Focus on Five: Researcher Profiles
Catherine Mondloch, Colleen Hood, David Ditor, Laura Cousens, Angus Somerville
In every nook and cranny of Brock University are researchers blazing trails, enabling the wider community to move forward with new information, insights, and innovations. Here, we bring you five such individuals who are making a difference in the world around us.
Catherine Mondloch, developmental psychologist, Department of Psychology
Although it’s been long assumed that even infants can innately identify happy, sad, fearful and angry facial expressions, recent work shows that this ability develops during childhood. There’s been little research on how they learn – and how long it takes them to learn – these emotions.
To get a clearer picture of this process, developmental psychologist Catherine Mondloch is introducing two twists to her long-running face recognition research.
Mondloch and her team created a nonsensical facial expression that does not convey any particular emotion and a random word, which are then inserted into a collection of clearly identifiable expressions and emotional labels. Children are asked to find the face that matches each label. “We’re putting those sorts of stimuli on an eye tracker so we can examine where children look while they’re trying to sort out how to match that new word with this new facial expression.”
Secondly, the researchers will be showing children faces that are moving, attached to bodies displaying “body language” matches or is opposite to the facial expression. “If you exclude the body and just show static, isolated heads, you might be ignoring body posture cues and contextual cues that we use on a daily basis to determine a person’s emotional state,” she says.
Mondloch’s face recognition research, which she conducts from childhood to old age and across cultures, has many wide-ranging applications. For example, Mondloch provided expert testimony in the 2009 case of a woman detained in Kenya for three months as she was leaving the country because officials thought her Canadian passport picture did not look like her. Mondloch also analyzed a sketch and photograph of a suspect during an investigation into the 1969 murder of a Southwestern Ontario girl for the TV Series To Catch a Killer.
Colleen Hood, mental health researcher, Department of Recreation and Leisure Studies
When you’re trapped in the deep, dark hole of depression, it’s tough to claw your way out. You lack the energy, motivation and passion to pursue life-affirming relationships and activities, yet that’s exactly what’s needed in the throes of depression.
Recreation and leisure studies professor Colleen Hood is conducting a study at the Niagara Health System’s St. Catharines hospital that, amongst other things, compares how people struggling with mental illness spend their time on activities, relationships and other pursuits compared to people who are coping well.
The ultimate goal, she says, is to create a centre at the St. Catharines hospital that examines and implements best practices in therapeutic recreation for people with psychiatric illness. Therapeutic recreation uses play, recreation and leisure to enhance quality of life and well-being and implements “psycho-educational” processes to help people with illnesses and disabilities develop capacities and resources necessary for well-being.
“What we try to do is help people find those interests and passions in life that they can do in their free time, that feed their soul, generate positive emotion, help them manage anxiety, help them feel connected to other people and the community in some way,” Hood explains. “This combats all the things that go with mental illness that are so terrible: isolation; stigmatization; passivity.”
In an earlier project, Hood and her colleagues designed a program called “Happy Habits.” “A lot of people with mental illness sit around and watch TV, drink coffee and smoke cigarettes and then they get sick again and wonder why,” says Hood. Topics addressed in Happy Habits include practicing gratitude and appreciation, the importance of variety and novelty in creating positive emotion, mindfulness, anticipation and optimism and being of service to others.
David Ditor, researcher, Department of Kinesiology
There’s a group of about 20 people from the Niagara community paralyzed by spinal cord injury who are able to get vigorous exercise on unique, state-of-the-art equipment in researcher David Ditor’s laboratory.
The Functional Electrical Stimulations (FES) ambulation-training machine (RT600) is the only one of its kind in Canada. People who have lost the use of their legs through spinal cord injury are fitted with a harness and hoisted onto the machine. Electrical impulses then stimulate the muscles of their legs to the point where they’re able to perform an elliptical motion.
There’s also the RT300 machine – one of a small handful across the country – in which electrodes are attached to the legs, arms, or both. The electrical impulses allow people to cycle with their legs and/or arms, even if their limbs are totally paralyzed.
“Also, we’ve got various pieces of weight-training equipment that can be used directly from one’s wheelchair; there is no need to transfer onto any other type of equipment,” he explains. “We have upper body and lower body weight-training equipment, we have a body weight support treadmill; we have various pieces of wheelchair-accessible and aerobic equipment for cardiovascular fitness.”
Most of those using the equipment are, or have been, involved in Ditor’s research, which focuses on secondary health complications – such as cardio-vascular dysfunction and immune dysfunction – following spinal cord injury. He also studies the effects of exercise on preventing or reversing these health issues.
Laura Cousens, sport management researcher, Department of Sport Management
Sport management researcher Laura Cousens saw first-hand how much of a burden hosting community sports events is, even for the most seasoned volunteer Moms and Dads.
Arrangements such as registering children in sports events, monitoring and conveying event information to hundreds of people and assisting out-of-towners with logistics can be overwhelming for already-busy parents.
“I’m very community minded,” says Cousens. “Access to sport is a huge driver for me.” To that end, Cousens, fellow scholars and an industry partner created Sport on the Go, a free mobile application that not only profiles information for specific sports events, but provides comprehensive destination information and even GPS mapping to get families there.
“Easing the burden on volunteers, enhancing the travel experience of athletes and spectators, linking sport event experiences to social media and providing continuous communication before, during and after the sport event – this is Sport on the Go,” says Cousens.
Sport on the Go is currently being piloted in the Niagara Region. Cousens says a database has already been developed for Ontario, with the team expecting to expand to other locations across Canada by next year.
Angus Somerville, Medievalist and Norse expert, Department of English Language & Literature
Abbot Nicholas of Thvera was very impressed by the women he met in Siena, Italy. The 13th century monk stopped there on his way to Jerusalem, a pilgrimage that took about a year from his native Iceland to the Holy City and back again.
Norse expert Angus Somerville is getting to know Abbot Nicholas very well. He and colleague Andrew McDonald are in the process of writing a book based on the abbot’s diary, which Somerville translated. The diary contains many vivid descriptions of buildings, landmarks and other aspects of the 13th century world, as well as allusions to Norse ancient legends.
Somerville is one of only a few scholars in Canada fluent in Norse, the ancestral form of the Scandinavian languages. In addition to his work on the Historical Thesaurus of the Oxford English Dictionary, Somerville’s research focuses on Norse literature, old Norse fiction sagas and Norse poetry, which he calls “quite unlike anything else in medieval or modern European literature.”
Somerville, who has just retired from teaching Norse, says he understands why there’s been a recent fascination with Tolkien and the Norsemen. “ To be a Viking was to undertake an endeavour that looks on the surface of it really quite impossible: you decide to go across the North Sea or the Atlantic in an open boat, rowing your heart out, sailing your heart out, in the hope that you will land somewhere,” he says. “At the simplest level, the Norse sagas are rattling good adventure stories.”
An upcoming project on Somerville’s research agenda is to co-write – with colleague Andrew McDonald – a case study of a land transfer document from the 1240s that was found in Brock University’s archives. The case study is part of a series meant to introduce history students to the use of original documents. The series will be published by University of Toronto Press, the publisher of McDonald’s and Somerville’s earlier books on the Viking Age.