Falkner began to give some attention to social statistics. Professor Patten developed the social philosophy of economics. In 1893 Mr. Ward gave a course of lectures on dynamic sociology, and the following year Mr. Lindsay took charge of the distinctively sociological work.
HARVARD DIVINITY SCHOOL, 1879-1880.
In the president's report for 1880 is the following paragraph
"A subject was last year, I believe for the first time, introduced into the instruction of the school, which, it is to be hoped, may hereafter fill a much larger place. I refer to the subject of charities and reforms, which Rev. G. A. Gordan, of Milwaukee, presented in eight lectures. Mr. Gordan, both by study and experience, wаs fitted for the work. The theme is one which no minister can afford to neglect. The minister should be a leader, or at least an intelligent worker, in the great movements for the amelioration of society ; and it is very fitting that a divinity school should give special preparation for this branch of a minister's work."
Some attention was given to social reform and social ethics by Professor Peabody as early as ' 880, ín his course on practical ethics. In 1883-84 the course was changed to ethical theories and social progress, and systematic work was given. He says "I was led to the subject by a somewhat different path from most of those who deal with it. As a teacher of ethics I became aware of the chasm that exists between such abstract study and the practical application of moral ideals ; and it seemed to me possible to approach the theory of ethics inductively, through the analysis of great moral movements, which could be easily characterized and from which principles could be deduced. I studied thus with my class the problems of charity, divorce, the Indians, the labor question, intemperance, with results of surprising interest. My class, under the elective system, grew from ten to fifty, and was made up from five departments of the university. There is in this department a new opportunity in university instruction. It summons the young men who have been imbued with the principles of
(824) political economy and of philosophy to the practical application of these studies. It ought to do what a college work rarely does—bring a young man's studies near to the problems of an American life. (Sanborn's report on "The Social Sciences," Journal of Social Science, No. 21, p. 7.)
In his report as dean of the Divinity School (1885) he says, concerning the recognition as a part of training for the ministry of the study of social reforms : "The modern minister has a new demand made upon him in this direction. He is expected to be the adviser of his community in its charities, its temperance work, and its varied social problems. Here seems to be a great opportunity for which the profession has not prepared itself. No theological school in this country, and, indeed, no college or university, has fully accepted as a part of its duty the instruction in such problems. Of the theological schools in this country, Harvard appears to be the only one which has undertaken systematic instruction of this kind."
Soon the title of the course was changed to " the practical ethics of social reform," later to the "ethics of the social question," but the interest aroused has always made it the most popular course in Harvard.
COLBY UNIVERSITY, 1890.
Sociology. Development of modern philosophies of society : Comte, Schäffle, Spencer, Lieber, Lotze, Ward. Sixty hours. President Small.
President Small approached the subject from the standpoint of the philosophy of history. The syllabus of this course of lectures is so well known that no explanation is needed. Mr. Ward's influence is noticeable. Professor Small has developed the study from this small beginning until, as head of the department of sociology at the University of Chicago, he offers the most complete and well-differentiated series of courses to be found in America.
At Williams College Professor Perry treated social science in connection with political economy as early as 1865.
At Bowdoin College, the department of history and political science was established in 1890-91. The second term (senior year, elective) is given to the history of social institutions, including prehistoric sociology and anthropology, and the third term to contemporary and applied sociology, embracing the problems of criminology, pauperism, city aggregation, and kindred topics. David C. Wells.
At the University of Indiana, Professor Jenks offered courses in 1889 on introduction to sociology, and social problems.
In 1891-92 Professor Ross offered courses on anthropology and statical sociology and dynamic sociology and social problems. The influence of Ward was very pronounced.
At Trinity College, Christian sociology and social statistics were introduced in 1888-89, 1891-92. Professor J. F. Crowell.
At Tulane University, in 1888-89, President Gibson lectured on political science and history of civilization. Spencer's Sociology studied.
At Wellesley College, Mary E. Roberts taught sociology from 1886 to 1890, in connection with political science. In 1887 the following courses were given : lectures on primitive societies; growth of states; forms of government; development of
(825) constitutional government ; relation of government to sociology. Political and social institutions ; discussion of important questions in social science.
At Western Reserve University, in 1891, Professor Curtis, of the department of philosophy, offered courses in sociology. In 1894 the department of political and social science was established.
SOCIOLOGY IN THEOLOGICAL SEMINARIES.
From Professor Graham Taylor's report at the World's Fair Congress of Charities, Correction, and Philanthropy, section on sociology in institutions of learning, I abstract the following statement :
The most diligent inquiry discovers scarcely any trace of attention to sociological topics in theological institutions prior to 1880. After that date the work of regular instructors is found to be supplemented with increasing frequency by single lectures on social problems, on special occasions by volunteer representatives of reformatory and philanthropic movements. Then follow lecture courses by appointed lecturers, some of them upon the established financial foundations which had previously provided more strictly theological instruction, others being furnished by special funds for this purpose. Elective courses were offered at Andover in 1887 on social economics, and at Yale in 1892 on Christian social ethics.
The introduction of sociology into the prescribed course was announced first by Hartford Theological Seminary in 1888. The establishment of the sociological department was initiated by the Chicago Theological Seminary in 1890.
At Andover, in 1884, Rev. S. W. Dike gave six lectures on the family With special reference to social problems. The subject was treated from the moralist's point of view, with some reference to doctrinal theology.
At the same congress Professor Warner reported on Philanthropology in Educational Institutions. He says :
There was prepared under my direction at the Bureau of Education at Washington a statement of all courses of this kind so offered. The statement shows that З48 institutions gave some attention to studies that would have been included in the inquiry made by the American Social Science Association, in 1886. At the present time, 1893, about a dozen colleges and universities give more or less attention to philanthropology.
At Yale not very much has been done, but Professor Farnam has undertaken work with the Organized Charities Association.
At the University of Pennsylvania, Professor Falkner has given some instruction on the statistics of prisoners.
At Johns Hopkins, lecture courses were first given in phílanthropology in 1887, and either lectures in courses or single addresses by workers in charity have been given from that time to this.
In Knox College, President Finley gives lectures, and Mr. Wines has also spoken there.
At the University of Kansas, Professor Blackmar has given rather elaborate courses, and the students are encouraged to make special reports on institutions in the vicinity.
At the University of Nebraska, a term's work was given during the years 188990, with class excursions to institutions.
At the University of Wisconsin, Dr. Scott has directed a two-hours' course on the problems of dependency and delinquency. This was supplemented by two lecture courses, of ten lectures each, by Mr. Wines and Dr. Warner.-
At Brown University, Professor Wilson has courses that bear upon philanthropology, and one on modern social problems. Professor Packard gives courses on anthropology and primitive society.
At the University of Iowa, Professor Patrick gives a course on charities and corrections, which was offered for the first time last year, but for several years instruction on this subject has been given in connection with the work in practical ethics.
At the University of-Minnesota, Rev. S. G. Smith, D.D., of the State Board of Charities and Corrections, lectures.
At Leland Stanford Junior University, lectures have been given during the past year on pauperism as a phase of natural selection in modern industry. Next year Professors Ross and Warner offer courses.
Besides these, there should be mentioned the work of Professor Peabody at Harvard, Professor Giddings at Columbia, Professor Commons at Oberlin, and later at the University of Indiana, and the work of Professors Henderson and Small at the University of Chicago.
The progress from 1889 to 1894 is summarized by Mr. Folkmar in his report of that year.
The number of courses in sociology proper has been quadrupled in the last five years. The institutions then teaching sociology were Yale, Williams, Cornell, Trinity, Tulane, and the University of Pennsylvania. Within the year just past the instruction has perhaps doubled, while as regards the immediate future, at least seven institutions have written me that they are planning to introduce the study soon.
The progress since 1894 ís shown in the following table
CHANGES AND DEVELOPMENTS IN TEACHING SOCIOLOGY SINCE 1894.
University of Alabama: Instruction introduced in 1898.
Ouachita College : First instruction in 1901. Hendrix College : First instruction in 1898.
Leland Stanford Junior University: Reorganization of department. "The chair of pure sociology probably indefinitely vacant ; the instructor in practical sociology, i. e., charities, corrections, race problems, and sociology of family, absent on leave this year; no substitute appointed."
University of Colorado : All courses added within the last three years. University of Denver : Additional courses in history and economics.
John B. Stetson : All courses date from 1900. Illinois.
Illinois Wesleyan: "Three new courses have been added, and a seminarium established."
Carthage College: "More actual investigation and research."
University of Chicago : Pronounced but normal growth on all sides. Development of genetic sociology. Rapid growth in extension work. Development of a tendency to develop first-hand methods of investigation, rather than trust to mere social theory.
Butler College : All courses added since 1894.
Iowa College : " Gradual differentiation in the department between ` Herronism' and a more scientific study. Final conflict in 1899-1900. This year progress toward creditable collegiate work. The exact title of the department is 'E. D. Rand Department of Applied Christianity.' There is a strong sentiment in favor of changing to `Department of Sociology,' and it will probably be done at the next meeting of the board of trustees, unless legal objection exist. One instructor is thought sufficient for that line of work in the college. Revenue is sufficient to give better equipment room. Outlook hopeful."
State University of Iowa : " The courses of study have all been introduced since 1894, except the courses in charities and correction, municipal government (from the sociological standpoint), and social movements. The last was given as part of a general course in political economy."
Cornell College : " One term of sociology has been introduced into course. When college has a larger income, work in sociology will be extended."
University of Kansas: "In 1894 two courses: (1) principles, (2) social pathology; 1901: (1) principles, (2) social pathology, (3) socialization and social control, (4) social statistics, (5) anthropology, (б) ethnology; graduate courses in criminology, American charities, social theories, and ethnology."
Center College of Kentucky: Work in sociology first introduced in 1897-98. Since maintained with growing interest.
Tulane University: An associate professor of sociology provided for by the board in 1901.
Harvard University: No report. The changes in the faculty in 1901 seem to indicate that theoretical sociology is not viewed with particular favor.
University of Michigan : "An instructor in sociology was appointed in 1895 raised to assistant professor in 1899. The work shown in the clippings has all been introduced since 1894."
Kalamazoo College : " Sociology has been introduced since 1894 ; no changes since its introduction."
University of Minnesota : " Then one course for ten weeks to seniors ; now three courses for first semester to juniors or seniors. Sociology now with political science department. To be made independent (and increased)."
Carleton College : " Course in sociology introduced, and in addition to the course in social ethics."
University of Missouri : "Previous to 1900 the only instruction in sociology in the University of Missouri was incidental to the work given in the departments of history and political economy. There were no separate courses in sociology offered. The chair of sociology was established in the spring of 1900, largely through the influence of the state board of charities. The department began its work in the fall of 1900 with thirty students. This number increased to fifty-five before the end of the year. It is expected that at least seventy-five will register for work in sociology during the session of 1901–2."
Missouri Valley College : "I think there was no course in sociology in Missouri Valley College until 1895-96. The change is chiefly in the increased realization that several departments of work are to be looked upon as furnishing subject-matter for the sociologist, and knowledge of social relations."
University of Nebraska: "No sociology offered in 1893-94 or 1894-95. Formerly one instructor. Professor just added (January, 1901) [Professor Ross]. $250 worth of books in sociology just added to university library." Professor Ross is reported to be building his department into one of the strongest in the West.
Dartmouth: "A departure from the mere theoretical and general to the specific and concrete, taking more in (s) ethnology and comparative institutions; (2) social statistics and social economics ; (3) social psychology."
Adelphi College : " Sociology introduced in 1900 as separate subject." Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn: "At that time  sociology was not taught."
Alfred University: "Subject has been put into the college and made an elective. I think the subject will gradually be developed at Alfred, though only an introductory course is now offered."
Cornell University: Reorganization of department. Professor Wilcox writes as follows: "Cornell University has no department of sociology. According to a change made the last summer by the board of trustees, the title of my chair, which was `social science and statistics,' has been changed to `political economy and statistics.' We have now three full professorships : one in political economy and politics, one in political economy and statistics, and one in political economy and finance. There is no instructor in the university who gives his main attention to sociology. I retain a course formerly offered under the title of 'elementary social science,' but change the title to `elementary social economics.' To enter this course no other work
(829) in the general field of the social sciences is required, although students are advised to take the introductory political economy before electing that course. Since I began teaching social science in Cornell University in 1892 I have gradually come to increase the emphasis upon the statistical method as on the whole the most fruitful with which to investigate social life. I have given each year a course in social statistics, treating statistics as a method of social study, and next year shall offer also a course in advanced statistics. In this course the emphasis has been laid upon census statistics and vital statistics, since the statistical method in those fields is the simplest and has achieved its most important results. This branch of social study will be emphasized still more in the future, but as a result of the changes previously mentioned the economic aspects of statistics are likely to receive greater attention."
Columbia: No report. If one may judge by the recent published work of Professor Giddings, the recent developments there consist largely in developing an inductive sociology. In this attempt much emphasis is placed on the statistical method and on actual first-hand analysis—on field work. Psychological analysis is also becoming more defined and fruitful in its applications to social conditions.
Union University: "No sociology taught in Union College prior to 1894. Since that date a library has been created, a department of history and sociology created, and an assistant professor of the subject appointed. A special department of `sociology' is contemplated—upon an endowed foundation. No doubt elective courses will be offered. A course in `criminology' will probably be given before the law department of the Union University."
Syracuse University: "To an instructorship in economics a chair in sociology has been added."
University of North Dakota: "The subject has been introduced since 1894."
Buchtel College: "No work in sociology before 1897 in our school." Cedarville College : Sociology introduced in 1895.
Western Reserve University: "The greater part of our sociological work is done upon the basis and from the standpoint of anthropology. Since 1894 this procedure has been more elaborated, and two new courses have been introduced, one on `social psychology' and one on 'primitive religions."
Ohio State University: More scientific. "Point of view better established."
Ohio Wesleyan: "Before 1894 there was nothing done in this line. Since then, especially within last three years, increasing attention has been given, and plans for more."
Hiram College : Introduced since 1894.
Wilmington College: Three-months' course added.
Dickinson College: "Department of sociology and economics established in 1900."
Ursinus College: "The college cannot afford to add to its faculty at present. Should the opportunity offer, sociology will undoubtedly be included in curriculum."
Central Pennsylvania College : "About 1894 we began to use a text-book in sociology. Now the subject is projected into other branches, as above, and supplemented with lectures."
University of Pennsylvania: "The number of courses in sociology has more than doubled since 1894."
Susquehanna University: "Practical sociology (Wright's) was introduced last year in senior college class. In theological department Fairbank's Introduction to Sociology, and Wright's Practical, are used in middle year."
Brown University: Work has almost doubled. South Carolina.
Erskine College : "It may be sufficient to say in general that there is no distinct department of sociology in this college. Considerable attention is given to the subject in departments of political economy and history. There is a growing feeling of its importance in education, and the question of devoting more time and attention to it is under consideration, but we have not reached any well-defined plan as yet. In the theological department sociological principles and problems are carefully considered by the instructor in pastoral theology."
Newberry College : Introduced since 1894.
Cumberland University: " Our library has been largely increased with works on sociology, and much greater reference work will be done in the future on this subject."
Roger Williams University: "The formal study of the subject begun 1900-1901."
Hampden-Sidney College: "For session of 1899-1900 Small and Vincent's Elements was used as text, which was supplemented by Wright's Practical Sociology the present session. The senior class, numbering twenty, was engaged in the study."
University of Utah: "All systematic work in sociology has been started since 1 894."
Beloit College: "Addition of course in sociology (one half-year)."
Ripon College : " President Flagg has given an elective of one term in sociology. I do not know just what has been the character of the work. President Flagg has now resigned and has no further active connection with the college. It is probable that sociology will be dropped."
COLLEGES FOR WOMEN.
Mount Holyoke : " One course introduced 1898."
Wells College : "No radical change; change mainly in arranging for more hours of class-room work, and consequently more thorough and systematic study. Present instructor assumed duties only last college year."
Randolph Macon Woman's College: Not taught in 1894.
Oxford College : "The study of sociology was introduced into Oxford College in the year 1899-1900."
SCHOOLS OF THEOLOGY.
Pacific Theology Seminary: " In 1894 we introduced sociology by a course of sixteen lectures and sixteen seminar exercises, taught by a pupil of Dr. A. G. Warner's, Rev. C. K. Jenness. The next year we established two courses of text-book recitations, in all sixty hours, devoted mainly to charities, but covering at one time a course in general sociology (F. H. Giddings's Principles). We suspended our courses in 1899 on coming into closer relations with the University of California, and hope to spur them up to an enlargement of their courses."
Hartford Theological Seminary: "A senior elective in charities and criminology, The department in which sociology is taught is the practical department, chair of practical theology and Christian sociology."
Bangor Theological Seminary: "In the course above indicated nothing further than to keep up to date. In addition we have also had the assistance of Professor Callender, of Bowdoin College, who has given this spring a course of twenty lessons in economics and finance. This course has been attended by all classes (required)."
Auburn Theological Seminary: "Development of the elective work in the family, the social aspects of labor, paupers and prisoners. Personal investigations."
St. Lawrence University —theological department : "All we have has been introduced since. Constantly more attention given to sociology."
Union Biblical Seminary: Work introduced since 1894.
Theological Seminary of Virginia : " It was not taught here till my course in 1898. I hope to increase our work in this special field by having students write essays on social themes. I use such as subjects of debate in their societies."
To be continued