2014-2015 Undergraduate Calendar

Earth Sciences  
Chair Francine McCarthy Professors Uwe Brand, Richard J. Cheel, Frank Fueten, Martin J. Head, Francine McCarthy, John Menzies Associate Professors Gregory C. Finn, Daniel McCarthy Assistant Professors Nigel Blamey, Mariek E. Schmidt Adjunct Professors Paul Budkewitsch, Dale Hess, Andy Panko Senior Lab Co-ordinator Astride Silis Director, Co-operative Programs Cindy Dunne Undergraduate Program Adviser Martin J. Head  
General Information Go to top of document
Administrative Assistant Diane Gadoury 905-688-5550, extension 3526 Mackenzie Chown D431 brocku.ca/earthsciences The field of earth sciences is central in solving current problems such as waste disposal, pollution, groundwater management, volcano and earthquake hazards. It is also vital in the exploration and utilization of natural resources such as oil and gas, minerals and aggregates. A very important area of research in the earth sciences aims to determine how the planet has evolved from its origin 4.6 billion years ago to the present. Earth's rocks and sediment provide a long record of global change in response to a variety of stimuli. Many earth scientists are involved in the unravelling of this record of global change and in predicting future changes to the planet. The Department of Earth Sciences offers programs dedicated to graduating high-quality geoscientists proceeding toward registration as a Professional Geoscientist (PGeo). The Department offers other options for those interested in Earth Sciences, but not intending to become Professional Geoscientists. The Department of Earth Sciences offers four-year programs of study leading to a BSc Honours in Earth Sciences, BSc Honours in Environmental Geoscience, a BSc with Major in Earth Sciences, a BSc with Major in Environmental Geoscience and a BSc Pass degree program. In addition, five-year Co-op programs leading to a BSc Honours degree in Earth Sciences or Environmental Geoscience are available. The four-year BSc Honours and BSc with Major programs consist of a set of core courses in year 1, year 2 and part of year 3. During year 3, students choose from elective courses to specialize in a curriculum reflecting their personal interests. Students normally enter directly into the BSc Honours program and are required to maintain at least second-class honours standing. Students not meeting this requirement may continue in one of the BSc with Major programs. The requirement for graduation with an Earth Sciences (Honours) degree is a minimum 70 percent major average and a minimum 60 percent non-major average. The requirements for a BSc with Major and a BSc (pass) are a minimum 60 percent major average and a minimum 60 percent overall average. The Department has teaching and research laboratories which include such facilities as recirculating sediment flume, dendrochronology laboratory, glacial micromorphology laboratory, palynology laboratory, vitrinite reflectance workstation, cathodoluminescence microscopic analysis, atomic absorption spectrometry, petrographic image analysis equipment, digitizer, water quality analysis equipment, fluorometric analysis and stable isotope preparation. These are supported by rock specimen preparation and drafting facilities, a cold room, core storage facilities and Departmental collections. Departmental as well as University computing facilities are available. SEM and ICPMS facilities are also available within the Faculty of Mathematics and Science. The Department shares the facilities of electronic, woodworking and glass blowing shops with other departments.  
Co-op Program Go to top of document
The Earth Sciences and Environmental Geoscience Co-op programs combine academic and work terms over a five year period. Students spend two years in an academic setting, where they acquire the necessary background prior to taking the first work placement. Successful completion of courses in the core areas of earth sciences provides the necessary academic background for the work experience. In addition to the current fees for courses in academic study terms, Earth Sciences and Environmental Geoscience Co-op students are assessed an annual administrative fee (see the Schedule of Fees). Eligibility to continue in the Co-op program is based on the student's major average and non-major average. A student with a minimum 70 percent major average and a minimum 60 percent non-major average will be permitted to continue. A student with a major average lower than 70 percent will not be permitted to continue in the Earth Sciences or Environmental Geoscience Co-op program, but may continue in the Earth Sciences and Environmental Geoscience non Co-op program. For further information, see the Co-op programs section of the Calendar and contact the Department of Earth Sciences. All students in the Co-operative Education program are required to read, sign and adhere to the terms of the Student Regulations Waiver and Co-op Student Handbook (brocku.ca/co-op/current-students/co-op-student-handbooks) as articulated by the Co-op Programs Office. In addition, eligibility to continue in the co-op option is based on the student's major average and non-major average, and the ability to demonstrate the motivation and potential to pursue a professional career. Each four-month co-operative education work term must be registered. Once students are registered in a co-op work term, they are expected to fulfill their commitment. If the placement accepted is for more than one four-month work term, students are committed to complete all terms. Students may not withdraw from or terminate a work term without permission from the Director, Co-op Program Office. The Earth Sciences and Environmental Geoscience Co-op program designation will be awarded to those students who have successfully completed a minimum of twelve months of Co-op work experience.  
Association of Professional Geoscientists of Ontario Go to top of document
Graduates of any of the 20 credit single major programs offered by the Department of Earth Sciences may qualify to be registered as a practising member of the Association of Professional Geoscientists of Ontario (APGO), and be entitled to practise geoscience or environmental geoscience and use the title of Professional Geoscientist (P.Geo.) in Ontario in accordance with the "Professional Geoscientist Act, 2000". This accreditation may be transferable to other provincial and state jurisdictions in North America. Students wishing to apply for geoscientist-in-training (GIT) status may want to contact or consult the APGO website at apgo.net.  
Field Trips Go to top of document
Field trips form an integral component of training in the earth sciences and are offered in all years of study, linked to specific courses. Field trips may take place during the lab period or involve a time period beyond the lab, over a single day or weekend trips. To offset transportation costs the Department has instituted a Field Trip Levy for all courses with multiple field trips. In addition, on single day or weekend trips, students are expected to cover costs of accommodation and food. Field trip costs, where applicable, are in addition to the regular tuition fees associated with the course.  
Program Notes Go to top of document
1.  May be replaced with an elective credit. Students who do not complete 1.0 PHYS credit will not fulfill the requirements of the APGO.  
2.  The unspecified science elective credit is to be taken from APCO, BIOL, CHEM, MATH or PHYS (except ASTR 1P01, 1P02, BIOL 1F25, CHEM 1P00, ERSC 1F90, 1P92, SCIE 1P50 and 1P51).  
3.  ERSC 3P99 or 3Q99 or BIOL 3P71 is required for entry to year 4.  
4.  ERSC 3P99 or 3Q99 is normally required at the end of year 3.  
5.  Students wishing to transfer from the BSc with Major program into BSc Honours program are required to have a minimum 70 percent major average and a minimum 60 percent average in the remaining credits.  
6.  APCO 1P93, MATH 1P12 or MATH 2P98 recommended to fulfill the APGO Additional Foundation Science requirements.  
7.  ERSC 3P07 and 4P61 recommended to fulfill the APGO Additional Foundation Geoscience requirements.  
8.  ERSC 3P99 recommended to fulfill the APGO Compulsory Foundation Geoscience requirements.  
9.  ERSC 4P22 recommended to fulfill the APGO Additional Foundation Geoscience Requirements.  
10.  Students wishing to fulfill APGO Geology Group 2C Other Geoscience knowledge requirements are recommended to take a minimum of 2.5 credits from ERSC 2P15, 3P03, 3P05, 3P07, 3P25, 3P26, 4F91, 4P01, 4P10, 4P16, 4P21, 4P28, 4P50, 4P61. Students wishing to fulfill APGO Environmental Geoscience Group 2C Other Geoscience knowledge requirements are recommended to take a minimum of 2.5 credits from: ERSC 2P15, 3P03, 3P05, 3P25, 3P26, 3P35, 4F91, 4P01, 4P10, 4P16, 4P28, 4P31 or 4P50.  
11. 

In 20 credit degree programs a maximum of eight credits may be numbered 1(alpha)00 to 1(alpha)99; at least three credits must be numbered 2(alpha)90 or above; at least three credits must be numbered 3(alpha)90 or above; and the remaining credits must be numbered 2(alpha)00 or above.

In 15 credit degree programs a maximum of eight credits may be numbered 1(alpha)00 to 1(alpha)99; at least three credits must be numbered 2(alpha)90 or above; and the remaining credits must be numbered 2(alpha)00 or above.

In some circumstances, in order to meet university degree and program requirements, more than 15 or 20 credits may be taken.

 
Honours Program Go to top of document
Earth Sciences Go to top of document
Year 1
- ERSC 1F01
- BIOL 1F90
- CHEM 1F92
- MATH 1P97 and 1P98
- one Humanities context credit or one Social Sciences context credit
Year 2
- ERSC 2P03, 2P05, 2P16, 2P17, 2P21 and 2P22
- one-half ERSC credit numbered 2(alpha)00 to 2(alpha)99 (see program note 10)
- PHYS 1P21 or 1P91(recommended; see program note 1)
- one of PHYS 1P22, 1P23, 1P92, 1P93 (recommended; see program note 1)
- one-half elective credit (see program note 6)
Year 3
- ERSC 3P01, 3P11, 3P12, 3P21 and 3P31
- ERSC 3P24 or 3P25
- one-half ERSC credit numbered 2(alpha)90 or above
- the Humanities context credit or Social Sciences context credit not taken in year 1
- one-half elective credit
Year 4
- ERSC 3P99
- three and one-half ERSC credits numbered 3(alpha)90 and above (see program notes 9 and 10)
- one elective credit (see program note 6)
 
Environmental Geoscience Go to top of document
Year 1
- ERSC 1F01
- BIOL 1F90
- CHEM 1F92
- MATH 1P97 and 1P98
- one Humanities context credit or one Social Sciences context credit
Year 2
- ERSC 2P03, 2P05, 2P16, 2P17, 2P21 and 2P61
- ERSC 2P07 or 2P15
- PHYS 1P21 or 1P91 (recommended; see program note 1)
- one of PHYS 1P22, 1P23, 1P92, 1P93 (recommended; see program note 1)
- one-half elective credit (see program note 6)
Year 3
- ERSC 3P01, 3P11, 3P12, 3P24, 3P25 and 3P31
- one-half ERSC credit numbered 2(alpha)90 or above (see program notes 7 and 10)
- the Humanities context credit or Social Sciences context credit not taken in year 1
- one-half elective credit
Year 4
- ERSC 3Q99 or 3P99 (see program notes 4 and 8)
- three and one-half ERSC credits numbered 3(alpha)90 and above (see program notes 7 and 10)
- one elective credit (see program notes 7 and 10)
 
Earth Sciences Co-op (Honours only) Go to top of document
Students admitted to the Co-op program must follow an approved program pattern. The most common pattern is listed below. For other approved patterns, consult the Co-op Office. Year 1
- ERSC 1F01
- BIOL 1F90
- CHEM 1F92
- MATH 1P97 and 1P98
- one Humanities context credit or one Social Sciences context credit
Year 2
- ERSC 2P03, 2P05, 2P16, 2P17, 2P21 and 2P22 (see program note 10)
- one-half ERSC credit numbered 2(alpha)00 to 2(alpha)99
- PHYS 1P21 or 1P91 (recommended; see program note 1)
- one of PHYS 1P22, 1P23, 1P92, 1P93 (recommended; see program note 1)
- SCIE 0N90
- one-half elective credit (see program note 6)
Spring/Summer Sessions:
- ERSC 0N01 and 2C01
Year 3 Fall Term:
- ERSC 3P11 and 3P21
- ERSC 3P24 or 3P25
- one-half ERSC credit numbered 2(alpha)90 or above (see program note 10)
- one elective credit (see program note 6)
Winter Term:
- ERSC 0N02 and 2C02
Year 4 Fall Term:
- ERSC 0N03 and 2C03
Winter Term:
- ERSC 3P01, 3P12 and 3P31
- one-half elective credit
Spring/Summer Sessions:
- ERSC 3P99
Year 5
- Three and one-half ERSC credits numbered 3(alpha)90 and above (see program notes 9 and 10)
- the Humanities context credit or Social Sciences context credit not taken in year 1
 
Environmental Geoscience Co-op (Honours only) Go to top of document
Year 1
- ERSC 1F01
- CHEM 1F92
- BIOL 1F90
- MATH 1P97 and 1P98
- one Humanities context credit or one Social Sciences context credit
Year 2
- ERSC 2P03, 2P05, 2P16, 2P17, 2P21 and 2P61
- ERSC 2P07 or 2P15
- PHYS 1P21 or 1P91 (recommended; see program note 1)
- one of PHYS 1P22, 1P23, 1P92, 1P93 (recommended; see program note 1)
- SCIE 0N90
- one-half elective credit (see program note 6)
Spring/Summer Sessions
- ERSC 0N01 and 2C01
Year 3 Fall Term:
- ERSC 3P11 and 3P24
- one-half ERSC credit numbered 2(alpha)90 or above (see program notes 7 and 10)
- one elective credit (see program note 6)
Winter Term:
- ERSC 0N02 and 2C02
Year 4 Fall Term:
- ERSC 0N03 and 2C03
Winter Term:
- ERSC 3P01, 3P12, 3P25 and 3P31
- one-half elective credit (see program notes 6)
Year 5
- ERSC 3P99 or 3Q99 (see program notes 4 and 8)
- three and one-half ERSC credits numbered 3(alpha)90 or above (see program notes 7 and 10)
- the Humanities context credit or Social Sciences context credit not taken in year 1
 
BSc with Major Program Go to top of document
This program differs from the Honours program in that honours standing is not required for entry into year 4 (see program note 5).  
Earth Sciences Go to top of document
Year 1
- ERSC 1F01
- BIOL 1F90
- CHEM 1F92
- MATH 1P97 and 1P98
- one Humanities context credit or one Social Sciences context credit
Year 2
- ERSC 2P03, 2P05, 2P16, 2P17, 2P21 and 2P22
- one-half ERSC credit numbered 2(alpha)00 to 2(alpha)99 (see program note 10)
- PHYS 1P21 or 1P91 (recommended; see program note 1)
- one of PHYS 1P22, 1P23, 1P92, 1P93 (recommended; see program note 1)
- one-half elective credit (see program note 6)
Year 3
- ERSC 3P01, 3P11, 3P12, 3P21 and 3P31
- ERSC 3P24 or 3P25
- one-half ERSC credit numbered 2(alpha)90 or above
- the Humanities context credit or Social Sciences context credit not taken in year 1
- one-half elective credit
Year 4
- ERSC 3P99
- three and one-half ERSC credits numbered 3(alpha)90 or above (see program note 9 and 10)
- one elective credit (see program note 11)
 
Environmental Geoscience Go to top of document
Year 1
- ERSC 1F01
- BIOL 1F90
- CHEM 1F92
- MATH 1P97 and 1P98
- one Humanities context credit or one Social Sciences context credit
Year 2
- ERSC 2P03, 2P05, 2P16, 2P17, 2P21 and 2P61
- ERSC 2P07 or 2P15
- PHYS 1P21or 1P91 (recommended; see program note 1)
- one of PHYS 1P22, 1P23, 1P92, 1P93 (recommended; see program note 1)
- one-half elective credit (see program note 6)
Year 3
- ERSC 3P01, 3P11, 3P12, 3P24, 3P25 and 3P31
- one-half ERSC credit numbered 2(alpha)90 or above (see program note 10)
- the Humanities context credit or Social Sciences context credit not taken in year 1
- one-half elective credit
Year 4
- ERSC 3P99 or 3Q99 (see program notes 4 and 8)
- three and one-half ERSC credits numbered 3(alpha)90 or above (see program notes 7 and 10)
- one elective credit (see program note 11)
 
Pass Program Go to top of document
Satisfactory completion of the first three years of a twenty credit program entitles a student to apply for a Pass degree.  
Combined Major Program Go to top of document
The Department of Earth Sciences, in co-operation with other departments, offers combined major programs in Earth Sciences with Biological Sciences, Chemistry, and Geography. For combinations other than those listed students should contact the Chairs/Directors of the respective departments/centres. It should be noted that not all departments/centres provide a combined major option. Prospective students should have their programs approved by the two departments/centres concerned and are advised to follow one of the following patterns:  
Earth Sciences and Biological Sciences Go to top of document
Honours Year 1
- ERSC 1F01
- BIOL 1F90
- CHEM 1F92
- MATH 1P97 and 1P98
- one Humanities context credit or one Social Sciences context credit
Year 2
- ERSC 2P03 and 2P16
- one ERSC credit numbered 2(alpha)00 to 2(alpha)99
- two credits from BIOL 2P02 and 2P03, BIOL 2P05, 2P92, 2P94, 2P96, 2P98, 2Q04
- the Humanities context credit or Social Sciences context credit not taken in year 1
Year 3
- Two ERSC credits numbered 2(alpha)00 to 3(alpha)99
- one ERSC or BIOL credit (see program note 3)
- two BIOL credits numbered 2(alpha)90 to 3(alpha)99
Year 4
- One and one-half ERSC credits numbered 2(alpha)90 or above
- one of ERSC 4F91 and one ERSC credit numbered 3(alpha)90 or above, BIOL 4F90 and 4F91, BIOL 4F92 and one elective credit
- one and one-half BIOL credits numbered 2(alpha)90 or above
Pass Program Satisfactory completion of the first three years of the Honours program entitles a student to apply for a Pass degree.
 
Earth Sciences and Chemistry Go to top of document
Honours Year 1
- ERSC 1F01
- CHEM 1F92
- MATH 1P01 and 1P02, or MATH 1P05 and 1P06 (recommended)
- PHYS 1P21 or 1P91 (recommended)
- PHYS 1P22 or 1P92 (recommended)
- one Humanities context credit or one Social Sciences context credit
Year 2
- ERSC 2P21 and 2P22
- one ERSC credit numbered 2(alpha)00 to 2(alpha)99
- CHEM 2P12, 2P20, 2P32 and 2P42
- the Humanities context credit or Social Sciences context credit not taken in year 1
Year 3
- ERSC 3P31
- one ERSC or CHEM credit (see program note 4)
- one and one-half ERSC credits numbered 2(alpha)00 to 3(alpha)99
- CHEM 2P21 and 3P40
- one credit from CHEM 3P20, 3P21, 3P30, 3P31, 3P41, 3P51, 3P53, 3P60
Year 4
- One ERSC credit numbered 2(alpha)90 or above
- one CHEM credit numbered 2(alpha)90 or above
- one of ERSC 4F91 and one ERSC credit numbered 3(alpha)90 or above, CHEM 4F90 and 4F91
- one elective credit
Pass Satisfactory completion of the first three years of the Honours program entitles a student to apply for a Pass degree.
 
Earth Sciences and Geography Go to top of document
Honours Year 1
- ERSC 1F01
- GEOG 1F91
- BIOL 1F90
- MATH 1P97
- one Social Sciences context credit (GEOG 1F90 strongly recommended)
- one-half elective credit
Year 2
- ERSC 2P04, 2P05, 2P17 and 2P21
- one-half ERSC credit numbered 2(alpha)00 to 2(alpha)99
- GEOG 2P07, 2P11 and 2P12
- one Humanities context credit
Year 3
- ERSC 2P16
- one of ERSC 3P35, 3Q99, GEOG 3P56
- one and one-half ERSC credits numbered 2(alpha)00 to 3(alpha)99
- one and one-half GEOG credits numbered 2(alpha)90 to 3(alpha)99 from groups B and C (see Geography Department)
- one Science credit from APCO, BIOL, CHEM, MATH or PHYS (see program note 2)
Year 4
- Two ERSC credits numbered 3(alpha)90 or above
- two GEOG credit numbered 3(alpha)90 or above from group B
- one elective credit (see program notes 6 and 7)
Pass Satisfactory completion of the first three years of the Honours program entitles a student to apply for a Pass degree.
 
Minor in Earth Sciences Go to top of document
Students in other disciplines may obtain a Minor in Earth Sciences by successfully completing the following courses with a minimum 60 percent overall average:
- ERSC 1F01 or 1F90
- two ERSC credits numbered 2(alpha)00 or above
- one ERSC credit numbered 2(alpha)90 or above
 
Master of Science (MSc) Program Go to top of document
The department offers an MSc Program in Earth Sciences. See the Graduate Calendar or consult the Chair of the department for details.  
Course Descriptions Go to top of document
Note that not all courses are offered in every session. Refer to the applicable term timetable for details. # Indicates a cross listed course * Indicates primary offering of a cross listed course  
Prerequisites and Restrictions Go to top of document
Students must check to ensure that prerequisites are met. Students may be deregistered, at the request of the instructor, from any course for which prerequisites and/or restrictions have not been met.

EARTH SCIENCES COURSES

ERSC 1F01 Planet Earth Earth as a member in the solar system, minerals and rocks, plate tectonics, volcanoes, and earthquakes; the fossil record and the history of life; glacial geology, geomorphology, earth surface processes; paleoclimates and future climate change; environmental geoscience, hydrologic cycle, soil-groundwater contamination, hazardous waste disposal and alternatives. Lectures, lab or local field trip, 5 hours per week. Prerequisite(s): any two of biology, chemistry, earth sciences, mathematics or physics beyond grade 11 or equivalent. Note: students may not register concurrently in ERSC 1F90 or 1P92. Completion of this course will replace previous assigned grade and credit obtained in ERSC 1F90, 1F95, 1P92 and 1P93. ERSC 1F02 Earth: The Dynamic Planet Introduction to major Earth Science theories and basic geologic principles. Geography and land-based culture of aboriginal peoples in Northern Ontario. Role of both short- and long-term climate changes in the evolution of ecosystems. Restriction: permission of the instructor. ERSC 1F90 Geology and the Environment Intended primarily for non-science majors. Current hypotheses about the history of planet Earth; the significance of understanding modern environments in interpreting ancient settings and predicting future developments. Topics include earthquake prediction, hazardous waste disposal, floods, erosion, landslides, glaciations, global climate change and historical geology. Lectures, lab, 2 hours per week. Note: lab offered on line. Students may not register concurrently in ERSC 1F01 or 1P92. Secondary school sciences are not a prerequisite. Students achieving an exceptional level of performance in ERSC 1F90 may, at the discretion of the department, register in upper year courses. Completion of this course will replace previous assigned grade and credit obtained in ERSC 1F01, 1F95, 1P92 and 1P93. ERSC 1P92 Extreme Earth Extreme low frequency events and the geological record of their causes and effects, including earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, climatic change and impacts with extraterrestrial bodies. Lectures, 3 hours per week. Note: students may not register concurrently in ERSC 1F01 or 1F90. Secondary school sciences are not a prerequisite. Completion of this course will replace previous assigned grade and credit obtained in ERSC 1F01, 1F90 and 1F95. ERSC 2P03 The History of the Earth Principles of paleontology, classical stratigraphy, sequence stratigraphy. The origin and evolution of life and the history of the Earth. Lectures, lab, 5 hours per week. Prerequisite(s): ERSC 1F01 or 1F90. Completion of this course will replace previous assigned grade and credit obtained in ERSC 2P32. #ERSC 2P04 Introduction to Meteorology (also offered as GEOG 2P04) Principles, structure, composition and processes of the atmosphere; its energy budget, moisture balance and motion. Weather forecasting in middle and low latitudes, forecasting techniques and special problems in applied meteorology. Lectures, lab, 4 hours per week. Restriction: open to ERSC (single or combined), GEOG (single or combined) and GEOG (Honours)/BEd (Intermediate/Senior) majors until date specified in Registration guide. After that date open to ERSC (single, combined or general studies), GEOG (single or combined), GEOG (Honours)/BEd (Intermediate/Senior), GHUM, SOSC majors, ERSC and GEOG minors until date specified in Registration guide. Prerequisite(s): ERSC 1F01, GEOG 1F91 or permission of instructor. Completion of this course will replace previous assigned grade and credit obtained in TREN 2P04. *ERSC 2P05 Earth Surface Processes (also offered as GEOG 2P05) Earth surface processes and geomorphology within global environments. A dynamic and physically based account of processes and the Earth's surface, linking the fields of sedimentology, physical geography and fluid mechanics. Lectures, lab, field work, 5 hours per week. Restriction: open to ERSC (single or combined), GEOG (single or combined) and GEOG (Honours)/BEd (Intermediate/Senior) majors until date specified in Registration guide. Prerequisite(s): ERSC 1F01 or GEOG 1F91. Completion of this course will replace previous assigned grade and credit obtained in TREN 2P05. #ERSC 2P07 Foundations of Geomatics (also offered as GEOG 2P07 and IASC 2P07) Introduction to spatial, metric, graphic and other concepts common to cartography, remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS). Properties of digital maps and air photos and satellite imagery. Principles of map compilation and design. Practical experience in computer mapping, image interpretation and GIS analysis. Lectures, lab, 4 hours per week. Restriction: open to ERSC (single or combined), GEOG (single or combined), (Honours)/BEd (Intermediate/Senior) and IASC (single or combined) majors until date specified in Registration guide. Prerequisite(s): one of ERSC 1F01, GEOG 1F90, 1F91 or permission of the instructor. ERSC 2P15 Introduction to Oceanography Overview of the oceans, their origin, composition, circulation, geology and biota, from the coastal zone to the abyss. Importance of oceanography to humans, history of oceanography, overview of marine hazards and resources, ocean-atmosphere interactions and the global climate. Lectures, lab, 5 hours per week. Restriction: open to ERSC (single or combined) majors until date specified in Registration guide. Prerequisite(s): one of ERSC 1F01, 1F90, BIOL 1F90, GEOG 1F91. Completion of this course will replace previous assigned grade and credit obtained in GEOG 2P15. ERSC 2P16 Sedimentology Basic clastic sedimentology (grain size, shape, porosity/permeability, fabric) including fundamentals of unidirectional and oscillatory water flows, sediment transport under such flows and resulting sedimentary structures. Clastic rock classification. Lectures, lab, 5 hours per week. Prerequisite(s): ERSC 1F01 or GEOG 1F91. Completion of this course will replace previous assigned grade and credit obtained in GEOG 2P16. *ERSC 2P17 Earth Science Methods (also offered as GEOG 2P17) Introduction to the study and description, in the field and the lab of, sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic rocks; structural analysis of geological maps. Lectures, lab, field trips, 5 hours per week. Prerequisite(s): ERSC 1F01 or GEOG 1F91. ERSC 2P21 Introduction to Mineralogy and Mineral Associations Introduction to mineral identification, composition, and structure; crystal systems, symmetry operations; crystal growth and defects. Lectures, lab, 6 hours per week. Prerequisite(s): ERSC 1F01. Note: 4U/M Chemistry recommended. ERSC 2P22 Optical Mineralogy Properties of light and its interaction with mineral grains: reflection, refraction, polarization, interference phenomena, extinction, colour and pleochroism. Refractometry; isotropic, uniaxial and biaxial optics; interpretation of interference figures. Transmitted light petrography in the identification of and familiarization with major rock-forming minerals in grain mounts and in thin section. Lectures, lab, 6 hours per week. Prerequisite(s): ERSC 2P21. ERSC 2P61 Environmental Geoscience Natural geological processes and anthropogenic impacts, flooding, landslides, earthquakes, volcanic activity, global warming and climate change. Hydrogeology and human activity, surface and groundwater supply and use, solid waste and hazardous waste disposal. Mineral and energy resources, pollution and alternatives. Professional environmental geosciences practices. Lectures, seminar, 4 hours per week. Prerequisite(s): ERSC 1F01. ERSC 3P01 Structural Geology Measurement and effects of stress and strain. Genesis of brittle and ductile structures and their classification. Methods of structural analysis. Lectures, lab, 5 hours per week. Prerequisite(s): ERSC 2P17. Completion of this course will replace previous grade in ERSC 2P01. ERSC 3P03 Paleontology and Paleobiology Biodiversity and ecosystems through geologic time; micro and macro evolution in paleobiology and evolutionary biology; large scale environmental change and the fossil record; functional morphology; phylogenetic and cladistic analysis of the fossil record. Lectures, lab, 5 hours per week. Prerequisite(s): one of ERSC 2P03, BIOL 2P05, 2Q04. Completion of this course will replace previous assigned grade and credit obtained in ERSC 2P32. #ERSC 3P05 Geographic Information Systems (also offered as GEOG 3P05 and IASC 3P05) Principles and use of computer-based systems for capturing, managing, manipulating, analysing and displaying data relating to the Earth's surface emphasizing raster applications. Practical work using ArcGIS. Lectures, lab, 5 hours per week. Restriction: open to ERSC (single or combined), GEOG (single or combined), GEOG (Honours)/BEd (Intermediate/Senior) and IASC majors until date specified in Registration guide. After that date open to ERSC (single, combined or general studies), GEOG (single or combined), GEOG (Honours)/BEd (Intermediate/Senior), IASC (single or combined), GHUM, SOSC majors, ERSC, GEOG and IASC minors until date specified in Registration guide. Prerequisite(s): ERSC 2P07 or permission of the instructor. #ERSC 3P07 Remote Sensing (also offered as GEOG 3P07) Theory and practice of remote sensing. Multispectral, hyperspectral, thermal, radar and laser imaging of the Earth's surface from airborne and spaceborne platforms. Image interpretation and image-analysis techniques. Lectures, lab, 4 hours per week. Restriction: open to ERSC (single or combined), GEOG (single or combined) and GEOG (Honours)/BEd (Intermediate/Senior) majors until date specified in Registration guide. After that date open to ERSC (single, combined or general studies), GEOG (single or combined), GEOG (Honours)/BEd (Intermediate/Senior), GHUM, SOSC majors, ERSC and GEOG minors until date specified in Registration guide. Prerequisite(s): ERSC 2P07 or permission of the instructor. ERSC 3P11 Chemical and Carbonate Sedimentology Genesis of Evaporites; petrography and cathodoluminescence of carbonate grains; skeletal structures and chemistry; recent carbonate environments; evolution of carbonate mounds; chemical theory of carbonate grains; textural, structural and chemical limestone diagenesis; dolomitization, silicification and pyritization of carbonate grains. Lectures, tutorial, 3 hours per week. Prerequisite(s): ERSC 2P17 and 2P21 or permission of the instructor. Completion of this course will replace previous assigned grade and credit obtained in ERSC 3P10. ERSC 3P12 Stratigraphy Fundamentals of lithostratigraphy, biostratigraphy, chronostratigraphy, magnetostratigraphy, geochronology and introduction to the International Stratigraphic Guide; geological time scale, Milankovitch and sub-Milankovitch cyclicity, subsurface geology techniques and correlation, sequence stratigraphy, geological history of southern Ontario. Lectures, lab, seminar, 5 hours per week. Prerequisite(s): ERSC 2P16. Completion of this course will replace previous assigned grade and credit obtained in ERSC 3P10. #ERSC 3P13 Applied Climatology (also offered as GEOG 3P13) Studies in selected topics from the field of energy and moisture exchanges, air pollution, climatic change, climatic impact assessment and bioclimatology. Human impact on the climate along with applied microclimatological investigations and climatic data analysis. Lectures, lab, 4 hours per week. Restriction: open to ERSC (single or combined), GEOG (single or combined) and GEOG (Honours)/BEd (Intermediate/Senior) majors until date specified in Registration guide. ERSC (single or combined), GEOG (single or combined, GEOG (Honours)/BEd (Intermediate/Senior), BA General Studies, BSc General Studies majors, ERSC and GEOG minors until date specified in Registration guide. Prerequisite(s): ERSC 2P04 or permission of the instructor. ERSC 3P21 Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology Igneous rocks: nomenclature and classification; magmatic processes. Application of one, two and three component phase diagrams to interpret the formation of igneous rocks. Metamorphic rocks: types, classification, mineral parageneses. Labs include the study of rocks in thin section, their mineralogy, textures, origin and classification. Lectures, lab, 6 hours per week. Prerequisite(s): ERSC 2P22 and CHEM 1F92. *ERSC 3P24 Glacial Geomorphology/Geology (also offered as GEOG 3P24) Introduction to glaciology; glacial processes, glacial deposits; their genesis and sedimentology. Relationship of glacial processes to landforms and surface topography. Glacial systems and facies associations. Applied aspects of glacial geology, such as drift exploration. Lectures, lab, field work, 5 hours per week. Prerequisite(s): ERSC 2P05. *ERSC 3P25 Quaternary Geology (also offered as GEOG 3P25) Glaciations in the geological record, causes of glaciations, biotic responses to climatic changes, eustatic and isostatic sea level changes in response to glaciation, Quaternary stratigraphy and correlation of glacial and non-glacial events, application of Quaternary geology to economic and environmental problems, methods of paleoclimatic reconstruction. Lectures, lab, 5 hours per week. Prerequisite(s): ERSC 2P03, 2P16, 3P24 or permission of the instructor. *ERSC 3P26 Glacial Soils and Sediments (also offered as GEOG 3P26) Applied aspects of glacial deposits. Geotechnical and pedochemical properties and structural attributes of glacial soils and sediments. Micromorphology, glacial soil discontinuity analyses. Introductory aspects of soil mechanics. Drift exploration. Landfill problems and issues related to glacial soils and sediments. Lectures, lab, 5 hours per week. Prerequisite(s): ERSC 3P24. ERSC 3P31 Geochemistry Formation of the elements; nucleo-synthesis and cosmic abundances; classification of elements; crystal chemistry, bond energy, crystal defects and elemental partitioning/distribution; kinetic chemistry, elemental diffusion, nucleation and transformation; aqueous geochemistry, water-mineral interactions; Gibbs free energy and the formation/weathering of igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks; introduction to isotope geochemistry. Lectures, tutorial, 4 hours per week. Prerequisite(s): CHEM 1F92. *ERSC 3P33 Biodiversity (also offered as GEOG 3P33) Dispersal and migration, adaptation; speciation, extinction; ecological interaction, species invasion, plant and animal introductions, habitat fragmentation and application of biogeographical theory to conservation biology, and human impacts on fire regimes. Lectures, lab, field work, 6 hours per week. Prerequisite(s): one of BIOL 2P05, 2Q04, GEOG (ERSC) 2P09 or permission of the instructor. *ERSC 3P35 Biomonitoring and Environmental Stress Assessment (also offered as GEOG 3P35) Use of biodiversity indicators, field methods and passive and active sensors to assess environmental quality. Collection and analysis of quantitative and qualitative data to investigate urban air and water pollution and forest health. Lab, 3 hours per week. Restriction: students must have a minimum of 10.0 overall credits and permission of the Department. Prerequisite(s): one of ERSC 1F01, BIOL 1F90, GEOG (ERSC) 2P09 or permission of the instructor. Note: three weekend field trips in September. Students are expected to pay their expenses. #ERSC 3P83 Geography of Water Resources (also offered as GEOG 3P83) Physical and human factors affecting patterns of use and development of water resources. Emphasis on patterns of supply and demand, approaches to development and management of the resource, problems and alternative strategies. Lectures, lab, 4 hours per week. Restriction: open to ERSC (single or combined), GEOG (single or combined) and GEOG (Honours)/BEd (Intermediate/Senior) majors until date specified in Registration guide. After that date open to ERSC (single, combined or general studies), GEOG (single or combined), GEOG (Honours)/(Intermediate/Senior), GHUM, SOSC majors, ERSC and GEOG minors until date specified in Registration guide. Prerequisite(s): one of ERSC 1F01, GEOG 1F90, 1F91, 2P02, 2P13 or permission of the instructor. *ERSC 3P85 Ecology of a Changing Planet (also offered as BIOL 3P85 and GEOG 3P85) Impact of environmental change and human activity on ecosystems. Topics include climate change and global warming, habitat fragmentation, extinction, invasive species, conservation biology and the management of ecological integrity. Lectures, lab, 5 hours per week. Prerequisite(s): one of BIOL 2P05, 2Q04, GEOG (ERSC) 2P09. ERSC 3P90 Volcanology Survey of volcanoes, their distribution, forms, composition, eruptive products and styles, and potential hazards. Lectures, lab, 6 hours per week. Prerequisite(s): ERSC 2P05 and 2P21; one of CHEM 1F92, MATH 1P97, 1P98, one-half PHYS credit numbered 1P21 to 1P93. Completion of this course will replace previous assigned grade and credit obtained in GEOG 3P90. *ERSC 3P92 Advanced Field Methods in Quaternary Science (also offered as GEOG 3P92) Introduction to Quaternary landscape evolution in Alaska. Mapping of active glacial margins, analysis of stagnant ice terrain, paleosol mapping, relative dating techniques, glacial hydrology, subglacial sediment sampling, surface exposure dating and lake/bog coring. Collecting, recording and interpreting field data and preparing a comprehensive field report. Lectures, 1 hour per week; fieldwork, 2 weeks. Restriction: permission of the Department. Note: lectures will be held at Brock University during winter term and fieldwork will be held in Alaska during spring/summer session. Students must be a minimum of 18 years of age, have a valid passport and are expected to pay their own expenses. #ERSC 3P95 Advanced Geographic Information Systems (also offered as GEOG 3P95) Further study of geographic information systems emphasizing vector and database applications and advanced analytical operations. Practical work using ArcGIS and MapInfo Professional. Lectures, lab, 5 hours per week. Restriction: open to ERSC (single or combined), GEOG (single or combined) and GEOG (Honours)/BEd (Intermediate/Senior) majors until date specified in Registration guide. ERSC (single or combined), GEOG (single or combined), GEOG (Honours)/BEd (intermediate/Senior), BA General Studies, BSc General Studies majors, ERSC and GEOG minors until date specified in Registration guide. Prerequisite(s): ERSC 3P05. ERSC 3P96 Special Topics in Earth Sciences I Selected issues and various methods of inquiry related to faculty expertise. Restriction: open to ERSC (single or combined) majors with a minimum 70 percent major average, a minimum of 10.0 overall credits and permission of the chair and supervising instructor. ERSC 3P97 Special Topics in Earth Sciences II Selected issues and various methods of inquiry related to faculty expertise. Restriction: open to ERSC (single or combined) majors with a minimum 70 percent major average, a minimum of 10.0 overall credits and permission of the chair and supervising instructor. ERSC 3P98 Ore Geology Mode of occurrence, distribution, genesis, evaluation of and exploration for metallic and industrial mineral deposits. Includes ore petrology and geochemistry as well as theory of ore deposition in hydrothermal systems. Lectures, lab, seminar, 6 hours per week. Prerequisite(s): ERSC 3P21. Note: ERSC 3P31 is recommended. ERSC 3P99 Field Camp-Solid Earth Two-week immersion course offered after final examinations in year 3 introducing students to collecting, recording and synthesizing field data, airphoto mapping, preparing geologic maps and reports. Field area, situated in northern Ontario, consists of Archaean, Proterozoic and Paleozoic lithologies. Restriction: open to students with a minimum of 13.0 overall credits and permission of the Department. Note: students are expected to pay their own expenses. *ERSC 3Q99 Field School-Quaternary Geology (also offered as GEOG 3Q99) Field and laboratory methods for analysis of Quaternary landscapes based on field sites including fluvial, hillslope, coastal, glacial, and biosphere examples. Restriction: permission of the Department. Prerequisite(s): ERSC 2P17. Note: students are expected to pay their own expenses. ERSC 4F91 Thesis Research on geological problems involving field or laboratory study under faculty supervision. Restriction: open to ERSC (Honours) (single or combined) majors with a minimum of 13.5 overall credits and a minimum major average of 75 percent. Note: submission and oral examination of thesis are required. ERSC 4P01 Advanced Structural Geology Exploration of topics relevant to structural geology through the study of the scientific literature. Topics may vary. Lectures, seminar, lab, 5 hours per week. Prerequisite(s): ERSC 3P01. #ERSC 4P07 Advanced Remote Sensing (also offered as GEOG 4P07) Theory and practice of in situ, airborne and spaceborne remote sensing. Emphasis on techniques used to study natural and human-made environments. Topics include data acquisition and preprocessing, image analysis, accuracy assessment and the production of information products. Image processing and analyses using commercially available image-analysis software. Lab, 3 hours per week. Restriction: open to ERSC (single or combined),GEOG (single or combined) and GEOG (Honours)/BEd (Intermediate/Senior( majors until date specified in Registration guide. Students must have approval to year 4 (honours). Prerequisite(s): ERSC 3P07 or permission of the instructor. ERSC 4P10 Advanced Clastic Sedimentology Team study of the subsurface geology of a selected area of a Lake Erie gas field. Drill cores and geophysical logs are used to correlate lithostratigraphic units and to construct structure contour maps and isopach maps of gas-bearing strata. Introduction to sedimentary facies models. Lab, seminar, 4 hours per week. Prerequisite(s): ERSC 2P16. ERSC 4P13 Advanced Geochemistry Lithogeochemistry and spectroscopy, analytical methods in geochemistry, analysis and interpretation of stable and radioactive isotopes, aqueous geochemistry including equilibrium in real fluids, carbonate and silica equilibria, redox, metal solubility, geothermal, and fluid inclusions. Lectures, 3 hours per week. Prerequisite(s): ERSC 3P31. ERSC 4P16 Precambrian Geology Archaean and Proterozoic evolution of the Earth examining: geology, tectonics, stratigraphy and history of the Precambrian; evolution of the Earth's crust; Precambrian time scale; evolution of life, oceans and atmosphere. Lectures, seminar, 4 hours per week. Prerequisite(s): ERSC 3P21. ERSC 4P21 Advanced Igneous Petrology Igneous petrogenesis, emphasizing the physical chemistry of igneous processes, igneous rock complexes and studies of a number of petrologically important areas. Lectures, lab, 6 hours per week. Prerequisite(s): ERSC 3P21. Completion of this course will replace previous assigned grade and credit obtained in ERSC 3P94. ERSC 4P22 Advanced Metamorphic Petrology Synthesis of metamorphic textures, compositional variations and field characteristics with emphasis on the temperature-pressure relations of the metamorphic rocks and the role of fluids in metamorphism. Lectures, lab, 6 hours per week. Prerequisite(s): ERSC 3P21. ERSC 4P25 Mineral Identification and Petrography of Ore Minerals Transmitted-light microscope, optical properties of sulphide and oxide minerals as well as metals, ore mineral textures and examination of ore minerals in several geological settings. Lab, 3 hours per week. Prerequisite(s): ERSC 2P21 and 3P98. Note: ERSC 3P98 may be taken concurrently with ERSC 4P25. #ERSC 4P26 Stream Structure and Function (also offered as BIOL 4P26 and GEOG 4P26) Exploration of the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of stream systems. Seminar, lab, field work, 3 hours per week. Restriction: open to ERSC (single or combined), BIOL (single or combined), BIOL (Honours)/BEd (Intermediate/Senior), GEOG (single or combined) and GEOG (Honours)/BEd (Intermediate/Senior) majors until date specified in Registration guide. Students must have approval to year 4 (honours). Prerequisite(s): one of BIOL 2P05, 2Q04, GEOG (ERSC) 2P09 or permission of the instructor. *ERSC 4P28 Advanced Glacial Sedimentology (also offered as GEOG 4P28) Sedimentology of present day glacial environments and of Quaternary sediments. Thermo-mechanical principles of glacier physics as applied to past and present glacier ice conditions. Glacial lithofacies associations. Glacio-tectonics and diagenesis. Principles of glacial erosion, entrainment and deposition. Lectures, lab, local field trip, 3 hours per week. Prerequisite(s): ERSC 3P24 and 3P26. ERSC 4P31 Watershed Analysis Hydrologic/watershed cycle; fundamentals and principles of watersheds-interaction of hydrosphere-lithosphere-biosphere; physical characteristics, effects and controls of stream sediments/contaminants/pollutants; aqueous geochemistry; introduction to watershed toxicology. Investigation of concerns with several watersheds. Major study and report of a local subwatershed. Lectures, lab, local field work, 4 hours per week. Prerequisite(s): one of ERSC 3P31, BIOL 3P71, 3P72, CHEM 2P42. Note: students must supply their own safety equipment (safety glasses and lab coats). ERSC 4P47 Late Cenozoic Dinoflagellate Cysts Biology and ecology of modern cyst-producing dinoflagellates, and the record of dinoflagellate cysts through the late Cenozoic including their morphology, taxonomy, paleoecology, biostratigraphy, molecular phylogeny and evolution. Topics include marine paleoenvironmental reconstruction, paleoceanography, paleoclimatology and oil industry applications. Lectures, lab, seminar, 3 hours per week. Prerequisite(s): ERSC 3P03 or permission of the instructor. ERSC 4P50 Petroleum Geology Hydrocarbon exploration and exploitation, including physical and chemical properties of petroleum, methods of exploration, the subsurface environment, generation and migration of petroleum, reservoirs, traps and seals, sedimentary basins and petroleum systems with emphasis on Canada, nonconventional petroleum resources, and the economics and geopolitics of petroleum. Lectures, lab, seminar, 4 hours per week. Prerequisite(s): ERSC 3P12 (3P10). ERSC 4P53 Mining Geology Mining operations, types of mining methods, geological mapping in open pit mines and underground mines (flat and inclined development), plotting of mapping and projection onto cross-sections, exploration drilling and logging (core and chip logging), and geological interpretation. Lab, 3 hours per week. Prerequisite(s): ERSC 3P98 and 3P99. Note: ERSC 3P98 may be taken concurrently. ERSC 4P61 Hydrology Distribution and variation of run-off, recurrence of floods and droughts; fluvial processes and sediment transport; limnology; hydrologic and water management techniques; fundamentals of groundwater geology; surface and groundwater interaction. Lectures, lab, local field trip, 5 hours per week. Prerequisite(s): ERSC 2P16 or permission of the instructor. #ERSC 4P80 Introduction to Dendrochronology (also offered as BIOL 4P80 and GEOG 4P80) Fundamental principles of tree-ring analysis and applications to address contemporary issues in the fields of climate and environmental change, geomorphology, archaeology, and ecology. Lectures, local field trip, 3 hours per week. Restriction: open to ERSC (single or combined), BIOL (single or combined), BIOL (Honours)/BEd (Intermediate/Senior), GEOG (single or combined) and GEOG (Honours)/BEd (Intermediate/Senior) majors until date specified in Registration guide. Students must have approval to year 4 (honours). Prerequisite(s): one of BIOL 2P05, 2Q04, GEOG (ERSC) 2P09 or permission of the instructor. Note: BIOL majors must take BIOL 2Q04. BIOL 2P93 or 2P94 is strongly recommended. *ERSC 4P85 Ecosystems and Changing Disturbance Regimes (also offered as BIOL 4P85 and GEOG 4P85) Terrestrial ecosystem response to large-scale environmental change. Topics may include disturbance regimes, adaptation, alteration of biogeochemical cycles, invasive species and range shifts, carbon cycle feedbacks, predicting future climate and vegetation impacts, change detection, scaling-up and nonlinearity. Lectures, seminar, 3 hours per week. Prerequisite(s): ERSC 3P85 or permission of the instructor.

CO-OP COURSES

ERSC 0N01 Work Placement I First Co-op work placement (4 months) with an approved employer. Restriction: open to ERSC Co-op students. ERSC 0N02 Work Placement II Second Co-op work placement (4 months) with an approved employer. Restriction: open to ERSC Co-op students. ERSC 0N03 Work Placement III Third Co-op work placement (4 months) with an approved employer. Restriction: open to ERSC Co-op students. ERSC 0N04 Work Placement IV Optional Co-op work placement (4 months) with an approved employer. Restriction: open to ERSC Co-op students. ERSC 0N05 Work Placement V Optional Co-op work placement (4 months) with an approved employer. Restriction: open to ERSC Co-op students. ERSC 2C01 Co-op Reflective Learning and IntegrationI Provide student with the opportunity to apply what they've learned in their academic students through career-oriented work experiences at employer sites. Restriction: open to EVGS and ERSC Co-op students. Prerequisite(s): SCIE 0N90. Corequisite(s): ERSC 0N01. Note: students will be required to prepare learning objectives, participate in a site visit, write a work term report and receive a successful work term performance evaluation. ERSC 2C02 Co-op Reflective Learning and Integration II Provide student with the opportunity to apply what they've learned in their academic studies through career-oriented work experiences at employer sites. Restriction: open to EVGS and ERSC Co-op students. Prerequisite(s): SCIE 0N90. Corequisite(s): ERSC 0N02. Note: students will be required to prepare learning objectives, participate in a site visit, write a work term report and receive a successful work term performance evaluation. ERSC 2C03 Co-op Reflective Learning and Integration III Provide student with the opportunity to apply what they've learned in their academic studies through career-oriented work experiences at employer sites. Restriction: open to EVGS and ERSC Co-op students. Prerequisite(s): SCIE 0N90. Corequisite(s): ERSC 0N03. Note: students will be required to prepare learning objectives, participate in a site visit, write a work term report and receive a successful work term performance evaluation. ERSC 2C04 Co-op Reflective Learning and Integration IV Provide student with the opportunity to apply what they've learned in their academic studies through career-oriented work experiences at employer sites. Restriction: open to EVGS and ERSC Co-op students. Prerequisite(s): SCIE 0N90. Corequisite(s): ERSC 0N04. Note: students will be required to prepare learning objectives, participate in a site visit, write a work term report and receive a successful work term performance evaluation. ERSC 2C05 Co-op Reflective Learning and Integration V Provide student with the opportunity to apply what they've learned in their academic studies through career-oriented work experiences at employer sites. Restriction: open to EVGS and ERSC Co-op students. Prerequisite(s): SCIE 0N90. Corequisite(s): ERSC 0N05. Note: students will be required to prepare learning objectives, participate in a site visit, write a work term report and receive a successful work term performance evaluation.
 
Last updated: March 13, 2014 @ 01:48PM